AIOU Course Code 8618-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022

AIOU Course Code 8618-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022

Course: School Leadership (8618)                                    Semester: Spring, 2022

Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years)                                                                                                       



Assignment No.2

Q.1   How a leader can set common goals? Do you think that Crafting of Goal impact on leadership discuss in detail?                                                                                                               


These leadership goal examples will include ways to develop your emotional and mental wellbeing in the office.

  1. Become More Adaptable to Change

Great leaders have to be prepared for anything, especially with the constant churn of the business world. Though adaptability can be difficult to practice, learning to go (and grow) with the flow is an important business skill. This will help keep your team focused and confident in the face of change while making sure your eyes remain on your overarching career goals.

In order to be more adaptable, great leaders should always have backup plans, create support systems around the office, and not get attached to a specific strategy. Practice mindfulness, positivity, and creativity to keep your cool if changes do occur.

SMART goal example: Enroll yourself in one mindfulness course per quarter to practice adaptability, empathy, and calm.

  1. Learn to Listen

The greatest leaders are often the best listeners, though listening doesn’t always just mean hearing what someone is saying. On a typical business day, 45% of the day is spent listening but most humans only listen at a 25% comprehension rate.

Great leaders practice active listening, which means taking intentional steps to comprehend and digest what is being said. This will help you know what is going on around the office, which members of their team have certain skills, and personal conflicts in their team’s lives that could impact business.

SMART goal example: Schedule meetings with at least one of your direct reports per week to practice active listening.

  1. Focus on Building Relationships

The best leaders often have strong relationships with their team members. Building relationships with your team members forms a sense of trust and allows you to learn their personal strengths and weaknesses.

Strong bonds between a boss and an employee can also foster trust, fun, and inclusiveness in the office. Rather than being the boss that sits in their office all day, be intentional about chatting with your team and making them feel valued.

SMART goal example: Schedule one employee outing, meeting, or group lunch per month to focus on togetherness and relationship building.

  1. Be More Open-Minded

Different team members will have different perspectives, viewpoints, and ideas for the business. Though some might seem unconventional, taking the time to listen to and consider your team’s thoughts can actually end up helping your business grow and thrive. Become more open-minded about how to run your business, talk to your employees, and complete your goals.

SMART goal example: Aim for a 75% “yes” rate on an anonymous survey asking your employees if they feel valued and heard in the office.

  1. Learn to Take Constructive Criticism

Great leaders know how to take constructive criticism, which helps them become even better at their job. In a study by LinkedIn, 92% of people said that constructive criticism is effective at improving performance. When a leader is given upward feedback, specifically from their team, they can make tangible and relevant improvements to their workplace’s day-to-day, boosting morale and performance.

SMART goal example: Increase the number of employees who provide upward feedback by 20%, showing your employees are comfortable doing so.

  1. Practice Confidence

A little bit of confidence can inspire your team to follow you while helping you make smart decisions. Teams are more likely to follow confident leaders. But don’t fret if you struggle to act or feel confident: You can work on building confidence by repeating mantras to yourself, making lists of your strong managerial qualities, and practicing mindfulness.

SMART goal example: Make a list of five of your strengths or work wins per week in a personal journal or digital document.


Transformational leaders are expected to challenge their followers to take greater ownership of their work, allowing the leader to align followers with tasks that enhance their performance. In the present study, we hypothesize that transformational leadership is positively related to followers’ job-crafting behaviour – proactive behaviour aimed at optimizing job demands and job resources. Moreover, we argue that followers’ promotion focus (i.e. being driven by growth and development needs) positively moderates this relationship. Data were collected from 107 employees from Norwegian knowledge-based organizations (response = 93.2%). Participants responded to a general questionnaire and five daily diary questionnaires (total N = 535 occasions). The results of multilevel analyses revealed partial support for our hypotheses. Followers’ day-level perception of their leader’s transformational behaviour was positively related to followers’ day-level job crafting in the form of increasing structural and social resources. Moreover, daily transformational leadership was particularly beneficial for job crafting when followers scored high (vs. low) on the trait promotion focus. We conclude that transformational leaders can encourage their followers’ use of job crafting, and that employees’ promotion focus facilitates this effect.


Q.2   Describe how empathy skills makes great leader? Also discuss today technical skills important for skilled leaders.    



Empathy also cultivates a greater presence in your leadership role. Juggling responsibilities can be difficult and distracting, so demonstrating empathy allows you to increase your attentiveness and teach you how to be patient. If you’re able to demonstrate empathy, people will feel safe talking to you



What are the core leadership competencies that distinguish a great leader from a good manager? Communication, delegation and the ability to motivate others are likely to be skills that come to mind. But an often overlooked – and underestimated – quality of a truly effective leader is their ability to demonstrate empathy.


So what makes empathy an important part of exceptional leadership?


“At the core leadership is ultimately about others. It means inspiring them to take actions beyond their capabilities, leading them in a direction that is compelling and inspiring. And empathy is the foundation of those actions.”


Understanding Empathy

First, it’s important to understand what empathy is and what it means. Put simply, empathy means being able to understand the needs of others. Empathy requires an awareness of other people’s feelings. In the context of leadership, it means you have to consider the emotional impact of someone’s work – not just measurable indicators of their performance, like KPIs.


Demonstrating empathy is what sets great leaders apart, which requires you to respond in a way that is understanding of someone’s needs. In other words, great leaders aren’t only understanding of other people’s needs, they’re respectful of them.


Demonstrating Empathy

There are 3 inherent qualities of empathetic leaders. While empathy can be difficult to master, the following are the foundational characteristics of an empathetic leader.


  1. Good Listener

A good listener is attentive, which is not to be confused with talkative. When someone is speaking, a good listener will offer their full attention. A good listener makes eye contact and removes any distractions (like email or phone calls) to allow that person to speak uninterrupted.


  1. Nonjudgmental

The second quality of an empathetic leader is their ability to listen without casting judgment. Empathy is not about agreeing, nor is it about disagreeing. It’s merely about understanding.


  1. Emotional intelligence

While being nonjudgmental is about listening unconditionally, emotional intelligence is about stepping back from emotions and seeing things how they really are. Emotional intelligence is important because it allows you to cultivate meaningful insight into someone else’s situation. It means you are able to respond from a place of sincerity.


The Importance of Empathy

There are several reasons that make empathy a core competency for truly effective leaders:



Being able to demonstrate empathy creates trust within your team. Trust creates an empowering, honest relationship with your colleagues. In turn, this will increase collaboration and productivity, but most importantly your team will be assured that their feelings are being taken care of.



Empathy also cultivates a greater presence in your leadership role. Juggling responsibilities can be difficult and distracting, so demonstrating empathy allows you to increase your attentiveness and teach you how to be patient.




Q.3   In your opinion, what factors effect leadership? Discuss factors which effect successful change management in detail.                                                                                              


Six Dominant Leadership Styles

Before a leader can understand the various influences on leadership style, it is important to understand the styles that exist. A coercive style is an all-or-nothing approach in which it’s either “my way or the highway.” An authoritative style makes it clear who the boss is but has room for flexibility. The affiliative style wants the work environment to feel like a community where everyone, including the leader, feels included, according to Southeastern University.

Democratic styles of leadership have the leader constantly asking what subordinates think about goals, processes and potential issues. The coaching style takes on a mentoring approach, constantly helping subordinates try new things. The pacesetter leads by example and is often the first in the office and last out with the highest levels of production.

The Influence of the Leader’s Personality

Internal factors that influence management styles include all aspects of personality. A competitive person is inclined to become a pacesetter, trying to show the team that high-levels of output are possible. A leader who feels that he does his part by paying salaries and expects employees to produce or get out tends to lean more toward a coercive leadership style.

Assessing dominant leadership styles is important to determine when to alter the style. To describe the factors that will influence the choice of leadership styles of behaviors in workplace situations, it is important to examine yourself in your interactions with your organization.

The Influence of the Leader’s Mentoring

How the leader was mentored could affect his leadership style. A manager who comes up through the ranks of the company in a coaching environment with a mentor who took him to meetings or reviewed calls and appointments for ways to improve may approach his team in the same manner. If that same manager was cultivated in a more democratic environment where management sought the opinions of the team, the manager might see this as the key to success, since it was a key to his rise to leadership.

Employees’ Personalities and Responses to Leadership Styles

Not everyone responds to leadership styles in the same way. Someone who is timid might be overwhelmed by a coercive or even a pacesetting leader. This person might constantly wonder if his job is in jeopardy or feel he will never be able to measure up to the greatness shown by the pacesetter.

Business leaders have started employing personality tests for both managers and employees to understand better how they mix. This way managers can understand things like how a competitive employee should be pushed in peer comparisons to find his highest levels of success.

Types of Task Requiring Different Leadership Styles

Some tasks require a certain type of leadership style, says Forbes. It doesn’t behoove a manager to take on a democratic leadership style if he is conducting a meeting for insubordination with an employee. He may need to use a coercive style depending on the severity of the infraction.

While the democratic or affiliative approaches may work for brainstorming and creative tasks, these could hinder the leader from establishing a clear vision and direction for the company. This situation would benefit from an authoritative approach.

Managers should look at the normal tasks of daily operation and determine what styles work best for what situations and develop methods and processes that can be implemented to alter dominant leadership qualities.

Businesses change – it’s the nature of a competitive marketplace. Regardless of the industry in which an organisation operates, at some point it will likely have to undergo some level of change in order to position itself as a market leader. Change management in business can be a complicated issue, as most, if not all of us, have had to combat to some extent in the past two years due to the pandemic. Major adjustments to the way in which a business operates or provides its products and services must be carefully managed.

There are several different ways to manage change in the workplace – but here are just a few key tips that the experts would recommend if you’re looking to lead your business through a change process.


Before undertaking any change, a business needs to have a clear and valid reason and mission for the change process. Make sure any undertaking, no matter its size or impact, is realistic, measurable and achievable – there is no use in creating a difficult situation if there is no significant gain to be made for the organisation or its stakeholders.

Start with the end in mind – make plans according to your overall goals, and ensure that all staff are also able to see exactly where an organisation is heading throughout a change process. A solid direction makes employees more likely to accept and embrace changes.


The most important factor in changing anything within a business, small or large, is to communicate the change, and its many factors, to the key stakeholders within the organisation – staff, first and foremost, but also outside stakeholders like shareholders and consumers.

There is no perfect or fool-proof way to communicate change within a business setting. But there are a few rules to remember, such as:

  • Keep it simple – avoid using unnecessary jargon and buzz phrases. Make it clear to staff and stakeholders what it is that will change in their day-to-day involvement with the business.
  • Be open and prompt – if announcements are delayed, the likelihood of incorrect rumours or leaks rises. Ensure that all staff are able to access information from a reliable and valid source.
  • Monitor quantity vs. quality – the old adage “you can’t communicate too much” is often found in business, but it’s important to ensure that whatever is communicated to staff is substantial and of interest to the audience. Insignificant information is just likely to frustrate an organisation’s employees and stakeholders.
  • Open communication channels – ensure that all stakeholders have several avenues where they can ask questions, voice concerns or make recommendations. Make the leadership team available and present.






Q.4   What is the difference between teleconferencing and video conferencing. Discuss Technological resources in detail.   


Online Video Conferencing and Teleconferencing are quite different from each other on multiple levels.  Though both are ultimately used for online business meeting, these differences give one an edge over the other, though both have their plus points.

To help you choose, here are some of the major differences between video conferencing and teleconferencing:

1) Audio or Visual

Video conferencing, as the name suggests, allows people to see each other as well as hear each other. Teleconferencing, on the other hand, only has audio. You can pick one depending on the kind of conference you need to have. Both video conferencing and teleconferencing have their pros and cons.

2) Participation

Teleconferencing allows you to be a part of a virtual meeting even while you’re on the move. As for Web Video Conferencing, one cannot participate in such a conference while traveling as other participants can see your surroundings. If you do participate in a video conferencing while traveling, not only is it disrespectful, it can also prove to be distracting to the people on the video call with you.

3) Number of Participants

More people can participate in a video conference than in a teleconference. In a teleconference, if there are more than a handful of people, things become a lot more chaotic. They are more useful for smaller groups and quicker discussions. However, in a video conference, people are able to stay more disciplined. This is because of certain video meeting tools that are offered by Zoom. These tools split the screen for multiple participants, while automatically focusing on the one speaking. Participants can also mute themselves if they aren’t speaking reducing the amount of chaos that is caused.

4) Convenience

In video conferences through zoom, participants can also be divided into Zoom rooms, where a smaller group can discuss topics effectively or even discuss different things. This creates space for lengthier, more effective discussion and brainstorming. However, this is not possible with teleconferencing as conference calls allow only for one main group.

5) Effectiveness and support

Zoom video conferencing technology also makes sharing presentations, data and reports easier through features like screen sharing and interactive whiteboards along with other collaboration tools while being on the video call. This makes it much easier for people to be on the same page, figuratively and literally. In teleconferencing, you have to be a little more old-fashioned with a separate device or a paper file with the information in front of you. While both types of virtual business meetings are effective, video conferences allow you to have visual support for your information in a more convenient manner.




Q.5   Write short notes on the following:                                                          (20)




  1. Public Relations Strategy


What is a PR strategy? A PR strategy is used to help your business organize its public relations (or media relations) activities and make strategic decisions about the best way to communicate with its target audience



What is a PR strategy?

A PR strategy is used to help your business organize its public relations (or media relations) activities and make strategic decisions about the best way to communicate with its target audience. The development and implementation of a PR strategy can assist brands in not only generating interest from the press in their products or services but also help to organize the many stories brands have that resonate with their diverse audiences. If a strategy is implemented well, it will serve as a tool to help manage the public perception of an organization.

Why is it important?

PR or “earned media” can be used to drive website traffic, engage and connect with target audiences, make connections within the community, and promote brands in a more organic way that people trust. Utilizing media outlets in this way is important for attracting more potential customers or clients while creating brand awareness.

And, with a solid PR strategy in place, business goals and activities are easier to share with target audiences. The strategy directs [an often multichannel] approach to communicating the main message, which assists in maximizing efforts and generating awareness. This influences branding and marketing as well as an organization’s perception during a crisis because brands that succeed in sharing their goals and wins on a regular basis are more likely to be seen in a positive light even when experiencing a setback.

So, how do you create a strategy?

Ultimately, a PR strategy is created through storytelling. This is your chance to tell your audience about who you are, what you do, and why you should matter to them. Every story should lead back to the “why” of your business. Why are you doing what you’re doing? Why should people care? After considering your “why”, the most important thing to do is to set your end goal.

1. Start with a goal

Initiating a PR strategy without the end game in mind can be problematic, especially for sales-driven companies with very tangible quarterly and annual revenue goals. These goals can be quantitative or qualitative in nature, depending on what is the most reasonable way to measure your success.

Regardless of the nature of the goal, keep in mind it should be specific, measurable and assign a deadline for evaluation. A popular goal-setting equation to consider is “To get from ________ to ________ by ________ (date).”

2. Confirm audiences

Different audiences tend to spend time in different places. Consider the target audience for Brand A, a popular coffee shop predominantly found in college towns across the United States. Brand A focuses their PR efforts with online media like BuzzFeed because it is targeting college-age men and women who spend the majority of their free time on their mobile device. By confirming the audience, PR pros can better identify targeted media outlets, which will pave the way for more targeted pitches and interesting stories to share.

3. Tell a compelling story

With the audience and targeted media outlets defined, communicators can more easily determine [and share!] the brand’s story. The story should include key messages that are tied back to the brand’s values and mission as well as to the reputation the brand either already has or aspires to achieve through the PR strategy. Consider building a newsroom that incorporates each of the key messages for the target audience into bite-sized or easy to skim articles with the intention of capturing website visitors and encouraging longer website visits and multiple page views.

Remember, it’s not enough to say who or what the brand is, but the brand must act on its assertions and live out its values outside of articles and news releases. When the sentiment of an article is mirrored on ratings and reviews or social updates, it begins to become truth in the eyes of the consumer. In general, consumers can tell when brands are not authentic or do not live up to their brand values. So, put your money where your mouth is and be who you say you are — or expect to be outed on social media faster than you can tweet an apology.

4. Get creative

Today’s consumer receives their news and content from a multitude of sources including social media, blogs, and podcasts. A good PR strategy extends beyond the reach of traditional journalism and courts target audiences where they are already going to get their information.

But, at its heart, a solid PR strategy still relies on the development of relationships between the PR pro (brand voice) and the media contact (amplifier). Whether working with a small market fashion blogger or a reporter from The New York Times, a good relationship can make the difference between reading an email or clicking delete.








  1. Use of Traditional Media

Traditional media allows businesses to target a broad target audience through billboards, print advertising, television commercials, and more. In comparison, new media allows companies to target a narrow target audience through social media, paid online ads, and search results. Price-wise, traditional media tends to cost more than new media due to its broad targeting and advertising channels.

Traditional media includes mostly non-digital advertising and marketing methods.

Traditional media is:

  • Television advertisements
  • Radio advertising
  • Print advertising
  • Direct mail advertisements
  • Billboards and off-site signs
  • Cold calling
  • Door-to-door sales
  • Banner ads

Companies have used these methods for many years to reach consumers and motivate them to make purchases. Up until very recently, these marketing and advertising styles were very effective, and helped businesses just like yours make a profit.

However, as the needs and expectations of consumers evolve, marketing has no choice but to evolve as well. This is what has led to the rise of new media and digital marketing methods — and the decrease in popularity of some traditional methods you know well.

It’s also led to the debate between traditional vs. digital media.



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