AIOU Course Code 8606-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022
AIOU Course Code 8606-2 solved Assignments Spring 2022
Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606)
Semester: Spring, 2022 Level: BEd (1.5/2.5 Years)
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
- 1 a) Explain the form of social control
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences. Social control is described as a certain set of rules and standards in society that keep individuals bound to conventional standards as well as to the use of formalized mechanisms. The disciplinary model was the forerunner to the control model.
The term “social control” was first introduced to sociology by Albion Woodbury Small and George Edgar Vincent in 1894; however, at the time sociologists only showed sporadic interest in the subject.
- b) What is social deviance? Differentiate between formal and informal deviance
Social deviance can be simply defined as any violation of social norms and laws, be it formal or informal (Conley, 2011). These transgressions may include minor acts such as violation of personal space, playing loud music or picking one’s nose publicly. It also includes major acts of crime such as theft, murder, rape, or assault. One of the currently hot topics regarding social deviance is the society’s acceptance towards gay people, especially those who went for surgery and became transgender. Today, LGBT rights are being established and strengthened step by step. However, not so long ago, gay people were usually glared at especially when they chose to exhibit their cross-dressing or their affairs publicly.
SOCIAL DEVIANCE IS SEEN AS AN EXPRESSION OF, NOT A RESULT OF, SOCIAL CONFLICT. IT VARIES IN TIME AND PLACE WITH THE VALUE JUDGMENTS OF VARIOUS THEORISTS AND THE LABELING PROCESSES OF CHANGING SOCIETIES. THE NATURE, TRANSMISSION, AND INTERNALIZATION OF SOCIAL NORMS IS DISCUSSED. FOUR PHENOMENOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF DEVIANCE ARE ANALYZED: (1) SELF-CONCEPT, WHICH IS GAINED BY THE INDIVIDUAL’S INTERACTION WITH HIS SURROUNDINGS, ESPECIALLY WITH HIS RELEVANT OTHERS; (2) VALUE DEVIATION, WHICH DEALS WITH DETACHMENT OF VALUE FROM THE GROUP’S NORMATIVE SYSTEM–A DETACHMENT NOT NECESSARILY ACCOMPANIED BY OVERT DEVIATE BEHAVIOR; (3) ACTUAL DEVIANT BEHAVIOR, WHICH CAN BE DIRECTED INWARDLY AGAINST THE SELF OR OUTWARDLY AGAINST THE GROUP AND ITS SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS; (4) SOCIAL STIGMA, A DEROGATORY ATTRIBUTE IMPUTED TO THE SOCIAL IMAGE OF AN INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP AND USED AS A TOOL, OF SOCIAL CONTROL; AND (5) TRANSCENDENCE, WHICH VIEWS GOODNESS OR SALVATION AS THAT WHICH IS ATTAINED BY NEGATIVISM, CONFLICT, OR SIN. JEAN GENET, THE THIEF-POET-PHILOSOPHER, IS DISCUSSED AT LENGTH (THE ETIOLOGY OF HIS SELF-IMAGE), AND THERE IS REFERENCE TO MANSON, DE SADE, CAIN, JACOB FRANK, AND JUDAS. A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DEVIANCE IS SUPPORTED BY THE SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF DURKHEIM, PARSON, AND MERTON. THESE THEORIES PRESUPPOSE AN INHERENT ORDER AND PURPOSE IN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE. ANY DISRUPTION IN THIS STRUCTURE IS PERCEIVED AS DEVIANCE. SOCIAL DEVIANCE, SEEN AS TOO COMPLEX TO HAVE ONE CAUSE OR A SINGLE GROUP OF CAUSES, IS ATTRIBUTED TO PERSONALITY FACTORS, SOCIAL FACTORS, AND DYNAMIC PROCESSES OF ASSOCIATION. SOCIAL DARWINISTS, STRUCTURALISTS, AND PROMINENT SOCIOLOGISTS, FOLLOWING THE THINKING OF EMILE DURKHEIM, REGARD CONFLICT, CHANGE, AND DEVIANCE AS A DYSFUNCTION. OTHERS, HOWEVER, INCLUDING SIMMEL, COSER, MARX, AND MARCUSE, BELIEVE IN THE FUNCTIONALITY OF CONFLICTS, THAT THEY INTRODUCE CHANGE INTO SOCIETY AND THAT CHANGE MEANS PROGRESS. INNOVATORS OFTEN POSSESS SPECIAL QUALITIES, UNUSUAL INSIGHTS, AND SUBTLETIES OF PERCEPTION THAT ALMOST GUARANTEE THEY WILL BE LABELED DEVIANT.
Deviance can be broken into two, which are formal and informal. Formal deviations imply the type of criminal behavior in nature and tend to violate social norms. On the other hand, informal refer to minor violations that break the unwritten laws of life.
Formal deviance includes criminal violation of formally-enacted laws. … Informal deviance refers to violations of informal social norms, which are norms that have not been codified into law. Examples of informal deviance include picking one’s nose, belching loudly, or standing unnecessarily close to another person.
Formal is often associated with the conventional or etiquette. It means to be in accord with the established procedures, forms, conventions or rules. It is also associated with official norms. On the other hand, informal denotes a non formal style. It indicates a causal manner characterized by relaxed and friendly attitude.
Formal and informal are antonyms to each other. Formal defines an official style or manner. On the other hand, informal can be associated with a casual or a friendly manner. Thus, anything that is associated with the ‘formal’ attribute is regarded to be in accordance to certain rules and regulations or based on a standard format.
Informal is just the opposite of formal. Something that is informal need not follow rules or regulations. It may also not be based on any f the conventional procedures. Informal approach is a casual type of approach. It is often associated with a friendly manner.
For example, a formal letter is a type of letter that is written according to a standard business format. This letter is generally written for correspondence between organizations and customers, etc. On the other hand, an informal letter is written in a friendly manner to friends, relatives, etc. and there is no fixed format to refer to while writing such a letter. Both the terms are generally used as adjectives.
Comparison between Formal and Informal:
Q.2 a) Discuss differnet types of school and community relationships
Formal school-community relations programs have both internal and external programs. Internal programs are those designed for the benefit of communicating with the employees and students of the school or district. External programs are those designed for communicating with the communities which a school or district serves.
SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP
The sudden and continuous increase in school population at all level of Nigeria education has led to the inadequacy of facilities and equipment in many Nigerian schools (Musaazi, 1994).For goals and objectives of the school systems to be achieved, funds and facilities are required for the various activities of the schools programmes. But government in Nigeria has been unable to single-handedly provide qualitative education to all those who demand it due to its financial implications. It therefore has to invite the people to participate actively in running schools especially in the area of providing supporting educational services (Madiewesi, 1991). This is clearly stated by the Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) in the National Policy on Education, that the administrative machinery will be based on the following cardinal principles, Vis:
Close participation and involvement of the communities, at the local level, in the administration and management of their schools; b.
Effective line of communication between local community and the state on one hand and national machinery for policy and implementation on the other. The separation of schools into Junior and Senior Secondary Schools as a result of the Universal Basic Education and other forces of demand for education have led to the creation of new schools. This situation led to the sharing of existing facilities by both schools. Many of these schools were in need of a lot of resources ranging from classrooms, furniture, accommodations for staff and so on. No required facilities and equipment no infrastructure and so on. Therefore, the only solution is to urge communities to come for the rescue of their schools and for the education of their children
What is School?
School is a training center helps develop pupils into efficient social being and to train them to further educate the backward members of their society. The school is a special environment where a certain quality of life types of activities and occupations are provided with
the object of securing child‟s development along desirable lines (Mishra, 2007).
School is an open system and a social organization which thrives on the effective interrelationship within itand with its relevant communities(Nwankwo, Nwokafor, Ogunsanwo&Ighalo, 1985).School interacts with people of the community and is linked with the larger society. The function of the traditional school was to transmit the social heritage of the community. Its role was too academician nature. The modern sociological view of education lay down that school constantly draw upon social life and activities for its subject matter, its methods of teaching and its methods of work. The school will serve as a society in miniature-a small but ideal community. It will be model for the society around. It will be the peoples` school, but at the same time it will give new direction to the people and community. It will act as a watch dog against social degeneration. By enhancing its own status and contribution it will enhance the status of the community as a whole(Sidhu, 2007). There must be a conscious and continuous intercourse, a free give and take between the little world of the school and bigger one outside. The school has to arrange for the students opportunities to participate in social services, health campaigns, development plans, another public activities. The divorce between school and community is likely to make teaching artificial
What is Community?
Community according to Jones and George (2006) refers to physical location like towns or cities or to social milieus like ethnic neighborhoods in which an organization is located. A
3community provides an organization with the physical and social infrastructure that allows it to operate; it utilities and labour force; the homes in which its managers and employees live; other organization such as hospital, town services, carriers and theatres that service their needs and soon. The above definition clearly describes school community. The school community physical locations are the towns or cities in which it is located. The schools source their physical and social infrastructure from its communities. To Hornby (2000), community refers to “a group of people of the same religion, race, occupation, etc or with shared interest”. To Omolayole (1998), in the urban centre, “community will normally refer to all those with common interest living in a given ideographical space not considered too large to make it unwieldy whereas in the rural areas, the community will strictly comprise people with the same origin”. Strictly speaking and for the purpose of the paper the definition on rural area is adoptedfor the concept of local community.
School Community Relationship
The processes of social interaction are the bases for creating social relationship. According to Calhoun, Light and Keller (1998) social relationship is relatively enduring patterns of interaction between two or more people. Most people have many social relationships, from casual acquaintance to intimate friendships and close family bond. School community relationship is a two-way symbiotic arrangement through which the school and the community co-operate with each other for the realization of goals of the community and vice versa. It is the degree of understanding and goodwill, which exists between the school and the community (Okorie, Ememe&Egu 2009).School as an open system and asocial organization thrives on the effective interrelationship within it and with its relevant communities. What happens in a school affects the community, and what happens in the
4community affects school (Nwankwo, Nwokafor, Ogunsanwo&Ighalo, 1985). This means that community builds
- b) What strategies can the administration of the school apply in order to strengthen its relationshoip with the community?
he new administrators who are willing to manage schools will face several difficulties. To cope up with these they need to take up some courses which can help them in managing the organization. As we all know that an educational institution is a business which can give very good profits to the sector is increasing day by day. Generally, the supervisors can also be teachers who will administer the school framework along with employees who will contribute to the growth of the organization.
As the growth of educational institutions is taking place at a rapid pace there is a huge demand for administrators who would help in the expansion of the entire institute. Many schools are thus training the potential candidates in the school administration management Course which imparts knowledge on all the aspects of school management and supervision of a framework. We will discuss these in details below.
Q.3 a) Explain the role of communication skills in teaching learning process.
Communication skills play a crucial role in the teaching learning process. The communication skills of the teachers need to be reinforced in the teacher training programmes for facilitating the fluent transmission of the knowledge. Verbal communication needs to be stressed further more to make teaching learning process more interactive,
Communication skills can be defined as the transmission of a message that Communication skills can be defined as the transmission of a message that involves the shared understanding between the contexts in which the communication takes place (Saunders and Mills, 1999). In addition, teacher communication skills are important for a teacher in delivery of education to students (McCarthy and Carter, 2001). Communication skills involve listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. For effective teaching a teacher need to be highly skilled in all these areas. Teacher with good communication always make the things easier and understandable (Freddie Silver). Effective communication skills are really important for a teacher in transmitting of education, classroom management and interaction with students in the class. Teacher has to teach the students having different thinking approaches. To teach in accordance with the ability and capability of the students a teacher need to adopt such skills of communication which motivate the students toward their learning process (Sng Bee,2012).
- b) How can effective communication create an environment that is conducive for learning?
Creating dialogue between your students can be a challenging yet fundamental part of teaching. Effective communication can help to build and foster a safe learning environment where students can thrive, prosper and learn. The importance of establishing good communication at a young age is critical in a child’s development and future learning.
The importance of establishing good communication at a young age is critical in a child’s development and future learning. The communication skills that students learn at school are fully transferable and essential across all aspects of life. Furthermore, it has been proven that supportive teacher-student relationships have a positive impact on class participation, engagement, and ultimately a student’s achievements.
Communication can be described as the process where people exchange thoughts or ideas with one another. The benefits of fostering such relationships enable students to freely discuss thoughts and ideas and create an open environment in which questions can be asked without the risk of being judged or humiliated.
Poor communication is the main reason why students lack motivation, perform badly, and consequently drop out of school. According to many studies, the success of students is directly related to the effective communication of their teachers. Nurturing this kind of interactive and engaging teaching environment demands regular and effective communication. We have compiled our top techniques to create a positive dialogue between students and teachers.
So let’s see what you can do.
- Create a safe environment
- Encourage teamwork
- Don’t stand at the front of the classroom
- Use some active listening exercises
- Be sure to give positive feedback
Q.4 a) Compare the theories of motivation from diffferent school of thought.
Theories of Motivation
Since the beginning of industrialization and the advent of factories, people have been trying to figure out what motivates employees.
One of the very first theories was developed by Frederick Taylor, who wrote, “The Principles of Scientific Management” in 1911.
More recent theories of motivation include ERG Theory (1972) by Alderfer and the Equity Theory of Motivation (1963) by Adams.
Unfortunately, most of the theories of motivation differ in what they think the best way to motivate employees is.
The reason the theories draw different conclusions is that motivation is somewhat of a black box, where it’s difficult to see what’s going on inside our heads, and each of us is unique enough to make it very difficult to draw anything other than very general conclusions.
Theories of Motivation
In a general sense, you can think of motivation as working as follows:
As you can see, each of us has needs. Your needs will be different from my needs. But each of us is motivated by our needs to exhibit certain behaviors. The aim of our behaviors is obviously to meet our needs.
Whether our needs are satisfied or not can then cause us to change our needs. In this way, the cycle begins again with our new needs, potentially causing us to exhibit new behavior.