Course: Islamic System of Education(6505) Semester: Autumn, 2022 Level: MA/M.Ed.
Q.1 Describe Contemporary Muslim Society. Also enlist some distinctive features of Islamic society.
Muslims in Contemporary Societies
This stream deals with Muslims in contemporary societies in both Muslim-majority countries and countries where Muslims form a minority. It deals with issues facing Muslims in today’s world, cutting across religion, politics, law and culture. Themes that are investigated under this stream include Muslim migration and experiences of racism and multiculturalism, everyday Muslim life, identity and citizenship in the West, Shari’a law in the West, Islamic legal theory in Islamic societies, Muslim organisations in Indonesia, Sufism in Australia, transnational Islamic movements, terrorism, deradicalisation, and Muslim women’s rights. Research in this stream aims to understand the complexities and nuances of Muslim and Islamic life across the globe.
Research projects in the stream include:
- “Testing the limits of post-secularism and multiculturalism in Australia, France and the USA: Shari’a in the everyday life of Muslim communities”, Australian Research Council, Adam Possamai, Malcolm Voyce, Selda Dagistanli, Bryan Turner, AUD$185,788.
- “Resilience and the NSW Police Community Engaged Counter-Radicalisation Model”, NSW Police Force, Michael Kennedy, Kevin Dunn, Jan Ali, AUD$27,237.
- “An exploration of the frequency, outcomes, enablers and constraints of bystander anti-racism” (via Deakin University), Australian Research Council, Kevin Dunn, Yin Paradies, Bernard Guerin, Anne Pedersen, Scott Sharpe, Maria Hynes, AUD$98,679.
- “The ordinariness of Australian Muslims: attitudes and experiences of Muslims”, Kevin Dunn, Western Sydney University, AUD$10,000.
- “Sufism: religious pluralism and the alternative narrative in Islam”, Researcher Development Strategic Initiative Funding – ECR Award, Dr Milad Milani. AUD$20,000.
- “Transnational Ties and National Belonging among Australian Muslims” (via Deakin University), Australian Research Council, Adam Possamai, Fethi Mansouri, David Tittensor, Jaqueline Nelson.
- Muslim Organizations in Indonesian Political and Social Life, Steven Drakeley.
- Islamophobic and ‘Muslimophobic’ Discourses in Anti-Halal Debates, Jennifer Cheng
Q.2 Discuss objectives of education given by Allama Iqbal and explain their significance.
As individuality develops, the powers and capacities of man become sharpened and well defined. To quote Iqbal, his “unceasing reward consists in his gradual growth in self-possession, in uniqueness and intensity of activity as an ego. He quotes the Quranic verse, “Blessed is he who hath made it grow and undone is he who hath corrupted it”.
Education should bring out inner strength and richness. It should not teach imitation and mimicry. It has to give strength of conviction. Without strong beliefs, it is not possible to release the dynamic energy of man. Education can provide abiding values only through intellectual wisdom supplied by the depth of conviction. It has to refine and spiritualize lower forms of desire. It has to make man’s animal nature with its desires and appetites the foundation for nobler sentiments through refinement and sublimation.
(2) Development of Creativity- The second aim of education is the development of creativity. Education is to ignite the creative process of man. Iqbal wanted every child to be given the right and the opportunity for free expression and the development of creativity. He called man both creator and creative in the analogy of God.
(3) Social Development- Dr Iqbal stated that education should aim not only at the individual development and development of creativity but also the social development of the pupils, which implies that they must have an adjustment to the processes of the society.
(4) Development of Cultural Values- Education should aim at developing the cultural values among the pupils. It should enable the pupils to appreciate the cultural values of the community and to “adhere to the highest of its cultural values and traditions. Any form of education which ignores this fundamental task is utterly superficial and futile”.
(5) Development of Morality and Character- Fifthly, education should aim at the inculcation of morality and training of character. Morality was a must for Dr Iqbal. He wanted the moral code, which “arises out of a willing co-operation of free-egos”. Fo him “goodness is not a matter of compulsion”. True morality results from choice, freedom and experiences acquired through social interaction and communication. Education should provide opportunities for social and moral experience.
(6) Building of Patriotism and Nationalism- Sixthly education should aim at developing patriotism and nationalism among the educands.
Q.3 In the light of the sayings of Holy Prophet (PBUH) disucss the importance of education and training
Education is an evolving sector that is grooming day by day, and the educationists in this sector also keep on learning with a speedy time. In actuality, teaching and learning go hand in hand, and education is essential for educational institutes to invest in for the professional development of the staff. In today’s world, professional development is something highly required, and for such purpose, training is necessary for teachers. It equips them to cope with the latest technology, online tuition, and latest trends and much more for the learner of the 21st century.
It is a known datum that such students who have well informed trained teachers can perform better than their peers. So, the school management must pay attention to the training and professional development of their staff for providing moral education and well-reputed to their organization. Because the best you will spend on teachers, the best you can serve the community.
Let’s discuss a few of the reasons that how training in education is essential:
1- For providing educational excellence:
Providing training in a school is vital for educational excellence. For such purpose, regular educational opportunities should be provided to the teachers to polish their skills and to make them the best among many. In case if teachers do not strive for excellence and their betterment, they can lag far behind. Due to this, educational specialists should stay active in spending on their teaching staff as well as up-to-the digital technological tools.
2- For building managerial tasks understanding
The old concept of training does not suit the administrative people. But in actuality, the individuals require competent skills for the management of future administrative tasks. A training term is all about developing workers, whereas development is all about the growth in all aspects and enhancing the words with the enterprise’s managerial position. Training development refers to the process in which the executives polish the skills of the individual to clean their skills at the current job and to understand and learn to manage the managerial tasks.
3- For social, intellectual and physical development
Mostly, education is considered a study of a particular syllabus that is often taught in a learning institute before joining any profession. But learning in actual is a broader term that involves socially, intellectually, and physical development. It could only be possible for a teacher to get students learned this all if they are trained enough to know how to incorporate such elements in students. That’s why intellectually sharp, well-mannered, and well-disciplined educationists are admired to join the institutes and at boarding schools to develop children’s well behaviors.
4- For promoting eLearning
Those educationists who used focus on digital educational solutions like eLearning courses, Online Tuitions and certifications, and many other blended learning programs have more chances to opt for the openings for teacher training. Such teachers not only avail to get training of traditional teaching skills but are also undergo digital educational solutions. It includes various teaching methodologies like the flipped classroom, Bloom’s Taxonomy, Outcome Based Education, and many other blended teaching modes that are beneficial for both the teachers’ students and even for the educational sector for worth exploring. Not only this but for ensuring the performance of the institutes, the training programs should include sufficient coverage of how to get the best suitable technological devices in general and about various eLearning software like learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).
In today’s dynamic world, just like students, it has become equally important for teachers to cope with the latest learning styles and methodologies. For this reason, educational institutes should understand the importance of well-structured teaching development programs for the institutes’ favorable repute and learning requirements.
We are obliged to our teachers, new-generation, and our nation to ensure that our teachers are well-qualified and have on-going support regarding the latest developed plans for preparing students for the current century.
In this world, we should pay attention to the training of students and that of the children. After all, they are going to be trained in the future of society. So, they should be trained very well when it comes to teaching and making their students a valuable asset. Most of the time, we ignore the fact that training teachers are equally important just is training the students. That is why proper steps should be taken to train teachers so that they may teach their students well.
Q.4 Discuss the following statement “A nation designs its educational curricula so that a favourabe climate may be created for preparing future generation.
Education means studying in order to obtain a deeper knowledge and understanding of a variety of subjects to be applied to daily life. Education is not limited to just knowledge from books, but can also be obtained through practical experiences outside of the classroom.
There are many different understandings and definitions of what education is, but one thing can be universally agreed upon, which is the importance of education — and here’s why.
1. Provides Stability
Education provides stability in life, and it’s something that no one can ever take away from you. By being well-educated and holding a college degree, you increase your chances for better career opportunities and open up new doors for yourself.
2. Provides Financial Security
On top of stability, education also provides financial security, especially in today’s society. A good education tends to lead to a higher paying job, as well as provide you with the skills needed to get there.
3. Needed For Equality
In order for the entire world to really become equal, it needs to start with education. If everyone was provided with the same opportunities to education, then there would be less gaps between social classes. Everyone would be able to have an equal chance at higher paying jobs — not just those that are already well-off.
4. Allows For Self-Dependency
The importance of education is evident when it comes to being self-dependent. If we are we educated, then it’s something that belongs to us, and only us, allowing us to rely on no one else other than ourselves. It can allow you to not only be financially independent, but also to make your own choices.
5. Make Your Dreams Come True
If you can dream it, you can achieve it. An education is the most powerful weapon you can possibly have, and with it, you can make all of your dreams come true. There are of course certain exceptions, depending on what you’re aiming for, but generally an education will take you as far as you’re willing to go.
6. A Safer World
Education is something that’s not only needed on a personal level, but also on a global level, as it’s something that keeps our world safe and makes it a more peaceful place. Education tends to teach people the difference between right and wrong, and can help people stay out of risky situations.
Being self-confident is a major part of being successful in life. And what better way to gain that confidence than with an education? Your level of education is often considered a way to prove your knowledge, and it can give you the confidence to express your opinions and speak your mind.
8. A Part Of Society
In today’s society, having an education is considered a vital part of being accepted by those around you. Having an education is believed to make you a useful part of society, and can make you feel like a contributing member as well.
9. Economic Growth On A National Level
An educated society is crucial for economic growth. We need people to continue to learn and research in order to constantly stay innovative. Countries with higher literacy rates also tend to be in better economic situations. With a more educated population, more employment opportunities are opened.
10. Can Protect You
Education can protect you more than you know, not only on a financial level, but it can help prevent you from being taken advantage of by knowing how to read and write, such as knowing not to sign any bogus documents.
Q.5 Discuss Hazrat Umar (RA) as an innovative adminsitrator.
Muhammad Iqbal (1877 – 1938) was a prolific writer who authored many works covering various fields and genres such as poetry, philosophy and mysticism. He expressed his ideas in many forms and this article deals with his educational philosophy. His philosophy has tremendous significance not only for Pakistan educational system, but also for the entire world. His basic concept of education is based on the teaching of the Quran. To him the superior, reliable and faultless source of knowledge is only this one. His whole educational thought is based and revolves on his concept of Khudi. He had a unique concept of education that carries the vital significance being the contribution of both modern and ancient thoughts. His well balanced thoughts are based upon the strong roots of Islamic teachings on one side and being progressive and coping with the modern scientific age on the other side. He has been very categorical in expressing his views about the education, its nature, and philosophy in his poetical works, articles and speeches. He also wrote various letters to different people and discussed the educational phenomenon in detail.
Iqbal was against of that educational system which was implemented in Indian subcontinents under the influence of colonial rule. His vision was not limited to the current deteriorated condition of his age, but also holds solutions to the prevalent problems of the Muslim societies. He was of the opinion that education is primarily a social process and this process constitutes one of the main dimensions of any philosophy of education. He believed that the material world is a reality and one can achieve the spiritual and moral development while committed with the material world. He also subscribed to the view that there must be harmony between the material and spiritual elements in man, which educational theory should consider. He valued intellect, but he criticized contemporary thought for overstressing it at the expense of intuition or love. From Iqbal’s writings, the good man is creative and original, for creativity is the most precious and distinctive gift of man. He must be able to use his intelligence to harness the forces of nature for his own good and also to increase his knowledge and power. In addition, the good man lives his life in the name of the Lord, dedicating his powers and knowledge to working out his purpose and thereby deserving himself for the position of God’s vicegerent on earth. In relation with the aims of education, Iqbal, emphasized the proper development of the individuality of man and maintained that an individual should be exposed to all kinds of formative and challenging experiences. He underscored the importance of freedom, which allowed for experimentation with the environment, for the exercise of choice and discrimination in the use of methods and substance, and for learning by direct, first-hand experience. Despite his emphasis on the individual, Iqbal did not ignore the role of the community and its culture in the give-and-take dynamics with the individual.
Mohammad Iqbal philosophy has tremendous significance not only for Pakistan educational system, but also for the entire world. Iqbal is not only a renowned thinker on education; he, in fact, practiced his thought. He taught in the institutions of higher learning both in the sub-continent and European world. His contribution as an active member of All India Muhammadan Educational Conference, Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Punjab Educational Conference and other educational forums further established him as an eminent educationist. According to an eminent educationist Saleem aptly interprets Iqbal’s concept of individual and community. To him, the overriding objectives of both (the community and the individual) are the same, that is, eradication of evil and establishment of a just moral order in this world. There is, so to say, natural cooperation, rather than inimical confrontations between the community and the individual. The nucleus of Iqbal’s theory of education on which the rest of his thought structure builds is the concept of good will (khudi) that strengthens the individual’s innate powers. In this sense, education (talimo-tarbiyah) is to unfold the hidden best potentials of the individual’s and to channel those to attain goodness, Educationist about change for goodness. In this perspective, if an individual or a nation tries to withdraw from struggle or become passive, their individuality (khudi) will lose color or strength and their talents will remain unrealized. For achieving the aims of education, Iqbal considers curriculum as the most important element of the educational process. His curriculum model is based on the following points. The foundation of education is to examine and critique the world research, and finally develop its own viewpoint. Iqbal states that “our duty is to carefully watch the progress of human, and to maintain an independent critical attitude towards it, Education system structured on mere instinctual needs without purification (on the criteria of absolute knowledge) will produce a mal-adjusted and split-personality. Only meeting the right and just natural needs of spirit (ruh), mind (aql), and body (jasad) will develop a balanced healthy personality. Without axiological emphasis, education would be either useless or destructive. In this perspective, education is never value-free. On the whole, education is holistic, harmonious and balanced only if it is spread over the whole life i.e. life-here to life-hereafter. Education advocating for mere life-here having no link with hereafter is distorted and faulty. Iqbal’s philosophy and theory of education coordinate the whole process of education, particularly its four essential elements viz. (a) aims of education; (b) curriculum; (c) teacher’s role and methodology; and (d) evaluation.
The aims of education in accordance with Iqbal’s philosophy are to Produce a true personality (maumin) by strengthening his unique individuality (khudi) in order to play his destined role in the world to meet the diversified challenges of all times. The theme of Iqbal’s thoughts of education which is the remaining of his that paradigm which constructs the perception of positive will (ego) that combine strongly the individuals inner self power. In this sense knowledge is to disclose the hidden potentialities of the individual and nationalized them for achieving excellence, The purpose of education is to inspect and critic the world research and lastly to organize its own thoughts. According to Iqbal human duties are to cautiously see the zenith of human beings conception and to retain a liberal critical behavior towards it.
Education aims are primarily a phase of values. They are conscious or unconscious value judgments. These judgments involve thinking in metaphysics and epistemology. Educational aims take their root from philosophy. Iqbal’s philosophy is the philosophy of the self. He prizes and stresses self or individuality. Hence in Iqbal’s view the highest or ultimate aim of all educational effort as well as other social efforts is to develop strengthen the individuality of all persons. In other words, the ultimate aim of the man is his life as well as in education is the actualization and realization of the open, infinite possibilities within, without and before him. The highest ideal is a continued life with the highest quality of knowledge, power, perfection, goodness, vision and creativity. But the ideal at this level is not a fixed one. As one acquires more of the qualities of the ideal, it shifts its place to a still higher level. It does not mean only the development of the inherent possibilities of man, but in a great measure the individual’s power to absorb into himself, for the reconstruction of his experience, power, personality, and the enrichment of his life, the influence of the universe external to him. Sense, reason, intellect, and intelligence are the evolved instruments for this purpose. Hence according to Iqbal, the cultivation of any of the faculties like reason, intellect, and intelligence is not the aim of education; rather they are the means of the ideal of continuation and enrichment of life. According to Iqbal, the statement the ultimate aim and the description of its various aspects into objectives education as continuous life of good health, perfection, power, knowledge, goodness, vision, creative and original activity, and other values of his philosophical system for the development of individuality would not be enough. He recognizes the need for more proximate, immediate and specific objectives which when realized become resource to achieve the ultimate aim with more vigor and enthusiasm. He encourages freedom of thought and originality for the achievement of something unique.
The actualization of specific objectives becomes a means and refers to immediate while the ultimate aim. The value of ultimate aim as the development of individuality is supreme because, through suggestion and direction, it controls the selection of more proximate aims, and their execution. The development of individuality can be accelerated by the formulation of new creative purposes and objectives which always determine the direction of man’s activity and evolution. Hence by means of motive force of unceasing and creative desires and ideals the individual builds his selfhood, culture, and institutions. Education would defeat its purpose of the development of free, creative and unique personalities if the educational system discourages the formation of new ideals and objectives. These objectives according to Iqbal, grow out of dynamic, forward – moving activity of the individual in relation to his environment, culture heritage, ongoing experience and projected ideals. The objectives depend also upon the nature of the pupil, social institutions, contemporary life with due regard to the activities of children and adults for the development of their personalities and character and preparation for vocation. They emerge from the present experience and man’s problems of meeting the constant need of dynamic environment; his desire to achieve ideals by changing the environment to his needs with the help and direction of his will, intelligence , and valuable surviving traditions and principles of the past. Our duty is carefully to watch the progress of human thought, and maintain an independent critical attitude towards it”.
Growth and development of individuality in active and purposeful participation in life, through the agency of education, requires a material and cultural environment. There is need of intense and manifold activity on the part of growing individual which must be carried out in vital contact with the whole of his material and cultural environment. The social setting provides the individual with such a whole some environment. Man doesn’t live to himself alone. On the contrary basis, he lives among his fellows in a social structure. He realizes his ideals in participation in not simply as it is, but also as it is becoming and ought to be. Iqbal’s concept of an ideal society is a democracy of more or less unique individuals towards which they all should move progressively for their mutual rejuvenation. Such a social organized environment, to Iqbal’s mind, is not the end but the means to each individual’s effort to realize his idea of his unique personality. Of course, society does not exist for individual’s selfishness but for mutual help through cooperative effort of all its members. Education develops individuality by bringing about a dynamic and progressive interaction between the individual and the society with the object of adjusting them to each other. Mohammad Iqbal, in spite of his learning and wide reading, is no mere echo of other men’s ideas, but is distinctly an original thinker.
To realize the broad educational aims and values as framed by Iqbal, the teacher will have to plan specific objectives for classroom activities. Of course, when these aims and values are expanded to this length a detailed, the merge with the curriculum its self. According to Iqbal, then, the specific objectives will not be one or many in a specific number but a multitude as framed by teachers and pupils. Iqbal would like these aims to be based on democratic principles. they should not be enforced from outside. The pupil and teacher should be free to make, choose and accept them. In other words, they should be meaningful to those who use them. Iqbal would disapprove of the determination of aims of one individual or group by another individual or group, because he has great regard of the individuality of each person and even urges him to make his purposes and ideals himself.
Further, aims arise out of the actual and concrete situations and are selected by the teacher and the pupil from among the various alternatives. The end of these intelligently projected ideals gives an insight or vision and becomes an instrument in guiding both pupil and teacher in reaching that end by helping them consider and adjust the means, and by suggesting the order a procedure to be followed in using the means. Since aims are values, they provide motivating forces to achieve the ideal put forth, and also the basis for the evaluation of the ideal when it is achieved. Further according to Iqbal, his aims and values are a set of principles, and are useful to the educator as well as the educated, not as aims, but as suggestions for their guidance in keeping an overall balance of all the values that may be involved. Iqbal’s philosophy subscribes to that kind of proximate educational aims which are not fixed, static, and immutable, but which should be flexible and subject to the continual reconstruction. In universe of change and evolution the educational aims should be tentative and must shift with rest of the scenery of changing individuals and their environments. They should be constantly made and remade be an outgrowth of practical changing situations. Hence Iqbal’s educational aims do not consist in maintaining a status quo because he preaches a life of ideals and purposes, and ceaseless effort to realize them. The desires, objectives, purposes and ideals are not mere impulses, because one’s acting on impulse does not become an activity with a purpose until one tries to see the means at one’s command, the reasonableness of the objective, and probable outcome of the activity. One may note that educational aims and their outcomes are not the same or identical in their meaning. The former are what one tries to do and the latter are what one actually succeeds in performing. Here one perceives how aims change in the process of actualization, and the scope of uncertainty of result they are expected to bring. It also points towards the importance of careful formulation and use of aims to manage the educative process with intelligence and vision which Iqbal emphasizes.