AIOU Course Code 8625-1 solved Assignments Spring 2022
AIOU Course Code 8625-1olved Assignments Spring 2022
Course: Higher Education (8625) Semester: Spring, 2022
Level: B.Ed. (2.5 and 1.5 Years)
Socio-economic development of e country depends upon higher education. Comment on the statement and provide relevant examples to support your views.
1) Create a Quality Workforce
The modern workplace is in a constant state of evolution. Even within the last decade, job roles and the skills required to succeed in them have changed enormously, with technological advancements being a key factor.
Personnel need to regularly evaluate their work-related skills and take opportunities for continued learning, which should be supported by their employers.
The higher education sector is pivotal in delivering training to people at all stages of their careers, from students and recent graduates to senior managers.
Accreditation at every level gives assurance to employers and allows employees to have concrete evidence of their career development. This, in turn, reduces staff turnover and improves job satisfaction leading to higher morale in the workplace.
Plus, skills training have an immensely positive impact on the wider economy. A well-trained, highly-skilled workforce is better prepared for the challenges and opportunities of the modern workplace. Staff with the right expertise work more efficiently and confidently than those struggling to keep up with the changing demands of their roles.Ultimately, a skilled workforce increases productivity, boosts output, and propels growth in the wider economy.
This outcome depends on high-quality and accessible continued training for the workplace. It’s an exciting new market for the higher education sector to move into, and one that has limitless potential for growth. Universities and other institutions already promote lifelong learning; driving excellence in professional education is just a natural progression.
2) Drive Innovation
A key role of higher education institutions is to drive innovation, with the aim of finding solutions to global challenges in areas that matter to society, such as healthcare, environmental protection, resource security, international development, and population trends.
Many of the greatest advances of recent years, including augmented reality, self-driving cars, combination therapies for HIV and cloud computing, were all born from research that took place at universities. Innovations certainly have high economic value, but they also enrich our health, work and impact us socially.
The wider economy benefits from university research and innovation as it drives investment both locally and globally, promote exports, and make the economy more balanced. An environment that promotes research also allows students to learn transferable skills that will help them succeed in the workplace, further strengthening the knowledge-based economy.
Research also directly impacts the wealth of an economy. For example, British universities contribute £95 billion to the country’s economy, Australian universities generate $25 billion, and Canadian universities create $55 billion. In the United States, technological advancements developed in universities and colleges have contributed $591 billion to the national GDP between 1996 and 2015 alone.
3) Increase Employability
Applicants are faced with a highly-competitive job market, in which their qualifications might not be enough to secure the kind of work they desire. As the economy moves further toward competency-based recruitment, with its focus on skills and experience over pure academics, graduates and established professionals must be armed with the tools they need to find and succeed at work.
Higher education institutions are critically important here. Universities should be proactive in arranging opportunities for current students to develop industrial expertise through work experience and internships. In addition, technological and workplace skills training should be taught adjacent to an academic curriculum. Further, it can be beneficial to offer mentoring opportunities to help prepare expectant graduates for a competitive job market.
Knowledge really is power, but it’s not just about formal academic qualifications. Broad employability skills help graduates give employers precisely what they need: technologically-minded workers who are flexible, organized, and resourceful.
In addition, universities are ideally-placed to offer employability training to people looking to change careers or apply for new roles, who need an update to their existing skills. Advanced courses for experienced professionals also represent an exciting intersection for higher education and industry.
4) Up skill Existing Workforces
As digitization changes the landscape for working professionals, higher education can provide them with the opportunity to enhance their existing knowledge and learn new skills. For employers, this has a positive impact on productivity, output, and staff morale. It also helps companies to drive efficiency and thus profitability.
Offering professional development opportunities to employees also allows companies to identify potential leaders for the future. Staff who are receptive to continuing education and express an interest in courses that fit into their long-term career plan are the ones to watch.
For businesses, this can provide assurance that future leaders are well-trained and fully-equipped to drive continued success.
5) Boost Graduate Earning Power
Graduates with the right knowledge and skills have the ability to demand higher salaries, as they are equipped to make significant contributions to the revenue and growth of the companies they work for.
Higher education institutions are crucial here.
As mentioned above, universities have a responsibility not only to provide academic instruction, but also to offer opportunities to learn skills for the workplace, gain industry experience, and benefit from mentoring. All graduates will be rightly proud of their academic achievements, but those who have used their time at university to prepare for life in the workplace will have a better chance of success in the highly-competitive job market and be in a stronger position to command higher pay or jump into their careers at a higher pay bracket.
Don’t forget that as part of the application process, prospective students and their parents look at metrics such as university league tables and future employment prospects when making decisions. Offering employability skills training helps universities attract diligent, forward-thinking students. In turn, these institutions will produce graduates that are ready to embark upon successful careers.
This feeds back into the rankings and employment prospects lists, strengthening the reputation of universities as both centers of innovation and places where the future of the economy is made.
6) Collaborate Between Education and Business
In the last decade, there has been substantial growth in the number of research deals between companies and universities.
Businesses, which have been reducing their spending on early-stage research for more than 30 years, have increasingly turned to universities to perform that role, as they provide access to the best scientific and engineering minds in specialized areas. Meanwhile, reduced government support of academic research has made universities more receptive to private investment and industrial collaboration.
There are also substantial benefits for wider society, thanks to advances in life sciences, communications, engineering, and more. In short, this kind of partnership has the potential to benefit all sides enormously.
Universities and companies both favor long-term collaboration over one-off contracts. A transactional model, whereby a lengthy period of negotiation prefaces each research project, is not desirable for either side. Instead, continuous connections are preferred, allowing ongoing early-stage research which can rapidly be transformed into commercially-viable products that contribute to economic growth.
It’s helpful for universities and their collaborative partners in industry to be geographically close in order to create research hubs that attract the best academics and continued industrial investment.
A crowning example of this concept is the relationship between Stanford University and Silicon Valley. Several of the most high-profile tech companies have their headquarters in the area, including Apple, Alphabet (the parent company of Google), Facebook, Twitter, Cisco, AMD, and Intel. This collaborative space has produced many of the most exciting technological innovations of recent times and provides an excellent precedent for alliances elsewhere.
7) Feed into a Knowledge-Based Economy
A knowledge-based economy is characterized by dependence on a highly-skilled, well-educated, and technically-minded workforce. It makes use of advancements in technology alongside intellectual capital to move away from material consumption and aim toward an economy built on knowledge and data.
The higher education sector is a natural partner to the knowledge-based economy. As the source of advanced learning and new information from research, universities help train the workforce of tomorrow while supporting the innovations of today.
Knowledge creation has been identified by economists as a key driver of economic growth. This is largely due to greater efficiency in various forms. Highly-skilled staff requires less supervision, are more productive, and add greater value.
Automation, one of the key features of the knowledge-based economy, removes the burden of some repetitive tasks, allowing staff to focus on the aspects of their work that requires their specialist skills the most. Automated processes also make manual tasks less labor-intensive, allowing businesses to expand their capacity without substantially larger staff costs.
The higher education sector can support all aspects of continuing education and take advantage of existing relationships, such as research agreements, to bring universities and businesses closer together.
Compare different modes applicable to the universities? Which mode do you think is the most appropriate in Pakistan and why?
Higher education institutions are classified according to whether they organise university or non-university provision. Those providing non-university education are further subdivided into centers which offer advanced vocational training cycles and specialised education institutions.
University education is provided by universities, which may be public or private.
Public universities are created and private universities are recognized through one of these two options:
- an Act passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Autonomous Community where the institution will be located, or
- an Act approved by the Spanish Parliament, at the proposal of the Government, in accordance with the Government Council of the relevant Autonomous Community.
A prior report from the General Assembly for University Policy is required in this process. To prepare this report, which will issue a favorable or unfavorable statement towards the creation or recognition of universities, compliance with the following basic requirements, established in Royal Decree 420/2015, of 29 May, is taken into account:
- Official degrees offered: at least a total of eight official Bachelor and Master’s degrees. This provision must be coherent within each branch of knowledge and as a whole. In order to prove that they meet this requirement, universities must submit a development plan of the degrees they offer for each branch of knowledge
- an appropriate research plan: to prove this requirement, universities must submit a multi annual programme of their research activity in the scientific areas that are related to the official degrees they are to provide
- a sufficient number of suitably qualified teaching and research staff:
- The total number of members of the teaching and research staff (on a full-time basis or the equivalent on a part-time basis) cannot be less than the one that results from applying 1/25 in relation to the total number of students enrolled in official university studies. The ratio can range from 1/50 to 1/100 in the case of distance education
- the teaching and research staff must be composed of at least:
- a 50% of Doctors in the case of studies leading to the award of a Bachelor degree
- a 70% of Doctors in the case of studies leading to the award of a Master’s degree
- a 100% of Doctors in the case of studies leading to the award of a PhD
- at least 60% of the total number of teachers must perform their duties on a full-time basis.
- adequate facilities, means and resources for the performance of their functions: teaching and research spaces, Resource Centre for Learning and Research (CRAI) and computer equipment
- an adequate organisation and structure: this must be reflected in the Statutes (in the case of public universities) or in the Organisational and Operational Rules (in private universities)
- ensure the provision of the service, as well as the continuation of their activities
- ensure that the Statutes, legal regime and Organisational and Operational Rules comply with both the law and the legal order.
The initiation of the activities of universities must be authorised by the relevant body of the Autonomous Community, after verification of compliance with the requirements for their creation or recognition. In addition, universities must apply for the institutional accreditation of their centers from the National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA) or, where appropriate, the body for external evaluation of the Autonomous Community.
They are integrated by University Schools, Faculties, Departments, and University Institutes for Research, Doctoral Colleges and by other schools or structures necessary for the development of their functions.
- University Schools and Faculties
They are the institutions responsible for the organisation of their studies and in charge of the academic, administrative and management processes that lead to the conferment of the different university degrees.
Their creation, modification and withdrawal, as well as the implementation and withdrawal of studies leading to the award of an official university degree and which is valid nationwide is agreed by the Autonomous Community to which the university belongs either through the Autonomous Community’s initiative with the agreement of the Government Council of the university, or through the university’s own initiative through a proposal of the Government Council. In both cases a previous favorable report by the Social Council is required.
They are teaching and research units in charge of:
- coordinating studies of one or more fields of knowledge in one or more university centres, according to the teaching programme of the university
- supporting teaching and research activities and initiatives of the teaching staff
- performing all other duties determind by their statutes.
The establishment, modification and withdrawal of departments correspond to the university, according to their statutes.
- University research institutes
Their activity focuses mainly on technical and scientific research and on artistic creation. These centres are also entitled to offer and implement PhD studies and programmes and postgraduate studies.
They can be created by one or more universities, or jointly with other public or private organisations by means of collaboration agreements or other means of cooperation.
Furthermore, universities can create joint research institutes, in cooperation with other public research bodies, with the National Health Service and with public or private non-profit research centres.
- Integrated higher education areas
Their creation is promoted by universities and public authorities.
They develop new channels of collaboration between the production sector, universities, vocational training institutions and other dependent bodies, so as to encourage business and scientific innovation.
They constitute the university campus which incorporates vocational training centres offering higher vocational training, whose professional families are related to the areas of specialization of the campus.
- Doctoral colleges
Their main objective is to organize PhD programmes into one or more interdisciplinary knowledge branches. They may also include official science-oriented Master programmes, as well as many other types of training activities in the area of research.
These colleges may be created by one or more universities, with the possible participation of other bodies, centres, institutions or national and international entities which carry out R&D&i activities.
- Public or private associated centres
They provide official studies.
The association is established by means of an agreement that has to be approved by the Autonomous Community: if the association is to a public university, it is done at the proposal of the Governing Council of the university, subject to a favourable report from its Social Council; if the association is to a private university, it is done at the proposal of the university.
They must be established within the territorial scope of the relevant Autonomous Community or count with the approval of the Autonomous Community where they are located. They must comply with the rules of the State and the Autonomous Communities, the joining agreement and their own organisational and operational rules.
Private universities and university institutions
They can be created by any individual or legal entity, provided that they respect the constitutional principles and abide by the State regulations and those of the Autonomous Communities. University private centres must be integrated into a private university as centres belonging to such university or they must be ascribed to a public or private university.
Private universities elaborate and approve their own organisation and functioning regulations, which must respect and guarantee, through a broad participation of the university community, the academic freedom manifested in the academic, research and study freedom.
In order to guarantee the quality of universities and university centres, a series of requirements are established, which both existing universities and newly created ones must comply with. Besides, the Autonomous Communities establish their own specific requirements within their territory. More information on Royal Decree 420/2015, of 29 May and on Organisation of private education.
Both public and private universities, together with university institutions, must be registered in the Register of Universities, Centres and Qualifications, which is actually a responsibility of the Ministry of Universities.
For the academic year 2019-20, data show that the Spanish university system comprises 83 universities:
- 50 public universities: 47 offering on-site teaching and 1 distance teaching. In addition, there are 2 public universities with a special status that only provide specialised postgraduate programmes (Master’s and PhD)
- 33 private universities: 28 on-site teaching and 5 distance teaching.
Source: Statistics from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, and the Ministry of Universities on the number of universities with activity by type and modality of the university.
Advanced Artistic Education
The type of studies pursued determines the centres in which they are taught:
- music and dance higher studies are carried out in conservatories or higher schools of music and dance
- drama studies, in performing arts higher schools
- conservation and restoration of cultural heritage studies, in higher schools of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage
- art studies in the corresponding specialised higher education institutions
- design higher studies in design higher schools.
Each Autonomous Community may agree with the universities in its territorial area formulas of collaboration for this type of studies.
In turn, the educational administrations may associate, by means of an agreement, centres of Advanced Artistic Education to universities and establish procedures to favour autonomy and facilitate the organisation and management of conservatories and higher schools. They must also promote agreements with universities for the organisation of doctoral studies.
Advanced Artistic Education institutions should also promote research programmes in their own disciplines.
Non university Education
Advanced vocational training
Higher level vocational training can be studied in:
- secondary education schools, which also provide compulsory secondary education and Bachillerato
- national reference centres
- Integrated vocational training centres.
For the academic year 2019-2020, in the whole country there was 2,477 centres teaching on-site advanced vocational training, of which 1,678 were public, 321 publicly-funded private and 478 private. As for distance Advanced vocational training, it was taught by 321 centres, of which 180 were public and 141 private. Some centers offer advanced vocational training both in on-site and distance. Source: Statistics from the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training on the number of centers that provide each education. More information on Number of Advanced vocational training centres according to ownership and percentage by Autonomous Community and on Organisation of the Education System and its Structure.
Regardless of public or private ownership, these institutions must comply with a series of minimum requirements.
- those related to the spaces established in each degree regulation
- those related to the equipment set up by educational administrations to achieve the learning outcomes of each vocational module.
More information on Organisation of private education.
Plastic Arts and Design Advanced Vocational Education
These studies can be pursued in:
- public schools: integrated vocational schools, art schools, art and design colleges and secondary education institutes
- private institutions (both associated or not): specific vocational training, secondary education, plastic arts and design and various specialised establishments.
Advanced Vocational Education in Sports
These studies can be pursued in:
- public schools: sports schools, integrated vocational schools, secondary schools and vocational schools
- Private institutions (both associated or not): sports schools, specific vocational training, integrated vocational training and various specialised establishments.
Comparatively discuss the provision of Higher Education in the National Policy 1998-2010 and National Education Policy 2009.
According to the constitution of 1973
- All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.
- There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.
- Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.
For the normal and non-lawyer persons there is no relation in this article and its sub-clause with “EP” but for law fraternity it has impact that might be left on whole state policy. Especially where according to law and constitution we donot discriminate among students and institution on the basis of sex, gender, and cast.
Justice “Muhammad Nassem chuhdry” in his famous commentary of constitution of 1973stated that:
“Educational institution Allegation of discrimination in making of answer books by specified papers to appear in court on fixed date of hearing along with answer book of all other examinees marked by them .Validity leave to appeal was granted to examine whether high court was right in summoning examines as well as the answer books to find out if they had been corrected making.”
“Reasonable classification has always been considered permissible ,provided that such classification is based on reasonable and rational categorization .such classification must not be arbitrary or artificial, it must be evenly applicable to all persons or goods similarly situated or placed” (justice m.naseem chuhdry 1973 const /p-89)
And the other article of constitution that cast shadow over educational policy is Article-31, with article 31, we have one other article that is 227 that also stress on Islamic sharia applicability over the whole system of state.
So in the process of making E-policy ,publishing E-policy, propagating E-policy, while preparing for curriculum ,we drive not only light and guide ness from constitution generally and “objective Especially” but also we take guide ness from Islamic sharia .
According to the constitution “No law will be made by legislature that is contradictory and against the Islamic ideologies” so this article clearly makes link with educational policy of state.
Pakistan is a federal Islamic cum parliamentary state by the faith of country law and Regulation, even though researcher such As “Dr.poly dada” said that Pakistan is not an Islamic state but it’s a state of Muslims”. But majority believes that it’s an Islamic state.
This is the point that left lot of flaw and gap while making and implementing state Educational policy.
Pakistani educational system has converted and splitted in class education such like. Upper class school, upper middle school, lower middle school, lower private schools and maddarsahs based system run by wafaq-ul madaris and tanzeem-ul-madarees.and government yellow wall schools.
And higher education is also seems devided in same pattern, till yet 3 major educational policies, reformation and, recommendation has been made that are coming below.
- Policy presented by justice S.M.Shareef on the 26 August of 1959.
- the Educational policy and reformation that was made by the Z.A.bhutto made commission on the 15, March of 1972.
- The educational policy made for the period of 1998 till 2010 .
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010
Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered.
Literacy and Non-Formal Education
Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.
About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system.
Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.
One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.
To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created.
Technical and Vocational Education
To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.
Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split PhD programs shall be launched in collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.
Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc
Library and Documentation Services
School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.
Private Sector in Education
Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.
The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.
Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation
A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for collecting data from all over the country.
If you will go through the Education policy of Pakistan from 1998 to 2010 you would have to know that the policy is just consist on 15 points. And whole theme of policy move around these 15 points.
So in the very first Aim and objective point we may find there that “Education and Training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teaching of Islam as laid down in the quran and sunnah and to Educate, to train them as a true plasticizing Muslims .These lines are not a new lines lined by the policy makers, we continuously keep on reading all these stuff for previous 60 years from the Mouth of government and policy makers. And again the policy proved that it has been unsuccessful what are the reasons? And what is the logic behind it? We don’t have an enough time and space to discuss here the answer may be asked to educators.
As clearly the clash between the deeni madersah students and modern school and institutions students is going on and fight is being on in fata, and tribal Agencies, and again the battle among the Mr. and Mullah is being fought due to un-unified, non-logic, non centralized policy. gap and gulf between these both educational systems is clear to every body.
Now we turn our selves to the 2nd point where our policy makers shown there dream to achieve the 70% literacy rate from 39% till 70%.and it clearly seems us impossible ,even though the project such as in province Punjab like “parha likha” Punjab didn’t reach to the zenith .Basically they need sincerity,professionalism,and hard working .in the statement of policy makers where they displayed their concern over education through the policy that till 2010 disparities in basic education that will be reduce to half by year 2010.
Policy makers in their 3rd stage relate it to the elementary education, and here they explained that they till the 2002-3. 90% of the age of 5-9 will be enrolled in elementary education .they will also revise the curriculum and stress will be given to teachers training, and improvement in the management and supervision system will be made, and same formula will be apply to the existing examination and assessment system.
After the elementary stage we have now the secondary education, the unique stuff in the secondary stage is that, it insisted that there shall be one model school that will be setup in the district level and the participation level rate will be increased from 31 % to 48% by 2002-03.one sharp feature of this stage is about the Technical Education that will will be made to the part of secondary education and curricula will be updated for particular task. Multiple text books will be introduced at secondary school level.
One of the novel things in the policy is about training of secondary teachers through workshops and refreshment cources.Both the formal and non means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers.
The commission also gave importance to the technical and vocational education in country for producing trained manpower. But we see that the Government has been unsuccessful while chasing target. Reasons are several and they cant be throughly explained. Basic the commission failed to recognized that where world is going on? and on what lines the Asian tigers working? ,as usual ,few discipline in science and technologies were given importance. Telecommunication progress mean the advancement in service sector of telecom . No technology related to matter has been transferred to Pakistan and no assistance to universities provided as compare to china, India and Malaysia ,where not only micro processors and hardwares are being assembled but also technologies has been also provided to these particular countries.
Even though the most progressive technical industry of Pakistan that is Automobiles have not been provided fully assistance and technology to local market. The main CEO is pertaining to manufacturing country. No collaboration to any technical and engineering university has been made.
Increasing fuel prices and high rise car price stresses the manufacture to manufacture the nano car for common man as have been done in India by Tata group. Where local universities and foreign collaboration made it happen. I think our policy makers are not technical they just makes policy for groups and classes and for their own sake.
Higher education stage:
Three major successful and last stages are implementation of policy about the HE and HEC, and also they stressed the need to develop the information technology structure or the library and documentation structure to safe Your heritage and archives.
They are claimed to be competively successful phases for the policy makers and government all because of “Dr Ata-ul-rehamn” self interest. HEC a successor of university grant commission in his guidance lead this phase in right direction. And throughout they enhanced the standard of Higher education .That worked for producing quality scholars; PhD’s and they also worked to ban plagiarism.
This stage insist that “access to the Higher Education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010.Merit shall be the only criterion for entry to the higher Education .
Degree colleges shall have to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for Examinination and award for degrees”
The Novelty in this programme is that the split-PhD programme has been created through this programme 100 researcher and desirous student will be sent to international university and institutions. And annually we will have a trained upgraded researchers, scholars to assist our Higher education system and standard will be only merit. I have confirmed this many of The persons from HEC about it, and they accepted that HEC is the most reputable professional institute in this country, but few complained have been received that few eligible low status student were not selected, this is a sad thing and only God know that How much it keeps Reality.
In information Technology stage HEC tried to make PCs common, to common people. And used PCs were imported in country at very low price. Few year of the policy announcement no tax was imposed on computer hardwares.networking, bandwith low rate, intranet culture was developed here to make information easy and accessible .that’s why in elementary and secondary level computer classes were conducted, IT course was included in the curriculum .
Policy makers in policy making stressed and took initiative that the setting up of private institution in country will be encourage .and powers for education will flow fro central to district level.
Q.4 What are different function of universities? Elaborate the nature and need of important function of university with the help of examples in Pakistan context.
It is commonly perceived that education is the most powerful weapon in alleviating poverty, elevating economic growth, producing skilled human resource, creating a healthy and enlightened social environment and making self-sufficient nations. Poverty and education are paradoxically related to each other: if one is improved, the other is decreased.
In a socially, economically, religiously and culturally diverse state like Pakistan, higher education institutions and universities, imparting education and conducting cutting edge research, are the central mechanisms that can raise the declining social and economic infrastructure of the country. Since the 2000s, there has been rapid growth in these institutions and universities across Pakistan as is evident from the sharp rise in their numbers from just 32 in 2001 to 160 at present.
Pakistan, despite rapid growth in the education sector during the past decade, suffers from severe challenges in its educational development. These challenges include lack of access to higher education for the majority of its youth, results oriented standards of pedagogical techniques, brain drain of qualified human resource and lack of adaptability to changing paradigms of academic research. Out of a population of 190 million, only five percent of them have access to university level education. It is worth mentioning that, by the end of 2022, Pakistan needs 36 million new jobs if the economy grows up to six percent annually. Therefore, it is the premier duty of all national universities to produce graduates who fulfill the criteria of the national, social and economic needs of the country. In this regard, the role of career counseling and placement offices at the university level becomes very important.
In the 21st century, the paradigm of universities has shifted from traditional aspects of teaching and learning towards building communities, economies and patterns of leadership. Education, either basic or higher, plays a key role in the development of human capital that subsequently brings about the establishment of sound economies and harmonious communities. There is an immediate need to initiate radical educational reforms so that these challenges can be addressed proactively. The following is an exercise in this regard.
To begin with, the ministry of education, ministry of finance, planning commission, standing committees on basic and technical education and the higher education commission of Pakistan should assist these universities, both public and private, in establishing on-campus university-community partnership centres. These centres should work on the pattern of think tanks and should devise mechanisms to address dominant social problems, prepare modules and schemes for the outreach of educational facilities and bridging linkages with communities for sharing of knowledge. Secondly, since Pakistan is a traditional society with different demographical characteristics, whereby more than 30 percent of the population lives below the poverty line, and more than 600,000 young graduates are adding to unemployment every year, these higher learning institutions and universities should develop terms of reference (ToRs) to provide financial assistance to talented individuals who otherwise cannot afford university education.
Thirdly, to streamline and ensure effective utilisation of public funds allocated for development of higher education in Pakistan by the concerned commissions and universities, the concerned ministries and planning commissions should primarily focus on building grass-root level education in primary schools, especially in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Fourth, universities should focus on creating an entrepreneurial culture among their graduates. They should produce job creators rather than producing job seekers. This can be attained through the establishment of effective business incubation centres, encouraging partnerships between industry and academia and placing career counselling offices that should work on intellectual and professional development of the graduates during the course of their studies in order to prepare them today for the challenges of tomorrow.
Fifth, education never means to earn; it means to spend. The best way to spend is spending on education and research that later on addresses the social, political, environmental and economic problems of Pakistan. Universities can play a vital role in this regard through fostering reciprocal partnerships with other educational organisations and community development centres to identify real life problems. Community development participation should be made mandatory for teachers and students at the university level. If the prestigious Australian Endeavour Award can assign 35 percent of its total evaluation marks towards the contribution of individual applicants towards community services than why can students at our universities in Pakistan not be prepared on similar lines? Moreover, since Pakistan has always been a victim of natural calamities such as floods and earthquakes, it will be beneficial if various emergency training programmes and courses related to disaster management are incorporated in the curriculum.
Last but not least, the role of university managers and leaders is very crucial in steering our universities in the right direction. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HECP) can, for example, initiate university leadership and administration programmes for capacity building of university administrators in collaboration with top ranking educational schools around the world. Popenici rightly said that “an institution is not a sum of disciplined ‘soldiers’ working on the assembly line designed to deliver skills for a set of jobs (that may be gone when students graduate). A university is responsible to develop the whole thinking person, to expand horizons and instill the love for learning in individuals and build democratic citizenship with engaged and informed citizens who have the power to make democracy work. A university is also asked to cultivate imagination and creativity, defend civilisation and create new knowledge, act as a forum where free and responsible minds can ‘question the unquestionable’ for the benefit of our societies. Universities have the power to provide innovative solutions, but when tools of a successful army are used in this institution, results are equal to those imagined if we promote debate groups for soldiers when they are in the line of fire.”
In summary, it can safely be concluded that the development of societies and economies is interlinked with the growth of education. It is the order of the day that quality of education at every stage be improved to help lay a solid foundation for the advancement of studies in basic sciences, engineering disciplines, agriculture extension, medical and some other important areas that are needed for the economic growth and reconstruction of Pakistan. As the report published by Credit Suisse in February 2013 indicates, “The rising trend of youth unemployment around the world threatens not just current economic growth but also political stability and the potential demographic dividend.” As a result, universities now have to re-think and re-design their policies for the uplift of the socio-economic situation in Pakistan. Without quality education that critically prepares a young mind to face and provide solutions to varied types of problems, Pakistan or any other developing state will only suffer socio-economically, politically and strategically.
Universiities provide many services and opportunities to students. But in my opinion a university has two finctions, one universal and one slightly more specialized.
The first function is education, training in careers, training in morality, training in culture and socialization. Only the first of these objectives will be without doubt stated in the college catalog but all are there to a greater or lesser degree. The mission of the university is to fit the student for a place in society on both a professional and personal basis. This is generally what is expected of a school by society, parents and students.
The second function of a university is to provide networking. This ranges from allowing chances to make friends to connecting the student to those in his or her social class and professional field that will be an aid to success in life. The availability of this service often depends on social and class factors. Usually, this means the wealthier the individual or the family is the more important this function is to him or her and the more availabile it is to them. Monied individuals tend to go to more prestigious educational institutions as will many others of the same or higher social class. The connections made can be very important in future career success and availability of social opportunities. Those students with less money and social class have fewer opportunities but those opportunities are still there. They just require more effort and awareness on the part of the student.
I call this second function more specialized because it is seldom bluntly stated by the university. The catalog and other sources of information may talk about the opportunity to make lasting friendships but I have never heard of a school baldly stating that they offer the student the chance to meet those who can do a lot to make them rich and successful. Those from the upper strata will have already learned this from family and friends and is often the reason they seek entry into those prestigious institutions. The rest of us have to figure this out more or less on our own and do a lot of hustling. It is certainly not impossible to make such connections at any university but you would have to look for them and work harder for them.
Should these be the functions of a university? I believe the first function is required. That is what most of us go to school for. The second function is going to happen whether the university desires it to be so or not. Humans are social animals and most of us are ambitious. The student is put in a situation where he or she can meet and interact with all types of people. Some of them will have connections most of us can only dream about. Whether the student takes advantage of those opportunities will be the student’s decision. When and if the student attempts to do so his or her education will almost certainly be furthered.
Q.5 Discuss higher education system in United Kingdom. How this system of education is different from system of higher education in Japan?
The UK’s academic reputation is world-renowned. Built on a heritage that is now centuries old, our approach to education applies the very latest learning theory through universities that routinely top international tables. Our innovative teaching methods produce successful, versatile graduates who are sought-after by employers around the world.
UK universities have featured strongly in world rankings ever since they began. In 2021 the Times Higher Education World Rankings honoured us with two of the world’s top ten universities, including the world’s top university – the University of Oxford . This high quality can be found right across the country, with seven of the top 50, and 26 of the top 200 universities found here in the UK.
Quality that’s government-guaranteed
The UK’s 162 higher education institutions are all held to strict standards by the government, so you know you are getting the best teaching, support and resources available.
A full list of ‘recognised bodies’ – universities and colleges that can award degrees – is published every year, to make it easy for students to see the comparative quality on offer up and down the country – and ensure they’re qualification will have credibility overseas.
The Register of Regulated Qualifications contains details of Recognised Awarding Organisations and Regulated Qualifications in England (Ofqual), Wales (Welsh Government) and Northern Ireland (Ofqual for vocational qualifications and CCEA Accreditation for all other qualifications). For Scottish qualifications, please visit the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework website.
Innovative teaching methods
Our universities combine traditional lectures with a variety of innovative teaching techniques, designed to encourage independent thinking, problem-solving skills and self-motivation. You will be working in small groups solving real-life problems from your future career, whether in the classroom, the lab or on field trips.
You will have access to leading technology, from state-of-the-art laboratories to interactive screens and online-learning.
You will have an opportunity to learn from the very best in your field: many teachers in UK universities are industry leaders in their field, and you will have one-to-one access to them where you will be able to learn from their vast experience. Our institutions also cultivate industry relationships, allowing you to get practical experience in your field within world-leading organisations, and make connections to give your career an edge.
The consistently high quality of education in the UK has made us a firm favourite with international students all over the world, and helped to keep us at the forefront of global research.
We’re ranked second in the world for science and research and 54 per cent of our output is world-leading. Our field-weighted citation impact is higher than the US, Canada, Germany, Japan and Brazil, so when you study here you can be sure you’ll be working alongside some of the best minds – and using some of the best technology- in the world.
The Japanese higher education system is a very powerful tool for their national politics and culture. The Academic accomplishments of the students studying in Japan are higher and befitted the international criteria and standards. The general policy, management and administration are under the authority of the Ministry of Education.
The Japanese Government has the authority to sanction the formation of all new higher education institutions, both private and public. The finances of Universities, Junior Colleges, Specialised Colleges, Graduate Schools and College of Technology come under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education or Monbusho. It also lays down the minimum standards for universities with regard to curriculum, facilities, qualification and number of teachers. Many institutions can exercise autonomy in many issues, but the Ministry of Education (Monbusho) keeps hold of the main influence over the growth and development of higher education in Japan.
The higher education in Japan begins after the completion of 12 years of education comprising, 6 years of elementary education and 6 years of secondary education (lower and upper secondary schooling). The students graduating from High school are eligible to go for higher education in Japan. Around 45% students from high school opt for higher education.
Japan Higher Education: Timeline
The Japanese transformed their higher education system by adapting and acquiring useful and valuable information and technology from different education systems. The educational culture of Japan is established on the Shinto, Buddhism and Confucianism philosophy. During the 19th-20th century, three major reforms were introduced in the field of education in Japan, which contributed to individual work of students, as well as originality, individuality and internationalization of education. Equality in education is one of the modern educational norms of Japan
Higher Educational Facts and Figures
Japan’s educational system is in a top position in terms of quality and performance. The average student scored 540 in reading literacy, maths and science in the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which is higher than the OECD average of 497, making Japan one of the top OECD country in students’ ability and skills.
Approximately 70% of students who graduate from high school go for higher education studies, thereby making Japan one of the most educated nation in the globe.