Course: Educational Leadership and Management (8605) Semester: Spring, 2022
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 Discuss the importance of classroom environment and give suggestions for Improving the classroom environment of our schools.
The Importance Of The Classroom Environment | The Highly Effective Teacher The classroom environment can contribute to problems between students as well as reduce student engagement and learning. When teachers and schools give careful thought to how the environment is arranged, authentic learning is enhanced and incidental behaviour issues can be prevented.
A few years ago, I conducted an audit of a school setting to provide recommendations about the layout of the school and how it contributed to behaviour of the students.
The teachers found that many of the playground issues between students, occurred after the bell rang and students moved from the playground to the classrooms.
One high level hotspot was where a bottleneck occurred because of the placement of gardens and demountable classrooms. It was in this particular area and during a short period of time, where more students were hurt and more verbal and physical fights broke out.
Because the students were physically forced into closer proximity than was comfortable, they jostled each other as they ran back to class and the inevitable outcome was greater misunderstandings between students leading to relationship issues.
To remedy this situation, the school simply had to change the pathway. That means, make it wider, move some garden beds for the students to transition from the playground to the classroom in a calmer and safer manner.
This same approach is necessary across all areas of school.
The classroom environment can contribute to problems between students as well as reduce student engagement and learning. When teachers and schools give careful thought to how the environment is arranged, authentic learning is enhanced and incidental behaviour issues can be prevented.
Q.2 Critically examine the examination system in Pakistan.
Examination System in Pakistan
- 1. 1 Topic: Examination System in Pakistan -a Legal& Policy Aspect (Paper Setting, Practical Examination, Oral Examination) Course Title: Test Theories and Design (EduMP – 707) Submitted by (Saira Kazim1, Maria Siraj2, Arooj Fatima3, Shazia Tabasam4) Submitted to Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad Programme M.Phil Education (2nd Semester) Session 2014-2016 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIPHAH INTERNATIONALUNIVERSITY FAISALABAD
- 2. 2 INTRODUCTION The process of educating and examining the growing human child is as old as man himself. Only its form and method have changed from time to time, the primitive man was taught by example and tested through confrontation with the actual life situations. In the early civilized societies formal instruction was limited to a gifted and selected few: The sage, the philosopher and the religious preceptor taught and tested orally by questioning the disciple. For purposes of appraisal usually two terms are used, namely; examination and evaluation. The term examination aims at ensuring that the matter learnt is adequately fixed and properly recalled. This is a narrow significance and usually relates to class room situations in which emphasis is laid on the learning of a few facts and skills. But the term evaluation has a wider connotation. It relates to finding out the mental, moral and social changes that have come about in the personality pattern of a student and are directly affecting his behavior. Evaluation has a direct reference to the goals of education and therefore, must take into consideration broader implications which have ramifications into the growth and development of the personalities of the students. http://www.nwfpuet.edu.pk Conceptof Examination “It is He who hath made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth; He hath raised you in ranks, some above others; that He may try you in the gifts He hath given you; For thy Lord is quick in punishment; yet He is indeed oft-forgiving, most Merciful”. (Al-Quran. vi: 165). Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or fruits (of you toil). But give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere (Al- Quran.ii:155). Examination is a measuring instrument intended to verify both a candidates’ value and value of teaching he has received. It is an indicator of the training given and received. It is to measure what has been accomplished during the period of study to weigh each candidate’s sum of knowledge and appraise his ability. It looks like target, incentive,
- 3. 3 motive or stimulant. “It provides motives for the teacher and a spur for the pupils. Examination conditions and orientates the entire teaching process” (UNESCO 1961) The aim of our examination system is to judge the achievement of students in different areas such as personality development, creative thinking, and love for Islamic values examinations are the only tools for measuring these aspects. Examinations are frequently employed in order to keep the students constantly stimulated to high level of achievement. Examination system may be internal or external. The success of which depends on the reliability and the validity of the system. Page and Thomas (1978) explain the concept of examination as “(1) Assessment of ability, achievement or present performance in a subject (2) instrument of assessment can be log essay or mixed form of assessment may be used for qualifying for entrance to professions and higher education.” REVIEW OF EDUCATION POLICIES AND FIVE-YEAR PLANS SINCE 1947 The National Education Policies, Reports and Five Year Plans about the examination system of Pakistan are reviewed as under: In the Pakistan Educational Conference (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947) “it has been felt for a long time that the system of university education comprising the syllabuses, curricula, examinations and teaching method is unsatisfactory and require a thorough review in order to bring it into line with our educational ideals and needs”. The Educational Conference, (Govt. of Pakistan, 1951) noted “Closely related to the problem of curricular reorganization is the problem of examinations. It is matter of common knowledge that our existing system of education is dominated by examination, which bears little relation to the requirements of life. They have in fact come to be regarded as the be-all of education”. In the First Five Year Plan 1955-60 (Govt. of Pakistan. 1955) highlighted, “The examination has come to serve other than education process chiefly as measure of qualification entitling students to admission to a higher level of education i.e. for
- 4. 4 government or other employment. Placing the external examination in its proper perspective could make great intellectual and economic savings”. Commission on National Education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1959) envisaged, “Internal examinations have at present no value, the external examination is the exclusive preoccupation of the student and he does not feel under strange immediate pressure to attend lectures or to ensure teacher’s guidance personally or in the tutorial group”. “The examination system reflects the prevalent methods of teaching and learning. The value and appropriateness of the current examination system has already been questioned. Unfair practices have been mounting during the last two-decade. This archaic system is conducive to laziness of the pupils over lengthy periods of time, is expensive and is known to encourage memorization (Govt. of Pakistan, 1965) It is revealed in New Education Policy (Govt. of Pakistan, 1970),” The existing system of education fails to serve as a measure of achievement or an incentive to learning. It recommended that a committee of experts should be appointed to look into various facets of examination system at different stages of education and to suggest suitable reforms”. The Education Policy 1972-80 (Govt. of Pakistan, 1972) laid emphasis on the change in curriculum should be accompanied by necessary reforms examination system. The existing system of examination is one the root causes of the general malaise in our education system. To make the education system fruitful, it is essential to alter radically the present examination system. The Fifth Five Year Plan 1978-83 (Govt. of Pakistan, 1978) recommended “To reform examination and evaluation system necessary training shall be provided to the teachers. To encourage the school teachers to use new type of tests, the contents of various textbooks, shall be converted into test items designed to measure different educational objectives. An allocation of Rs. 5.00 million has been made for programs relating to examination reforms”. In the National Education Policy and Implementation Program (Govt. of Pakistan, 1979) states “It has constantly been observed that one of the fundamental reasons for the deterioration of educational standards is the perpetual continuation of an obsolete system
Q.4 Explain the responsibilities of NBC and text book. Also give suggestions for improving the quality of textbook.
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Q.5 Explain the system of evaluation. Also critically examine the CIPP Model of evaluation.
System evaluation is the section of computation that we focus on optimizing because it is the computation that is embedded within a parent simulation code. Recall that our goal is to evaluate N trees, all sharing the same system to be evaluated.
Therefore, the constructed code array is shared among all evaluation instances. System evaluation assumes that M × N-component values have been calculated according to the parent simulation, where M is the number of components in the system to be evaluated and N is the number of instances of the tree to be evaluated. The function in Figure 6.4 is called for each instance of the fault tree, looping over each entry in the code array and handling the operations according to each instruction.