AIOU Course Code 8610-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022

AIOU Course Code 8610-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022

Assignment No. 2

Q.1 Emotional development is important for children even before going to school.

Discuss emotional characteristics of preschool children.

Emotional development is a complex task that begins in infancy and continues into adulthood. The first emotions that can be recognised in babies include joy, anger, sadness and fear. As children’s sense of self develops, more complex emotions like shyness, surprise, elation, embarrassment, shame, guilt, pride and empathy emerge. School aged children and young people are still learning to identify emotions, to understand why they happen, and how to manage them appropriately.

Emotional expression includes several components:

  • physical responses (like heart rate, breathing and hormone levels)
  • behavioural displays of emotion
  • feelings that children and young people recognise and learn to name
  • thoughts and judgments associated with feelings
  • action signals (for example, a desire to approach, escape or fight).

Influences on emotional expression include: 

  • values and beliefs about appropriate and inappropriate ways of expressing emotions that children and young people learn from families and educators
  • how effectively children and young people’s emotional needs are usually met
  • children and young people’s temperaments
  • cultural norms
  • emotional behaviours that children and young people have learned through observation or experience
  • the extent to which families are under various kinds of stress.

The rate of emotional development in children and young people can vary from person to person. Some children may show a high level of emotional skill development while quite young, whereas others take longer to develop the capacity to manage their emotions well into adolescence. INSTANT GRATIFICATION

Toddlers and preschoolers are ruled by their emotions and don’t have much, if any, impulse control. And if there is one thing they don’t like, it’s being delayed gratification.

This, combined with their struggle to separate feelings from actions, means they’ll want to immediately express an emotion or gratify a desire. They will cry immediately when sad and when they feel they want something they will try to take it right away.

Keep this in mind as you try your best to teach them appropriate ways to show what they’re feeling as well as sharing and turn-taking skills.

Feeling for others

Sympathy and empathy begin to develop at a young age too. After seeing a friend or sibling get hurt, your child may try to comfort them, offering kind words or a reassuring hug or pat on the back. As children become more aware of their emotions and how to control them, they also become more aware of the feelings of those around them. This can be an especially happy thing to see blossom in your child.

Separation anxiety

Three-year-olds are generally less interested in playing with other children, and have a greater capacity to be affected by separation anxiety; they’ll be more interested in staying with their parents or primary caregivers. Generally, four-year-olds will have an easier time with this and any separation anxiety will be more short-lived.

Though your 3-year-old is beginning to understand the emotions they are feeling, they still have very little control over them. If they find something funny, they’ll laugh hysterically. If something makes them feel sad or angry, they’ll burst into tears.

At this age, your preschooler still hasn’t developed much impulse control. If they feel something, they are likely to act on it. This may mean snatching a toy away from another child if they want to play with it, or getting upset when they want a snack after being told they have to wait until dinnertime. Delayed gratification means nothing to them — they want it, and want it now.

Three- and 4-year-old children may use hitting, biting, or pushing as a way to solve conflicts. They simply don’t understand the difference between appropriate and inappropriate interactions yet. It’s your job to teach your child that there are right and wrong ways to express emotions and resolve problems with others.

As your child gets older, they’ll begin to see a connection between emotional outbursts and negative consequences. Throwing a tantrum may result in a “time out” or a favorite toy being taken away. These consequences are helping your 4-year-old understand a tantrum isn’t an acceptable way to show emotion.

Your 4-year-old is also a budding comedian. They are starting to develop a sense of humor, and love being silly and making people laugh. Don’t be surprised if you hear them calling their friend a “poo-poo head” and then laughing hysterically; 4-year-olds find potty talk highly entertaining.

Around age 3, children begin to develop a vivid imagination. At this age, your preschooler will begin to spend a great deal of time in a fantasy world of their own creation. Their dolls and stuffed animals all have names and personalities. They may chat with imaginary friends. Parents sometimes worry that imaginary friends are a sign of loneliness or isolation, but in fact they’re just the opposite. Children use this type of fantasy play to learn how to interact with real people. It’s practice for the “real world.” At an age when your child has very little control over their own life, their fantasy world is their own creation. They’re in charge. Around the same time your preschooler begins to talk to an imaginary friend, they may also develop a fear of the monster living under their bed. These types of fears are common. They are also quite serious to them, so don’t make a joke out of it. The best thing you can do is reassure your child that they are safe and nothing is going to hurt them.

As your child gets older, fantasy play will continue to be an important part of their life, but they’ll get better at understanding the difference between fantasy and reality. their fantasies will get more elaborate and sophisticated, and don’t be surprised if they sometimes involve violence. Don’t let games of shoot-’em-up bother you; it’s totally normal for children to be fascinated with weapons and violence at this age, and it’s not a sign that they’ll be violent when they’re older.

The older your preschooler gets, the more they’ll crave independence. It may sound like a contradiction, but the best way to nurture your preschooler’s independence and self-confidence is to keep their life fairly structured. Give them choices, but don’t give them endless choices. Let them choose between two outfits to wear, or ask them if they want a turkey sandwich or macaroni and cheese for lunch. When they ask to do something you know isn’t a good idea, hold firm. Being allowed choices within a structured framework will help to boost their self-confidence while at the same time letting them know they are safe and secure.

Q.2 What is the role of community in moral development of a child?

Community is essential to quality outcomes of children. A community provides an important relationship environment; promotes belonging, a sense of identity and learning; supports active participation in the world and continuity of learning; and connects children and families to supportive relationship and resource networks.

Young children develop in an environment of relationships, with a child’s community providing a vital relationship context for their learning and development. This is particularly important during the early years when the foundations of brain architecture are being built. From birth, positive, responsive, consistent and secure relationships with others provide a supportive, growth-promoting environment for children’s development, wellbeing and learning. Children’s academic, social-emotional and mental health outcomes are built on this foundation.

A child’s relationship environment begins in the family, but then extends to adults and peers outside of the family who have important roles in their life. Educators and other education and care staff are a significant part of many children’s relationship environment.  Communities that foster positive interactions and relationships between children, peers and adults strengthen children’s outcomes.

Community is essential to quality outcomes of children. A community provides an important relationship environment; promotes belonging, a sense of identity and learning; supports active participation in the world and continuity of learning; and connects children and families to supportive relationship and resource networks.


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