aiou course code 8612 -1 assignment autumn 2022

aiou course code 8612 -1 assignment autumn 2022

Course: Professionalism in Teaching (8612)

Semester: Autumn, 2022


Q.1 Explain professional conceptions? Why are these necessary for prospective teachers?

Professional Conceptions

Depending  on  the  educational  context,  it  is  possible  to  say  that  definitions  of teacher  professionalism  focus  on  teachers’  professional  qualifications  such  as “being  good  at  his/her  job”,  “fulfilling  the  highest  standards”,  “and  “achieving excellence”  (Nihan,  2010).  For  example,  Baggini  (2005)  claims  that  for  today’s teachers,  professionalism  is  interpreted  in  terms  of  what  extent  the  teacher’s outcome  the  difficulties  and  what  extent  they  are  able  to  use  their  skills  and experiences  related  to  their  profession.  On  the  most  basic  level,  ‘professional teacher  refers  to  the  status  of  a  person  who  is  paid  to  teach’;  on  a  higher  level,  it can  refer  to  teachers  who  represent  the  best  in  the  profession  and  set  the  highest standards  (Tichenor  and  Tichenor,  2005).  Phelps  believes  professionalism  is enhanced  when  teachers  use  excellence  as  a  critical  criterion  for  judging  their actions  and  attitudes.  In  other  words,  professionalism  is  measured  by  the  best  and the  highest standards (Phelps, 2006)  as quoted by  Nihan. However,  although  one  need  not  doubt  that  most  contemporary  career  teachers would  readily  identify  and  sympathies  with  at  least  some  of  these  vocational priorities,  it  is  arguable  that  there  has  over  the  years  been  a  marked  shift  towards conceptions  of  education  and  teaching  of  more  professional  than  vocational temper:  conceptions,  that  is,  which  are  more  inclined  to  observe  a  fairly  clear distinction  between  the  private  or  personal,  and  the  public  or  professional,  and  to define  the  occupation  of  teaching  in  terms  of  prescribed  skills  and  rules  of conduct.  There  are,  moreover,  some  fairly  weighty  reasons  for  this.  It  may  be helpful  to  examine  different  conceptions  of  educational  professionalism,  via comparisons  of  teaching  with  other  familiar  occupations  and  services.  In  this connection,  we  may  first  observe  an  important  distinction of  modern  treatments  of this question between  restricted  and  extended  professionalism. Although  the  distinction  is  usually  observed  in  the  interests  of  arguing  in  favour of  the  latter  over  the  former,  both  notions  of  professionalism  appear  to  conceive teaching  as  at  heart  a  matter  of  the  acquisition  and  practice  of  a  range  of  skills  of pedagogy  and  management  in  a  contractually  defined  framework  of  professional responsibilities  and  obligations.  The  restricted  version,  however,  conceives  the skills  and  contractual  obligations  of  the  teacher  somewhat  more  along  the  lines  of trade  expertise  than  professional  knowledge  –  the  expertise,  one  might  say,  of plumbers  and  electricians  rather  than  doctors  or  lawyers.  For  the  most  part, restricted  teacher  expertise  is  taken  to  follow  from  familiarity  with  national  or local  policy  guidelines  and  mastery,  probably  more  in  the  field  than  the  academy, of  technical  skills.  The  responsibilities  of  restricted  professionals  are  therefore almost  exclusively  defined  in  terms  of  technical  competence,  and  more  or  less direct  accountability  or  conformity  to  the  requirements  of  external  authority.  To this  extent,  although  we  may  still  speak  of  restricted  teachers  as  more  or  less professional  according  to  their  conformity  or  otherwise  to  such  requirements, restricted  professionalism  scores  poorly  on  that  criterion  of  occupational autonomy  which  is  often  held  to  be  a  key  ingredient  of  the  professional  lives  of doctors and lawyers. An  ‘extended’  view  of  educational  professionalism,  on  the  other  hand,  aspires precisely  to  regard  teaching  alongside  such  traditional  professions  as  medicine and  law.  On  this  perspective,  teachers  are  to  be  regarded,  along  with  general practitioners  or  legal  advisors,  as  possessors  of  a  socially  valued  specialist expertise  which  requires  lengthy  education  and  training  –  precisely  because teaching  requires  educated  capacities  for  independent  judgment,  rather  than  mere training  in  obedience  to  authority.  Thus,  just  as  we  might  well  regard  it  as unacceptable  for  politicians  or  the  general  public  –  anyone  other  than  those properly  educated  in  complex  issues  of  medicine  and  health  care  –  to  direct  the decisions  of  doctors  on  important  matters  of  medical  policy  and  practice,  so  it could  be  considered  inappropriate  for  politicians  or  employers  to  dictate  to teachers  what  is  or  is  not  worthy  of  inclusion  in  the  school  curriculum,  or  what kinds  of  knowledge  and  skill  are  crucial  for  the  professional  conduct  of  teaching. On  this  view,  the  teacher  should  be  regarded  as  someone  who,  by  virtue  of  a sophisticated  professional  education,  is  well  qualified  to  exercise  a  higher understanding  of  the  nature  of  learning  and  pedagogy  in  meeting  the  particular and local needs of  individual children in particular educational  circumstances. Carr  (1999)  as  quoted  by  Nihan  refers  to  five  commonly  cited  professionalism criteria  focused  in  the  literature.

Q.2 Describe characteristics of professionalism comment why professionalism is poor in our schools.  (20)



  1. Appearance

A  professional  teacher  is  neat  in  look.  It  should  be  made  sure  to  meet requirements  of  your  school’s  dress  code,  and  special  attention  should  be paid to appearance when  meeting  individuals at school.

2 Conduct

One’s  behavior  should  be  polite  and  well-spoken  whether  one  is  interacting with  students,  superior  or  co-worker.  One  needs  to  keep  calm,  even  in  tense situation.

3 Reliability

As  the  professional  educator,  one  will  be  counted  on  to  find  a  way  to  get  a job done. Responding  to  the  persons promptly  and  fulfilling  promise on time is also  imperative,  as this shows reliability.

4 Competence

Professional  teachers  endeavor  to  develop  into  experts  of  their  field,  which sets  them  apart  from  the  rest  of  the  pack.  This  means  continuing  education by  taking  new  course,  attending  seminar  and  to  attain  any  related  academic or  professional degree/qualification.

5 Ethics

Teachers  must  adhere  to  a  firm  code  of  ethics.  If  there  is  a  written  code,  it should  be  displayed  all the times.

6 Maintaining Your  Poise

A  professional  teacher  must  continue  his  good  attitude  even  when  facing  a hard  situation.  For  instance,  if  a  colleague/teacher  at  your  school  treats  you in  a  confrontational  manner,  you  should  not  route  to  the  same  category  of deeds.

7  Phone Etiquette

The  phone  etiquette  is,  as  well,  a  key  element  of  professionalism.  It  means to  introduce  yourself  by  full  name,  institution  and designation  when  you  dial a  phone  call.  Be  sure  not  to  dominate  the  conversation  and  listen  intently  to the  other individual.

8 Written Correspondence

In  written  communication,  keep  your  correspondence  brief  and  precise. Your  manner  to  write  should  be  gracious,  polite,  civil,  courteous,  respectful and  formal  without  being  “oppressive.”  This  should  also  be  applied  to  an  email correspondence.

  1. Organizational Skills

A  professional  teacher  can  swiftly  and  easily  locate  what  is  wanted.  Your workplace  should  be  tidy  and  ordered,  and  your  materials  should  contain only  what is needed for  your  presentation.

Q.3 What is professionalism in Islam? What strategies can be used to develop it among teachers?

Professionalism  in  Islam :

Professionalism  as  comprehended  by  many  of  us  includes  the  fundamental components  of  education  and  qualification,  standards  and  experience,  norms  and directions,  morals  and  respectability,  duty  and  responsibility,  sensibility  and reasonableness,  and  the  reciprocal  yet  important  scale  of  fee.  Off  late  another component  has  turned  out  to  be  pivotal  to  be  specific  CPD  –  continues professional  development.  In  the  corporate  world,  rather  than  professionalism, ‘corporate  governance’  is  the  jargon  broadly  used.  In  the  administration  field, professionalism  is  caught  by  the  expression  ‘culture  of  brilliance.’  Despite  the distinctive  terms  being  used,  the  topic  being  dove  upon  does  not  vary  generally.  It is  tied  in  with  completing  an  occupation  well.  It  is  tied  in  with  persuading  human asset  to  accomplish  authoritative  execution  goals.  It  is  tied  in  with  accomplishing the  best  from  accessible  assets.  It  is  tied  in  with  making  an  organization aggressive  and  in  front  of  contenders.  Professionalism  from  the  viewpoint  of Islam  can  be  clarified  by  a  mix  of  the  importance  of  two  Quranic  articulations,  in particular  al-quwwah  and  al-amanah.  Verse  26  in  Chapter  28  of  the  Quran  says these  two  qualities  in  the  descriptive  word  shape:  “Verily  the  best  individual whom  you  can  utilize  is  the  person  who  is  alqawwiy  (solid)  and  al-amin (reliable).”  This  verse  has  recorded  the  expressions  of  one  of  the  two  little  girls  of Prophet  Syuaib,  who  had  found  Prophet  Moses  to  have  these  two  fantastic qualities  while  helping  them  to  draw  well  water  for  their  herds.  In  fact  the  Prophet of  Islam  Muhammad  himself  was  known  as  al-amin  or  the  trusted  one,  from  his initial  adulthood;  qualifying  him  to  be  a  man  deserving  of  trust,  with  whom  the tenants of  Makkah  energetically  saved their  assets  for protection, without the  store box  offered  by  banks  today.  The  thing  type  of  al-qawwiy  is  alquwwah  which  can be  deciphered  as  ‘quality’  and  that  of  al-amin  is  alamanah  which  can  be  best interpreted  as  reliability.

Q.4 Define professional disposition. What are the ways to assess dispositions of prospective teachers?


Professional  dispositions  are  characterized  as  the  values,  duties,  and  professional ethics  that  impact  practices  toward  students,  families,  partners,  and  other  groups and  influence  students’  learning,  inspiration,  development  and  also  the  teacher’s own  professional  development.  Dispositions  are  guided  by  believes  and  states  of mind  identified  with  qualities,  for  example,  mindful,  fairness,  trustworthiness, responsible,  and  social  justice.  For  instance,  they  may  incorporate  a  belief  that  all students  can  learn,  a  dream  of  high  and  challenging  standards,  or  a  guarantee  to  a safe  and steady  learning  condition (NCATE, 2002).

Q.5 Describe teacher attributes which can improve quality of teaching.         (20)  

  1. Empathy:

One of the most important good qualities of a teacher is empathy. Let’s understand this quality through an example.

Imagine you are in your classroom and there’s a student who continuously performs poorly in his/her exams. You advised them to study and yet, they keep on getting low marks. Now, it’s natural for you to get angry because, despite your efforts, the kid is not performing well. However, you don’t know what’s going on inside them and what kind of conditions they are going through. What if the kid is facing issues with their family or if they have a learning disability? As a teacher, you need to put yourself in their situation and think like your student. This is what empathy is. You must understand the student and be available.

  1. Creativity

Do you remember how you used to be as a student? Did you enjoy your classes or were you bored during the lessons? As a teacher, you have to ensure that your students don’t get bored. It’s common for students to lose interest and attention. How do you make sure that they are listening to you? The answer is simple, be creative! One of the important qualities of an ideal teacher is creativity. By being creative, you can make your classes interesting. You can use the help of various online teaching tools to add life to the classroom. As more and more people move towards online classes and online teaching, the need for creativity in the classroom has become more important.

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