Course: Management Strategies in Educational Institutions (8615)
Level: B.Ed (1.5 Year) Semester: Spring, 2022
Q.1 Elaborates the models of organizational behavior useful in human resource purposes in an organization.
Organizational Behavior – Our inherent power of generalization helps us predict other people’s behaviour; however, sometimes, our generalizations and predictions fail. This happens as we fail to analyze and go into the depth of the patterns affecting people’s behaviour at that particular time or period. This calls for understanding and following the systematic approach to the study of the organizational behavior. The study helps in increasing our predictive ability to understand the behavior of the people, particularly in the group or an organization, and how their behavior impacts the performance of an organization. Almost all organizations develop the models on the basis of which behavior of the people is determined. This model depends on the assumption that organizational behavior management carries about its people, mission, and goals. It is noted that most of the organizations make the assumptions on the basis that people are not to be trusted even in the slightest matter. For instance, McGregor theories X and Y are based on quite contradictory assumptions; Argyris focuses on the immaturity and maturity level of the people providing two opposing views. The Organizational Behavior models formulated would show many different variations and kind of continuum between the two opposite poles.
Organizational behavior revolves around three main theoretical approaches: cognitive, behaviorist and social learning frameworks. These frameworks became the basis on which the organizational behavior model operates. The cognitive theory was developed by Edward and depends on the expectancy and incentive concepts, while the behaviorist framework created by Ivan Pavlov and John B.Watson relies on observation power. While the social theory depends on how the connection is created between the stimulus and response.
Organizational Behavior Model
In management, the focus is on the study of the five organizational behavior models:
Q.2 What are the limitations and benefits of system and process approaches in educational institutions?
Ans : Educational Technology as a systems approach: All attempts made to define the concept of educational technology as an area of study involving the application of technologies emerged from the application of theories of learning and development as well as information and communication technologies have not been comprehensive enough without a theoretical grounding in the social context. The use of these technologies has to be grounded in a theoretical foundation provided by a systems perspective. The field of educational technology shares the same difficulties and struggles involved in defining itself as one comes across while defining other social sciences and applied social sciences. This section attempts to provide you with adequate theoretical understanding about systems theory in order to have a more comprehensive view of the field of educational technology.
You would have read through the two sections indicated in the article by Luppicini (2005). You would have understood that a comprehensive definition of educational technology goes beyond uses of technology including techniques, theories, and methods from multiple knowledge domains which are standardised and reproducible such as computer science, psychology and communications. The definition would also include the governing principles of systems approach. More Details:http://woulibrary.wou.edu.my/weko/eed502/educational_technology_as_a_systems_approach.html
2’The systems approach to educational technology The systems approach to the design and analysis of teaching/learning situations is the basis of the great majority of modern educational technology-related developments. However, the terms system and systems approach are themselves jargon terms that can have a variety of interpretations. Let us therefore take a look at these terms in order to define the way in which we are to use them.
In general systems theory, a system is any collection of interrelated parts that together constitute a larger whole. These component parts, or elements of the system are intimately linked with one another, either directly or indirectly, and any change in one or more elements may affect the overall performance of the system, either beneficially or adversely. A simple system is illustrated schematically in Figure 2: More Details http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/celt/pgcerttlt/systems/sys3.htm
Q.3 What are the strategies of change process applicable for managing the change?
Businesses must constantly evolve and adapt to meet a variety of challenges—from changes in technology, to the rise of new competitors, to a shift in laws, regulations, or underlying economic trends. Failure to do so could lead to stagnation or, worse, failure.
Approximately 50 percent of all organizational change initiatives are unsuccessful, highlighting why knowing how to plan for, coordinate, and carry out change is a valuable skill for managers and business leaders alike.
Have you been tasked with managing a significant change initiative for your organization? Would you like to demonstrate that you’re capable of spearheading such an initiative the next time one arises? Here’s an overview of what change management is, the key steps in the process, and actions you can take to develop your managerial skills and become more effective in your role.
WHAT IS CHANGE MANAGEMENT?
Organizational change refers broadly to the actions a business takes to change or adjust a significant component of its organization. This may include company culture, internal processes, underlying technology or infrastructure, corporate hierarchy, or another critical aspect.
Organizational change can be either adaptive or transformational:
Adaptive changes are small, gradual, iterative changes that an organization undertakes to evolve its products, processes, workflows, and strategies over time. Hiring a new team member to address increased demand or implementing a new work-from-home policy to attract more qualified job applicants are both examples of adaptive changes.