AIOU Course Code 8612-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022


Q.1   Write down significance and procedure of writing reflective Journal.

A reflective journal (aka a reflective diary) is the perfect place to jot down some of life’s biggest thoughts. In a reflective journal, you can write about a positive or negative event that you experienced, what it means or meant to you, and what you may have learned from that experience.

A well-written journal can be an important tool. As with any tool, to get the most benefits, you need practice. This could mean forcing yourself to write, at first, but after a while, it will become like second nature. Write down your entry as soon as possible after the event. This way, the details will still be fresh in your mind, which will help later in your analysis.

Reflective journals are most often used to record detailed descriptions of certain aspects of an event or thought. For example, who was there, what was the purpose of the event, what do you think about it, how does it make you feel, etc. Write down everything, even if you don’t have a clear idea of how this information will be helpful.

Here are some of the most common reasons why people find reflective journals so useful:

  1. To make sense of things that happened.What you write should sound as if you are describing the details to someone who wasn’t there. Be as descriptive as possible. Just the act of writing down the details of what happened may give you perspective that you may not have otherwise considered had you just continued to think about it.
  2. To speculate as to why something is the way it is.Your views can come from your own common sense, or from something you have heard at a lecture or read in a book. Either way, speculating why something is the way it is can be a very useful exercise in reasoning.
  3. To align future actions with your reflected values and experiences.After positing your interpretation, continue to observe the subject of your speculation to decide whether you want to stick to your original views, or make changes. That is one of the great things about an online journal–you can make changes to your entries at any time.
  4. To get thoughts and ideas out of your head.Writing down your thoughts can help relieve pressure or help resolve problems. It will also help you focus the task at hand.
  5. To share your thoughts and ideas with others.Getting opinions from others about what you wrote can help you clarify your feelings for a deeper understanding of yourself.

Writing a reflective journal requires not only that you describe a learning experience, but also that you analyze the topics covered and articulate your feelings and opinions about the subject matter. There is no set structure for writing a reflective journal, as the diary is meant for your own use. The writing process is entirely free-form. However, there are certain guidelines to follow that will make you more successful at this. Here are some basic tips at how to write a reflective journal.



The first step in learning how to write a reflective journal is as simple as being prepared to jot down your thoughts and opinions on something you are learning anytime the mood strikes. For example, if you have an insightful observation about a book you’re reading while on the bus, it pays to have your journal with you. Penzu’s free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and mobile entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location.


While you can write in whatever form and style you please, it’s important to write regular entries, even if a moment of inspiration doesn’t arise. This ensures you are reviewing content and actively thinking about what you have learned. This will develop your writing and critical thinking skills while keeping you organized. In the end, this should enable you to better understand specific topics you are studying.


While reflecting is the main part of keeping a reflective diary, it’s also vital that you first participate in a learning activity, make observations and summarize facts and experiences. For example, if you are writing a lab for science class, be sure to first cover what you did and what the goal and outcome of the experiment was prior to elaborating on your ideas and opinions of what was discovered. Reflective journaling is first about participating and observing before writing.


Take time to read over previous journal entries and see how new experiences, additional knowledge and time have altered how you think and feel about the material you’ve been analyzing and contemplating. This will make the journal more valuable to you personally, as it will shed light on how you’ve grown.

Q.2   Describe role of schools for betterment of individual and society.             

Education has a manifold impact on society, from raising the quality of life, to creating conditions conducive to the development of talented individuals capable of changing society. The importance of education in society lies in the fact that it creates opportunities for acquiring knowledge and skills that are literally changing the world.

The success of an individual greatly depends on their level of education and the ability to practically apply what they have learned in school. The accessibility of quality education is not only important for individual development, but also for the development of society as a whole. It is not just the information from the lessons that matters, but the entire learning process as well, from overcoming obstacles to personal development. This is how mature and accomplished individuals are created, people with a critical view of the world around them, ready to leave their mark on it.

Education plays a very important role in all areas of society, and is most responsible for the development of civilization as we know it. Modern society is built on education, which is visible in several ways:

A more tolerant society

Humankind has gone a long way from primitive communities that were solely dedicated to the fight for survival in a harsh and unforgiving environment. People used to fear everything that was different or unknown, as well as phenomena they did not understand. However, new standards have gradually been adopted when it comes to human rights. According to the UN’s Declaration of Principles on Tolerance:”Education is the most effective means of preventing intolerance. The first step in diversity education is to teach people what their shared rights and freedoms are, so that they may be respected, and to promote the will to protect those of others.”

An educated person is able to better interpret their environment, but also to recognize their rights thanks to the knowledge they acquired in school. Simply put, it is much harder to manipulate an educated, well-informed person than someone who lacks education. Acquiring new knowledge helps people to critically approach any information, because such people primarily rely on facts when they pass judgements about anything. Thus, better education helps people to better understand social conflicts and the needs of others.

Better quality of life for vulnerable populations

The more educated people are, the better they will understand the world around them, and will be better able to improve their own life and the lives of others. This progress is particularly noticeable in vulnerable populations where education is the best solution for creating better perspectives and achieving success, both when it comes to individuals, and community as a whole. A better quality of life is achieved by:

Reducing poverty

Lack of education is the main reason why many families, and even entire communities live in poverty for generations. Without knowledge, they lack the basic tools needed to change their life for the better. Education helps young people to understand their position and recognize the opportunities available to them.

Acquiring new knowledge and skills opens the door to better-paid jobs, which in turn directly impacts the progress of the entire community. As the education of young people from poor backgrounds is crucial for their advancement and success, more funds are being invested in schooling and guidance so that everyone has an equal chance to become influential members of society.

This improves the social status of a large number of people who then have the opportunity to find more creative and better-paid jobs, which directly reflects on the success of the whole society, country, and even the whole world, which is faced with similar challenges.

Improving the nation’s health

Education encourages a healthy lifestyle, thus making it easier to tackle challenges such as poor health of individuals and entire communities. Well-informed individuals will know how to ensure a proper development of their children, as well as when and how to get treatment. Taking health seriously and interpreting information based on the credibility of its sources, combined with the knowledge acquired in school, are the best ways to maintain the psychophysical health of a nation.

Reducing crime

The majority of offenders who end up in prison are young people from poor backgrounds. One of the reasons for that is the lack of perspective that pushes them into a life of crime. Education gives everyone a chance to acquire new knowledge and learn soft skills that will help them improve their life. Education also helps children to appreciate themselves, their ambitions and knowledge from an early age, and to understand that they have been given a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. It is a powerful weapon in the fight against crime and poverty, two challenges that every country in the world is faced with.

Improving social life

A better understanding of the industrialized world, and a higher living standard open new opportunities for people to satisfy their cultural needs. Going to the theater, exhibitions, or concerts enriches one’s social life and brings joy. Indeed, life is more than mere survival, and education enables a higher living standard, greater understanding among people, and personal fulfillment through education, job, and extracurricular activities.

A large number of educated people improves the life of a community

Education is integral for providing better job opportunities in the fields that are always looking for experts. We are talking about well-paid professions, such as programmers or surgeons. These professions are even able to drive the development of a whole community. However, in order to reach that level, it is necessary to continuously invest in the education of both children and adults who want to reskill or upskill. Although quality higher education is synonymous with career success, education is equally important in all stages of a person’s development.

The foundations for the development of one’s talent and future skills are laid in elementary school, and each subsequent step brings students closer to the ultimate goal – making a career in a field that fulfills them and allows them to achieve their full potential. This is how the education system, and efforts of the whole community help raise and educate young people who believe in themselves. If they make an effort and acquire the right knowledge, they will be in the position to choose a career and job, which in turn opens up a whole range of possibilities for fulfilling their goals such as buying a house, financial security, a stable family life, etc. Education means long-term investment in a better life of all members of society.

Developing talents that change the face of humanity

When people are accomplished and successful, they have the ability to give back to their community. Perhaps the most famous examples of such individuals are billionaires Bill Gates and Warren Buffet who not only donate billions of dollars to charity, but also invest in the development of technologies and methods that could help millions of people in the future (vaccines, environmental issues, food, etc.).

When a society systematically invests in education, there is a possibility of creating a new Nikola Tesla, who otherwise would not have a chance to develop his/her talent. It is a kind of investment in the future and the potential of all members of society, because each of them can contribute to its development.

Education is an integral part of modern society

The development and progress of mankind can be directly attributed to educated people who drove human society forward. Investing in education raises awareness about major challenges to society, such as global warming and environmental protection. These things directly affect the quality of life, and they could not be solved without ambitious, creative, and intelligent people who are ready to change the world with their knowledge.

This is why taking education seriously is not just an important decision for an individual, but also a socially responsible behavior. Every individual has the power to change the world, the only dilemma is – how. There is not a single correct answer to this question, but with a good approach, quality education, hard work, innovation, and creativity, we can be sure that society will remain in good hands.

Q.3   What is teacher preparation? Discuss impact of globalization on teacher preparation in Pakistan.      

Globalization and education are complex phenomena and their causal relationship is of a “chicken or the egg” character. There is of course a great debate over what constitutes both “education” and “globalization”, let alone their relationship with one another. The essays in this issue of Pedagogical Historical are not consistent in their conceptualizations. That inconsistency is a virtue, because it points to the extraordinary range of historical phenomena that may be included in discussions of education and globalization. One way or another social transformations are powerfully affected by cultural developments, some of which may be clearly thought about in terms of the impacts of deliberate and incidental educational activity. In the process individuals, communities of various kinds, the state and collectivities and communities beyond the state are constructed.

A nation depends on the activities of the teachers. Identically, they are working to grow the basement of the students. No matter it is school, college or university, a qualified teacher is the builder of a student. Even a teacher on the special skills or technical courses is keeping role responsibilities on the societies. For this reason, the leader of tomorrow is created by a teacher. At the same time, if a teacher fails to discover the eternal power of a student, the student fails in his whole life. That means a teacher is the best mentor for a life of the student.


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