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Course: Teacher Education in Pakistan (8626)
Level: B.Ed. (1.5 Years)
Discuss the instructional responsibilities of a teacher. Highlight the role of teacher as ‘Nation Builder’
KECH:Teachers can be rightly called a nation builder because it is through their perseverance, love and navigation towards the right path that great men have built our nation. It is our dear teachers who build our character and personality, which leads us towards our final career destination. A society turns to teachers to build itself and set its future generations up for success so as to lead society in a positive way. In light of the recently commemorated Teachers’ Day on October 5, I would like to highlight the significance of teachers in our own country, which could use a lot of guidance in the way of betterment.
Teachers are sometimes considered the second parents of a student. A teacher leads a child to gain knowledge and explore his or her natural or innate interests and abilities. An ideal teacher is a great motivator who encourages a student to generate a zealous hope to approach and achieve a student’s career goals and aspirations. A teacher also imparts lessons in ethics and morals and serves as an important role model for children. With these teacher qualities kept in mind, new teachers should also be trained to work with these aspects in mind. Finally, teachers must be appreciated and respected as they perhaps play the most important part in imparting civic education to students and young adults and must be provided better facilities and incentives to cTeacher is a maker of man. He is foundation of all Education, and thus of the whole civilization of mankind, present and future. No nation reconstruction is possible without the active cooperation of the teacher.” – John Adams Education is the ultimate realm of the Homosapiens. It is a process aimed at socialized and humanizing individual citizen through their life from birth till death. It is institutionalized and formal for a specific period but lifelong and suited to ones environment, ability, interest, aspiration, aptitude etc. and carried on preferably outside the institutional premises through life nonformally and informally and more significant and rewarding. Education is a process of enlightenment and empowerment of the individual for achievement of better and high quality of life. The Education Commission (1964-66) has emphatically opined that “The quality and competence and character of teachers to be the most significant factor influencing the quality of education and its contribution to National development.” A nation is built by its citizens, citizens are moulded by teachers and teachers are made by teacher-educators. Chanakya has rightly stated, “Teacher is the maker of nation” So for the development of the country, it is very important to have good teachers and good teachers can be produced only if we have a good system of teacher education and dedicated and efficient teacher-educators. The teacher can be rightly called a nation builder. Teachers through their perseverance love and sacrifices have shown us the right path in which great men have built our nation. It is our dear teachers who mould our character, our personality and show us the right direction which leads us to our final destination. Flourishing national development and a society truly prosperous with knowledge all begins from its teachers. While the role of knowledge and a skilled society with visions and aspirations in the success of a nation cannot be stressed enough, it should also be remembered that knowledge cannot be acquired if it is not sought and received through the help of the teacher. This is why everyone should put efforts into seeking as much knowledge as possible, and appreciate the teacher’s importance in guiding us and the generations to come, to become knowledgeable and morally upright people .Knowledge received without a teacher’s guidance can be compared to a blind man walking without his stick. Because of this, teachers need to have a high level of commitment towards their duties and responsibilities which have been entrusted to them. The teacher is a judge who gives marks and ratings. He differentiates children on the basis of their intellectual and often social skills in preparation for the social and occupational roles which they eventually play. He does this by recommending promotions and demotions within the school, nominating children to take certain examinations and counseling children and their parents with regard to appropriate school courses, and employment possibilities. The teacher is a representative of the society who inculcates moral precepts. In the development of a country, great attention has to be paid to education and learning, as well as good morals, and nobody is more suited to assist in this process than the humble teacher. Without teachers, both knowledge and morals would suffer. The role of the teacher is a multi-faceted one comprising academic, pedagogical and social roles. Academic roles comprise teaching, counseling and supervisory roles while pedagogical roles include instructional, evaluation and facilitating roles. As a facilitator of learning, the teacher is involved in motivating pupils to learn, maintaining control in the classroom and the school in general, and creating a conducive environment for learning to take place. Social roles of the teacher includes among others socializing roles which is preparing pupils to participate in the way of life of the society; others include reference roles, detective roles, parent surrogate (or substitute parent), confidants and affectionate roles. No other personality can have an influence more profound than that of a teacher. Students are deeply affected by the teacher’s love and affection, his character, his competence, and his moral commitment. A popular teacher becomes a model for his students. The students try to follow their teacher in his manners, customs, etiquette, style of conversation and his get up. He is their ideal. He can lead them anywhere. During their early education, the students tend to determine their aims in life and their future plans, in consultation with their teachers. Therefore, a corrupt and decadent class of teachers can harm a nation more seriously than a class of corrupt and perverted judiciary, army, police, bureaucracy, politicians or technocrats. A corrupt and incompetent teacher is not only a bad individual, but also the harbinger of a corrupt and incompetent generation. A nation with corrupt teachers is a nation at risk; every coming day announces the advent of its approaching destruction. Teachers therefore, have to play a cardinal role in the building up of the character of the next generation. It is a fact that a civilization cannot rise out of a skeleton of mere ideas and abstract concepts. Civilization finds a concrete shape in the practical behaviour of a nation, based on these principles and concepts. Once the practical aspect is gone, the civilization also disappears and can only be studied through its remnants preserved in museums and chronicles. This necessitates the provision of a learning atmosphere throbbing with life in our educational institutions through the presence of the teacher, with a view to infuse confidence in our students and to enable them to be proud of their culture, to respect their national character and national emblems, and to ornament themselves with societal conduct and morals. They should stand firm on the centuries old foundations of their cultural tradition and at the same time should establish standards of excellence in their academic performance. The essence of the teacher as a nation builder cannot be over-emphasized. Good teachers need to be themselves constantly seeking knowledge, be of good character, have high motivation and be creative, innovative and effective in the teaching strategies. The good deeds of teachers are great; because of them, we will grow to become knowledgeable people who will be of use to society, religion and our nation and country.
As English medium schools managed to sustain a level of quality in their teaching and learning with a transparent foreign examination system, it was felt that only “English medium” meant a qualitative or better education. It is conveniently forgotten that almost all who went through the public sector Urdu medium schooling also shone and were successful in all the careers. Privatization of education encouraged the new schools to just opt for an English-medium education which was out of the reach of the less privileged classes who now demand this as a right to a successful future.
However, in the last 10 years, a solid base in language acquisition is lacking. The constant matrix of Urdu and English spoken today on media channels and by the younger generation is a product of the confusion in the education provision. No policy has taken a firm decision of equalizing the opportunities for everyone to acquire proficiency in both Urdu and English.
The fault lies with the medium of instruction — for English medium, English has to be learnt first and then the acquisition of knowledge takes place. With Urdu, this is not the case — a lot of time is not wasted when knowledge is acquired through this language which also lays the base for Pakistan’s religious, social and cultural identity. This identity is lost when education is in a foreign language and a foreign curriculum meant for the needs of countries whose society, culture and religion is different to Pakistan. The consequences of such a policy are explained by the linguist expert Dr Tariq Rehman in “Standard Education System in Pakistan” a Pakistan Coalition for Education Position Paper Series.
Dr. Rehman says that the purpose of education is to impart knowledge and information that encourages critical thinking and empowers people. However, he continues “As regards the medium of instruction, which is the focus of this paper, it would be fair and justthat most services of the State and the private sector should operate in the local language and Urdu. It is quite unjust that, in the centuries-old colonial tradition, our people face an alien State that does not serve them in their languages. This must change so that as far as possible, the people are able to speak to State officials in their own languages and be responded to in the same. This will also ensure that in this age of globalization people will remain in touch with their identities.”
For the new commercial schools which offer the British system with O/A levels, Dr
Rehman analyses their output as “Typically, students of these schools show aversion to Urdu and pride themselves on not knowing it, indicating the degree of alienation from their own culture. While it would not be wrong to call them ‘brown sahibs’ or what is now more appropriate ‘native Yankees’, they generally hold more tolerant and peaceful views as compared to their counterparts in Urdu medium schools and Madrassahs. Thus, this educational apartheid, unjust though it is, is not the end of the story. It corresponds to an acute polarization of views, attitudes and thinking in these different kinds of educational institutions.”
Explain the Quranic concept of Teacher Education. According to Islamic
perspective which methods of teaching should be used?
In Islam, a fundamental premise of being a teacher is to add value to the learning of each student in your care. Shah, Saeeda // Studies in Philosophy & Education; May2014, Vol. Dec 23, 2020. Abstract the need to standardize women Islamic education cannot be overemphasized. 1. By McKenna Meyers. A man’s major responsibilities lie outside the family. Education means to look after, to nurture, to nourish, to help grow and flourish. Before the Nigerian civil war in 1967, there was no Parent-Teachers Association in our schools, at least not as they presently exist. ♥ Status of teachers in Islam ♥ (By: Muhammad Baqir Qureshi) Islam has paid considerable attention to teachers for their being the first brick in the structure of social development and perfection and the cause of guiding and developing behaviors and mentalities of individuals and communities. A woman’s major responsibilities lie within the family.
Because both students and teachers spend as much time together, the teacher inadvertently becomes an external parent. Honesty
Nice article highlighting the role of the teacher. (2015-17) Jamia Millia Islamia 2. It is a much-needed service, especially in a day when the culture seems to be moving further away from God and His Word. Prominent figures of the future are among your students. Mullah is a teacher in regard of being respected as a vicar and guardian of Qur’an and the Islamic traditions. Students should direct their research to collect information from various sources. Ghulam Ghaus M.Ed. Supervision, as a field of educational practice with clearly delineated roles and responsibilities, did not fall from the sky fully formed.
Education is the process by which children are nurtured as they grow up to develop the Islamic worldview and the Islamic virtues. Islam is from Asslamah, means “to accept, to surrender, to submit, submission, or “the total surrender of oneself” to Allah. Islam enjoins man to abide by the principles of belief and righteous conduct. Teaching – Teaching – Functions and roles of teachers: Broadly speaking, the function of teachers is to help students learn by imparting knowledge to them and by setting up a situation in which students can and will learn effectively. It implies certain sensitivity towards the child under your care, … Even a teacher on the special skills or technical courses is keeping role responsibilities on the societies. Paul Richard Kuehn (author) … A Teacher’s Perspective. 1. An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning “one who submits … It is their joint role to encourage the student to become an independent learner and member of … It can also allow a teacher to tailor make a course to fit specific student needs. Muslims view marriage as the foundation of society and family life.
Islam is Monotheistic Abrahamic Religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad (SAW). The historians role in teacher education extends beyond coursework and professional development, however, into current political debates about assessment and standards. The teacher is in the guiding role. 33 Issue 3, p233 . The teacher of Islamic education subject must play the essential role of achieving this objective. This role can be a great way to pay individual attention to a student. program, and the teacher assistant’s role to assist teachers in this responsibility . Teacher education programs and history departments must work together to assert a stronger response to the way that history education has been politicized at this particular moment. The article will discuss Islamic philosophy of education to explain the role and aims … As a Teacher, the Prophet (PBUH) himself cultivated his companions and taught them in a way that the entire Arab peninsula changed over the span of just twenty three years. Skinner believed that positive reinforcement is more effective in changing behavior than punishment An Imam’s Duties . In general, the purpose of education is to serve only to God (Abdullah, 1989)1. Email.
Your young students will soon be responsible for the affairs of our society, no matter at what level they are. Both the teacher and the teacher assistant facilitate the inclusion of students with special needs . HomeDuties and Responsibilities of a Teacher. Arabic Teacher. Rather, supervision emerged slowly as a distinct practice, always in relation to the institutional, academic, cultural, and professional dynamics that have historically generated the complex agenda of schooling. In this respect, teachers play a vital role … Islamic ethics and discipline should be incorporated in the policies and governance of the Islamic finance institution, and Shari’ah advisors should be role-models in ethics and work performance. Duties and Responsibilities of a Teacher. Islamic Education and the UK Muslims: Options and Expectations in a Context of Multi-locationality. The most important role a parent can play is when it comes to the child’s religious and moral education.
Islamic economics is considered in most of today western world as a part of the Islamic fundamentalist movement gaining ground in large parts of the Muslim world3 (Kjetil Bjorvatn: 1998). The following are some qualities and attributes of a teacher that the Prophet (PBUH) practically had and the teachers of the present time can implement in their educational institutes. The position of Parents-Teachers Association in our present educational system can only be fully appreciated when viewed from a historical perspective. Responsibilities included: managing a classroom of students, developing lessons, writing letters to parents, handling parent teacher conferences, and preparing report cards to communicate improvement of students. Keywords: Role, Social Status, Social Role, Role Conflict, Inter-role Conflict, Intra-Role Conflict, Role set. The duties and responsibilities of a teacher are to ensure that all students develop the following desirable characteristics or moral values: 1. In fact, the word “imam” itself means “to stand in front of” in Arabic, referring to the placement of the Imam in front of the worshipers during prayer. The Tutor: The teacher acts as a coach when students are involved in project work or self-study. The primary role of a teacher is to deliver classroom instruction that helps students learn.
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The citizens of Pakistan must now take part in the commitment to rectify education in the country. Change comes from the people themselves who have to let go of their malaise and slumber and put the country’s interest first before their personal gain. Implementation of policies has been blocked by vested interests and through corruption and inefficiency in the education sector, time and again.
Q.3 Discuss the nature and scope of In-service Teacher Education. Highlight its significance.
Nature of Teacher Education :
- Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre-service and in-service components are complimentary to each other. According to the International Encyclopedia of Teaching and Teacher education (1987), ―Teacher education can be considered in three phases : Pre-service, Induction and In-service. The three phases are considered as parts of a continuous process.
2) Teacher education is based on the theory that ―Teachers are made, not born in contrary to the assumption, ―Teachers are born, not made.‖ Since teaching is considered an art and a science, the teacher has to acquire not only knowledge, but also skills that are called ―tricks of the trade.
3) Teacher education is broad and comprehensive. Besides preservice and in-service programmes for teachers, it is meant to be involved in various community programmes and extension activities, viz adult education and non-formal education programmes, literacy and development activities of the society.
4) It is ever-evolving and dynamic. In order to prepare teachers who are competent to face the challenges of the dynamic society, Teacher education has to keep abreast of recent developments and trends.
5) The crux of the entire process of teacher education lies in its curriculum, design, structure, organization and transaction modes, as well as the extent of its appropriateness.
6) As in other professional education programmes the teacher education curriculum has a knowledge base which is sensitive to the needs of field applications and comprises meaningful, conceptual blending of theoretical understanding available in several cognate disciplines. However the knowledge base in teacher education does not comprise only an admixture of concepts and principles from other disciplines, but a distinct ‗gestalt‘ emerging from the ‗conceptual blending‘, making it sufficiently specified.
7) Teacher education has become differentiated into stage-specific programmes. This suggests that the knowledge base is adequately specialized and diversified across stages, which should be utilized for developing effective processes of preparing entrant teachers for the functions which a teacher is expected to perform at each stage.
8) It is a system that involves an interdependence of its Inputs, Processes and Outputs.
NEED, SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHER EDUCATION :
Need of teacher education : The American Commission on Teacher Education rightly observes, “The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of its citizens depends not exclusively, but in critical measure upon the quality of their education, the quality of their education depends more than upon any single factor, upon the quality of their teacher.” In his Call for Action for American Education in the 21st Century in 1996, Clinton indicated that : ―Every community should have a talented and dedicated teacher in every classroom. We have enormous opportunity for ensuring teacher quality well into the 21st century if we recruit promising people into teaching and give them the highest quality preparation and training”. The need for teacher education is felt due to the following reasons;
- It is common knowledge that the academic and professional standards of teachers constitute a critical component of the essential learning conditions for achieving the educational goals of a nation. The focus of teacher preparation had to shift from training to education if it had to make a positive influence on the quality of curriculum transaction in classrooms and thereby pupil learning and the larger social transformation. The aspects that need greater emphasis are; the length of academic preparation, the level and quality of subject matter knowledge, the repertoire of pedagogical skills that teachers possess to meet the needs of diverse learning situations, the degree of commitment to the profession, sensitivity to contemporary issues and problems and the level of motivation. This is not possible if teacher preparation focused only on training. Holistic teacher building is necessary and therefore teacher education needed more emphasis than mere training.
2) Educating all children well depends not only on ensuring that teachers have the necessary knowledge and skills to carry out their work, but also that they take responsibility for seeing that all children reach high levels of learning and that they act accordingly.
3) People come to teacher education with beliefs, values, commitments, personalities and moral codes from their upbringing and schooling which affect who they are as teachers and what they are able to learn in teacher education and in teaching. Helping teacher candidates examine critically their beliefs and values as they relate to teaching, learning and subject matter and form a vision of good teaching to guide and inspire their learning and their work is a central task of teacher education (Fieman-Nemser, 2001).
4) The National Academy of Education Committee‘s Report (Darling-Hammond and Bransford, 2005) wrote that : ―On a daily basis, teachers confront complex decisions that rely on many different kinds of knowledge and judgement and that can involve high stakes outcomes for students‘ future. To make good decisions, teachers must be aware of the many ways in which student learning can unfold in the context of development, learning differences, language and cultural influences, and individual temperaments, interests and approaches to learning. In addition to foundational knowledge about the areas of learning and performance listed in the above quotation, teachers need to know how to take the steps necessary to gather additional information that will allow them to make more grounded judgements about what is going on and what strategies may be helpful. More importantly, teachers need to keep what is best for the student at the centre of their decision making.
5) Teacher education like any other educational intervention, can only work on those professional commitments or dispositions that are susceptible to modification. While we can‘t remake someone‘s personality, we can reshape attitudes towards the other and develop a professional rather than a personal role orientation towards teaching as a practice.
6) The Ministry of Education document ―Challenge of Education : A Policy Perspective (1985) has mentioned, ―Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education.
7 Whatever policies may be laid down, in the ultimate analysis these have to be implemented by teachers as much through their personal example as through teaching learning processes.‖ India has reached the threshold of the development of new technologies which are likely to revolutionise the classroom teaching. Unless capable and committed are teachers in service, the education system cannot become a suitable and potential instrument of national development. The teacher is required to acquire adequate knowledge, skills, interests and attitudes towards the teaching profession. The teacher‘s work has become more complicated and technical in view of the new theories of psychology, philosophy, sociology, modern media and materials. The teacher can be made proficient with well planned, imaginative pre-service and in-service training programmes.
Aspects of Teacher Education :
Teacher education is concerned with the aspects such as, who (Teacher Educator), whom (Student teacher), what (Content) and how (Teaching Strategy). Teacher education is dependent upon the quality of teacher educators. The quality of pedagogical inputs in teacher education programmes and their effective utilization for the purpose of preparing prospective teachers depend largely on the professional competence of teacher educators and the ways in which it is utilized for strengthening the teacher education programme. Teacher education, thus, first deals with the preparation of effective teacher educators. Teacher education reaches out to the student teachers by providing the relevant knowledge, attitude and skills to function effectively in their teaching profession. It serves to equip the student teachers with the conceptual and theoretical framework within which they can understand the intricacies of the profession.
It aims at creating the necessary attitude in student teachers towards the stakeholders of the profession, so that they approach the challenges posed by the environment in a very positive manner. It empowers the student teachers with the skills (teaching and soft skills) that would enable them to carry on the functions in the most efficient and 9 effective manner. Teacher education therefore pays attention to its content matter.
Vision of teacher education : Teacher education has to become more sensitive to the emerging demands from the school system. For this, it has to prepare teachers for a dual role of; Encouraging, supportive and humane facilitator in teaching learning situations who enables learners (students) to discover their talents, to realize their physical and intellectual potentialities to the fullest, to develop character and desirable social and human values to function as responsible citizens; and, An active member of the group of persons who make conscious effort to contribute towards the process of renewal of school curriculum to maintain its relevance to the changing societal needs and personal needs of learners, keeping in view the experiences gained in the past and the concerns and imperatives that have emerged in the light of changing national development goals and educational priorities.
These expectations suggest that teacher operates in a larger context and its dynamics as well as concerns impinge upon her functioning. That is to say, teacher has to be responsive and sensitive to the social contexts of education, the various disparities in the background of learners as well as in the macro national and global contexts, national concerns for achieving the goals of equity, parity, social justice as also excellence. To be able to realize such expectations, TE has to comprise such features as would enable the student teachers to Care for children, and who love to be with them; Understand children within social, cultural and political contexts; View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience; Understand the way learning occurs, possible ways of creating conductive conditions for learning, differences among students in respect of the kind, pace and styles of learning. View knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of reflective learning. Be receptive and constantly learning. View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience, and knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of reflective learning. View knowledge not as an external reality embedded in textbooks, but as constructed in the shared context of teaching learning and personal experience.
Own responsibility towards society, and work to build a better world. Appreciate the potential of productive work and hands-on experience as a pedagogic medium both inside and outside the classroom. Analyze the curricular framework, policy implications and texts. Have a sound knowledge base and basic proficiency in language. The objectives of teacher education would therefore be to, Provide opportunities to observe and engage with children, communicate with and relate to children Provide opportunities for self-learning, reflection, assimilation and articulation of new ideas; developing capacities for self directed learning and the ability to think, be self-critical and to work in groups. Provide opportunities for understanding self and others (including one‘s beliefs, assumptions and emotions); developing the ability for self analysis, self-evaluation, adaptability, flexibility, creativity and innovation. Provide opportunities to enhance understanding, knowledge and examine disciplinary knowledge and social realities, relate subject matter with the social milieu and develop critical thinking. Provide opportunities to develop professional skills in pedagogy, observation, documentation, analysis, drama, craft, story-telling and reflective inquiry.
Q.4 Discuss the prevailing structure of Teacher Education in the country. What
measures should be taken for its improvement?
Teachers’ professional education is viewed as one of the most important factors in improving students’ learning. Keeping this in view many developed and less developed countries pay significant attention to improve the practices of teacher education. In order to develop capable teachers they make conscious efforts to establish and maintain quality teacher education institutions.
The history of teacher education in Pakistan starts with the establishment of the country. However, this area has been facing various challenges such as lack of consistent policy, inconsistency in curriculum, low resources, lack of quality teachers, low quality of teaching process, lack of standard, etc. Today, a range of public and private institutions are engaged in preparing school teachers. In Pakistan, like many other countries, public institutions are the main source for developing teachers through pre-service and in-service programmes. However, many studies have raised the question on the quality of delivery mechanism of the institutions while forwarding recommendations for improvement.
Historically, different reforms have been brought to improve the condition of teacher education in the country. Currently, teacher education in Pakistan is passing through a transition as an innovation has been initiated by the Government of Pakistan with the support of USAID through their Pre-Service Teachers Education Programme (STEP) project. This reform is attempted in order to improve the quality of teacher education by including different innovations.
In this regard, a new curriculum has been developed for pre-service programmes such as a two-year Associate Degree in Education (ADE) and a four-year BEd (Hons). Effort has been made to design the curriculum keeping in view the modern educational principle along with the contextual relevancy. These programmes are gradually replacing the previous pre-service and in-service programmes such as Primary Teacher Certificate (PTC), Certificate in Teaching (CT) and the one-year Ed programme. In addition, an effort is being made for the accreditation and standardisation of teacher training institutions through this initiative.
The ADE and BEd programme has been initiated in some colleges and will be gradually implemented in remaining colleges throughout the country in the coming years. In addition, to attract the best mind towards the teaching profession a stipend is also offered to student-teachers for providing them financial support.
The significance of such educational innovation cannot be overlooked for improvement of teacher education in the country. However, there are areas that need serious considerations for the effectiveness and sustainability of the new reform initiatives.
Firstly, the new developed curriculum is based on the modern educational principles. Teachers are provided a course outline with the expectation that they will explore the teaching learning material for classroom instructions. However, it was observed that some of the teachers are struggling with identifying teaching resources due to the unavailability of the reference books and lack of Internet facility in their colleges/institutions. This situation may affect the teaching-learning process of the ADE courses. Hence there is a need to provide the reference books and Internet facility to the faculty members in order to make the teaching-learning process smooth.
Second, Internet is considered as one of the important sources for identifying teaching-learning material. However, it was observed that some of the faculty members are not literate in computers and Internet. So they are facing challenges in accessing the teaching-learning resources that are available on the Internet or in soft version. Therefore, the faculty members of colleges need to be helped in acquiring workable computer and Internet skills.
Third, the new curriculum demands new teaching strategies such as collaborative, inquiry and activity-based teaching approach. However, a majority of the faculty in the teacher institutions are not oriented with the teaching strategies demanded by the ADE and BEd programme. Therefore, the professional development of the faculty at teacher training institutions should be given priority along with the curriculum development.
Furthermore, there is a sense of uncertainty about the sustainability of the new initiatives after completion of the Pre-STEP project. Many educational initiatives in the past died away with closure of the projects. Therefore there is a dire need to develop a clear road map for the continuity and sustainability of reforms.
It was also observed that some school teachers are being deputed in teacher education colleges due to lack of adequate number of teachers in there. Due to the different approach of pedagogy and andragogy, these teachers treat the prospective teacher like children, which demotivates them. Thus when the school teachers are deputed in colleges they should be oriented with the andragogy of teaching an adult.
Finally, a sense of insecurity can be observed among the student-teachers about their job prospects after the completion of their ADE or BEd honours. How will they stand apart from the teacher who has done one year BEd and other courses, is a question to ponder upon. A clear policy is required about job opportunities for the prospective teachers so that they can focus their studies.
These issues need to be addressed in order to sustain and maintain the quality of the new reforms. A vigilant plan and sincere implementation will, of course, be helpful in transforming the teacher education practices in the country.
In short, the importance of quality teacher education cannot be overlooked for improving the quality of teaching-learning in the school. The new educational innovation will, definitely, lead to improve teacher education practices in Pakistan. However, there is a dire need to look reflectively at how to sustain the initiatives and make it productive.
Q.5 Explicate the concept of Student (Practice) Teaching by focusing al the sequential
steps of pre-service training.
Pre-service teacher preparation programmes, also called initial teacher training or initial teacher education, vary greatly across countries. The structure, coursework, and field experiences of pre-service programmes are important to consider when designing or reforming teacher training because they all contribute to the level of preparation. High-quality teachers need high-quality training, but many countries may need to consider cost-effectiveness in deciding on the specific combination of pre-service and in-service training experiences needed in order to deploy enough teachers for growing education systems. Issues and DiscussionPre-service training programme structures: Pre-service programmes may be conducted as part of a secondary school diploma course, on higher education campuses, in other schools through school partnership programmes, or through online and other forms of distance education. It is necessary to consider the local context and national needs in determining which types of programmes are most appropriate.(4) For example, Pakistan used distance training via radio, television, and correspondence beginning in the 1970s to achieve a rapid increase in the number of trained primary school teachers (see the Allama Iqbal Open University); whereas the Accelerated Learning Program in Brazil trains new teachers by requiring them to follow a highly structured curriculum that they implement directly in primary schools.(12) In addition to these context-dependent variations in structure, the length of pre-service training and the qualifications necessary to join the teaching profession may vary both within and across countries. In some countries the required qualifications are higher for secondary teachers than for primary teachers, while in other countries they are the same. The required qualifications might include: certificate, diploma, degree, or master’s degree.(4) However, an analysis of PISA results suggests that a bachelor’s degree is the minimum qualification for achieving the highest student performance.(17) The quality of pre-service preparation is more dependent on the programme’s structure and support than on the duration.(5) However, graduates of short duration programs (e.g., 2-10 weeks) will likely need substantially more in-service support than graduates of long duration programs (e.g., 2-5 years).(9)Coursework: Teachers’ knowledge of the subject(s) they teach is often correlated with their students’ achievement scores. Recent evidence from South Africa, for example, suggests students’ scores increase considerably when taught by teachers with higher knowledge of the subject.(19) It is therefore vital for pre-service teachers to develop deep knowledge of their content area. Courses about pedagogy are also vital. These courses are most effective when teacher educators demonstrate and implement varied pedagogical approaches in the courses, rather than merely lecture about pedagogy, which is common in many countries.(6)(11) Other important topics to be covered in pre-service teacher preparation include: classroom management, learning issues and special needs, assessment practices, and the use of technology in education. It is also vital for teachers to develop academic content-related fluency in the language of instruction.(7)(14) Singapore’s National Institute of Education goes beyond these considerations by emphasizing that the development of teachers’ knowledge and skills needs to wrap around a “central pillar” of three core ensembles of teacher values, focused respectively on the relationship with the learner, on teacher identity, and on service to the profession and community.Pedagogical content knowledge: Research about the balance of content and pedagogy coursework in teacher education is inconclusive.(17) Yet, the best pre-service programmes emphasize pedagogical content knowledge, which focuses on the question of “how to organize and present the content in a way that makes it accessible for increasingly diverse groups of learners.”(18)(4, p.5) Programmes build pedagogical content knowledge by giving detailed consideration to the question of how to teach a specific subject at a specific level—such as how to teach reading and language arts in early primary school or how to teach algebra and geometry in lower secondary school—in addition to reinforcing basic content knowledge and general pedagogical skills.(13)(19)Field Experiences: Field experiences such as internships and periods of teaching practice require pre-service teachers to observe and practice teaching in actual classrooms. The quality of field experiences varies greatly and depends on their structure, duration, sequence, and supervision by teacher educators. The duration of field experience in different programs varies from as little as nine weeks to as many as nine months or more.(16)(19) Some programmes have only one field experience while other have multiple. Research suggests that more experience in classrooms is better, although if only a short field experience is feasible, it may be supplemented by giving more support and guidance to new teachers. In some of the best programmes pre-service teachers spend earlier experiences primarily observing expert teachers and the remainder practicing how to teach. In addition, cohort models may provide the best support for pre-service teachers during teaching practice conducted in rural areas.(10) If field experiences only occur after or at the end of training, there are minimal opportunities for guidance and feedback about the teacher’s practice.(19) It is therefore important for field experiences to occur early and throughout the pre-service training in an integrated manner that compliments other courses.(11)Teacher Educators/Trainers: In some countries, teacher educators/trainers have little or no previous experience working as a teacher or supervising teachers. In addition, they often receive no induction or professional development programmes to ensure the quality of their instruction in the pre-service. These realities influence the quality of the courses in pre-service programmes, but strong support networks and training programmes for teacher educators/trainers themselves can significantly improve the overall quality of pre-service teacher training.(8) Inclusiveness and EquityTeaching in large, multi-level, and under-resourced classes: Teachers are more likely to feel confident and prepared to teach in large and under-resourced classes if they have training modules or courses on effective teaching methods for such contexts, such as using small groups and student pairs to enhance learning.(1)(3) In addition, some rural areas have multi-level classrooms due to low population density. Pre-service teachers who may teach in these schools should have training on how to adapt lesson plans for students of different ability levels, including how to develop materials for independent study that engage learners.(1)Teaching students with disabilities: Pre-service teacher preparation programmes in many countries lack a strong focus on how to diagnose and accommodate learning disabilities. Those that do address these issues, however, achieve better results nationally.(15)(19)Teaching with gender equity: In order to increase academic performance among girls, prevent gender-based violence, and implement a gender-sensitive curricula, modules or courses on gender-sensitive pedagogy are also crucial.(2)
The overall development status of every country depends upon the standard of education prevalent across that country. It is an era of knowledge based economies, and countries failing in education find it hard to catch up with the developed world. In other words a country’s economic and cultural future as well as its scientific and technological growth owe to the academic standards being maintained by the teachers in its educational institutions. Thus teachers’ contributions are well acknowledged as builders of the nation and molders of personalities. In fact the key player of every educational system is the teacher, who is considered the backbone of the entire system all over the world, and a pivot around which the whole education system revolves. Teacher is the major implementer of all educational reforms at the grass root level. Teaching without doubt is considered one of the very noble professions. It offers constant intellectual challenges, acknowledgement, respect in the society and above all the opportunity to mould the personalities of a big majority of youth. This centrality qualifies teachers to be the crucial position holders in creating impact on all aspects of students’ personalities. They are the teachers who bring about positive behavioural changes in students by grooming and developing their personalities. That is why it is necessary that they should be adequately equipped with skills and abilities that would enable them to play an effective role in human development both from national and global perspectives.
The Indian Education Commission 1964-66, as observed by Sheikh M.A (1998) had ranked the quality and competence of the teachers as the most important factor determining the quality of education significantly contributing to the national development. Nothing is more important than securing a sufficient supply of high quality recruits to the teaching profession, providing them with the best possible professional preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in which they can be fully effective.” However, this central position, demands great care and attention in the education and training of teachers, who develop and enable students meet effectively the challenges of present and future. Ascertaining the effectiveness of these trainings asks for the analysis of teacher education programs in the social context of every country socio economic, cultural and historic factors substantially influence its nature and value.