Course: School Administration and Supervision (8616)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Years) Semester: Spring, 2022
Assignment No. 2
Q.1 What is performance appraisal and why it is conducted? Explain the performance appraisal process and different techniques used for this purpose.
A performance appraisal is a regular review of an employee’s job performance and contribution to a company. Companies use performance appraisals to determine which employees have contributed the most to the company’s growth, review progress, and reward high-achieving workers.
What Is a Performance Appraisal?
The term performance appraisal refers to the regular review of an employee’s job performance and overall contribution to a company. Also known as an annual review, performance review or evaluation, or employee appraisal, a performance appraisal evaluates an employee’s skills, achievements, and growth, or lack thereof.
Companies use performance appraisals to give employees big-picture feedback on their work and to justify pay increases and bonuses, as well as termination decisions. They can be conducted at any given time but tend to be annual, semi-annual, or quarterly.
How Performance Appraisals Work
Performance appraisals are usually designed by human resources (HR) departments as a way for employees to develop in their careers. They provide individuals with feedback on their job performance. It ensures that employees are managing and meeting the goals expected of them, giving them guidance on how to reach them if they fall short.
Q.2 How financial audit and academic audit are different? Explain our answer keeping in mind different aspects of audit.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PERFORMANCE AUDIT AND FINANCIAL AUDIT
Although procedurally, performance audit and the financial audit have many things in common, they are not alike. Basic difference between the two, while the performance audit focuses on efficiency measurements, financial audit focuses on the accuracy and correctness of accounts. Other areas of difference between the two can be listed as under:
Financial audit is a routine job. It does not focus on any specific problem. Performance audit, on the other hand focuses on problems and the process of identification of its causes.
In financial audit, attention is more on figures, in performance audit, however, the attention is more on people, and other resources.
For obvious focus on specific …
What is Financial Audit?
This is a type of audit that focuses on the analysis and verification of the financial affairs of an organization through the analysis of financial records over a given period of time. Among the users of financial audits reports include shareholders, employees, investors and the government, especially for tax purposes.
While a financial audit is aimed at detecting frauds and errors in financial reporting, it also reports the actual performance in regards to financial performance. It also ensures that an organizations accounting principles are in line with the set standards. Economically, a financial audit ensures sound economic decisions are made by investors as well as shareholders. Also, it is mandatory for financial audits to be conducted by a qualified accountant. It should be noted that financial audits are statutory for all limited companies.
Similarities between Financial Audit and Management Audit
Both are aimed at examining certain areas of operation in an organization and identifying the weak areas.
Differences between Financial Audit and Management Audit
Financial audit refers to a type of audit that focuses on the analysis and verification of the financial affairs of an organization through the analysis of financial records over a given period of time. On the other hand, management audit refers to an audit aimed at examining the efficiency and adequacy of an organizations operating procedures.
While a financial audit is a statutory requirement, a management audit is not a statutory requirement.
A financial audit is aimed at detecting frauds and errors in financial reporting, reporting the actual performance in regards to financial performance, ensuring organizations’ accounting principles are in line with the set standards and giving a sound economic position of an organization. On the other hand, a management audit is aimed at examining procedures, systems and policies and identifying the weak areas, giving recommendations for future operation plans while also evaluating performance in all operational areas.
Party conducting the audit
A financial audit is carried out by a qualified chartered accountant while a management audit is carried out by a management team within the organization.
While financial audits are carried out at the end of each financial year, management audits are conducted as per organizations timelines.
Q.3 Introduce different approaches of supervising focusing the authoritarian and development approach of supervision.
ISSUES OF FACULTY SUPERVISION In the summer of 1998, we had the opportunity to collaborate in surveying new department chairs throughout the University of Wisconsin System campuses. These newly assigned chairs showed varying concerns regarding how to provide substantive and meaningful supervision to the faculty in their departments. The concerns ranged from how to provide supervisory feedback, in general, and adequate feedback to senior and difficult faculty, in particular. In other words, a main concern indicated by these department chairs focused on the fact that tenured faculty, nontenured faculty, and faculty showing difficulties in any of the areas of teaching, scholarship, or service have different needs, and hence, a one-size-fits-all model for supervision does not make sense. Quite often supervision is done haphazardly, if at all. So the chairs’ efforts are quick and frustratingly meaningless.
A DIFFERENTIATED SUPERVISION MODEL Models for teacher supervision do exist for K–12 school systems. It is our contention that a differentiated model can be adapted and be appropriate for faculty supervision in higher education. Such a model of supervision can take into account the varying and idiosyncratic needs of each individual teacher when the supervisor attempts to provide meaningful and substantive professional development.
A differentiated supervision model provides this appropriate framework. While this supervisory model is designed for K–12 school systems, the intended purpose and processes directly parallel those in a higher education setting, albeit with a few modifications. The differentiated model of supervision conceived by Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (1998) is framed in such a way that new faculty, excellent faculty, and troubled faculty are all given individual attention best suited for their own needs. There are four approaches ranging from directive supervision, to directive informational supervision, to collaborative supervision, to nondirective supervision. These categories permit for varying degrees of guidance by the supervisor and for varying degrees of ownership by the faculty member. In the directive approach, the outcome is a supervisorassigned plan. With the directive informational approach, the outcome is a supervisor-suggested plan. For the collaborative approach, the outcome is a mutual plan, and for the nondirective approach the outcome is a teacher self-plan. As the name would imply, directive is more structured and the supervision is directed by the supervisor. Likewise, nondirective allows for much more self-direction by the faculty member with much less guidance by the supervisor. Glickman, Gordon, and Ross-Gordon (1998) have developed a supervisory behavior continuum (see Figure 1) to focus the supervisor’s tasks and relationships with the faculty in these four categories. Let’s now take a more detailed look at each of these in turn.
Q.4 Make a list of adjectives that describe the characteristics of an effective school supervisor.
Skills a good supervisor may possess
Approachability and empathy.
Confidence and positivity.
Willingness to learn.
What makes a good supervisor?
There are several characteristics, habits and qualities that contribute to someone being a good supervisor. Employers value supervisors who are proactive, responsible, reliable and capable. The best supervisors aid each member of their team by helping them to grow and succeed. Here are some other elements of a good supervisor to consider:
Resourceful and determined
Values each member of their team equally
Shows respect and consideration to both management and employees
Capable of giving employees both positive feedback and constructive criticism
Handles in-office conflict quickly and fairly
Skills a good supervisor may possess
In addition to the essential qualities above, supervisors can work to develop a specific set of skills that will benefit them in their roles, including:
Approachability and empathy
Confidence and positivity
Willingness to learn
Of the skills a supervisor should have, communication is one of the most important. As a supervisor, you should be able to clearly communicate processes, expectations and goals to your team so they can do their jobs effectively, which will also reflect positively on your performance. Keeping your employees constantly informed about the team’s progress, potential hurdles and future plans will make each team member feel engaged and valued.
Supervisors are often required to ask as a “go-between” for their team and other departments or higher management. They also may be called on to resolve both professional and interpersonal conflicts within their workplace. A key part of good communication is listening to employee feedback and incorporating that into your workplace. If a conflict arises, you will need to use your communication and listening skills to help resolve the issue and to keep your workplace atmosphere healthy and productive.
Q.5 Link the literature with present use of technology in institutions and prepare a report on it.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) includes computers, the Internet, and electronic delivery systems such as radios, televisions, and projectors among others, and is widely used in today’s education field. Kent and Facer (2004) indicated that school is an important environment in which students participate in a wide range of computer activities, while the home serves as a complementary site for regular engagement in a narrower set of computer activities. Increasingly, ICT is being applied successfully in instruction, learning, and assessment. ICT is considered a powerful tool for educational change and reform. A number of previous studies have shown that an appropriate use of ICT can raise educational quality and connect learning to real-life situations (Lowther, et al. 2008; Weert and Tatnall 2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, learning is an ongoing lifelong activity where learners change their expectations by seeking knowledge, which departs from traditional approaches. As time goes by, they will have to expect and be willing to seek out new sources of knowledge. Skills in using ICT will be an indispensable prerequisite for these learners. ICT tends to expand access to education. Through ICT, learning can occur any time and anywhere. Online course materials, for example, can be accessible 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Teleconferencing classrooms allow both learner and teacher to interact simultaneously with ease and convenience. Based on ICT, learning and teaching no longer depend exclusively on printed materials. Multiple resources are abundant on the Internet, and knowledge can be acquired through video clips, audio sounds, visual presentation and so on. Current research has indicated that ICT assists in transforming a teaching environment into a learner-centered one (Castro Sánchez and Alemán 2011). Since learners are actively involved in the learning processes in ICT classrooms, they are authorized by the teacher to make decisions, plans, and so forth (Lu, Hou and Huang 2010). ICT therefore provides both learners and instructors with more educational affordances and possibilities. More specific benefits of using ICT in education are described below.
BENEFITS OF USING ICT IN EDUCATION The merits of ICT in education have been extolled in the literature. The use of ICT has been found to: Assist students in accessing digital information efficiently and effectively As Brush, Glazewski and Hew (2008) have stated, ICT is used as a tool for students to discover learning topics, solve problems, and provide solutions to the problems in the learning process. ICT makes knowledge acquisition more accessible, and concepts in learning areas are understood while engaging students in the application of ICT. Support student-centered and self-directed learning Students are now more frequently engaged in the meaningful use of computers (Castro Sánchez and Alemán 2011). They build new knowledge through accessing, selecting, organizing, and interpreting information and data. Based on learning through ICT, students are more capable of using information and data from various sources, and critically assessing the quality of the learning materials. Produce a creative learning environment ICT develops students’ new understanding in their areas of learning (Chai, Koh and Tsai 2010). ICT provides more creative solutions to different types of learning inquiries. For example, in a reading class, e-books are commonly used in reading aloud activities. Learners can access all types of texts from beginning to advanced levels with ease through computers, laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or iPads. More specifically, these e-books may come with some reading applications, which offer a reading-aloud interface, relevant vocabulary-building activities, games related to reading skills and vocabulary acquisition, and more. Therefore, ICT involves purposedesigned applications that provide innovative ways to meet a variety of learning needs. Promote collaborative learning in a distance-learning environment Koc (2005) mentioned that using ICT enables students to communicate, share, and work collaboratively anywhere, any time. For instance, a teleconferencing classroom could invite students around the world to gather together simultaneously for a topic discussion. They may have the opportunity to analyze problems and explore ideas as well as to develop concepts. They may further evaluate ICT learning solutions. Students not only acquire knowledge together, but also share diverse learning experiences from one another in order to express themselves and reflect on their learning. Offer more opportunities to develop critical (higher-order) thinking skills Based on a constructive learning approach, ICT helps students focus on higher-level concepts rather than less meaningful tasks (Levin and Wadmany 2006). McMahon’s study (2009) showed that there were statistically significant correlations between studying with ICT and the acquisition of critical thinking skills. A longer exposure in the ICT environment can foster students’ higher critical thinking skills. Thus, schools are strongly advised to integrate technology across all of the learning areas and among all learning levels. Where this is done, students are able to apply technology to the attainment of higher levels of cognition within specific learning contexts.