aiou course code 8603-2 assignment autumn 2022

aiou course code 8603-2 assignment autumn 2022

Course: Curriculum Development (8603) Semester: Autumn, 2022


Q. 1 Analyze the higher secondary school curriculum in Pakistan under the criteria for corriculum organization given by Ralph Tyler in his book “Basic Principles of curriculum and Instruction”.

Curriculum Development: The Tyler Model

The Tyler Model, developed by Ralph Tyler in the 1940’s, is the quintessential prototype of curriculum development in the scientific approach. One could almost dare to say that every certified teacher in America and maybe beyond has developed curriculum either directly or indirectly using this model or one of the many variations.

Tyler did not intend for his contribution to curriculum to be a lockstep model for development. Originally, he wrote down his ideas in a book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction for his students to give them an idea about principles for to making curriculum. The brilliance of Tyler’s model is that it was one of the first models and it was and still is a highly simple model consisting of four steps.

Determine the school’s purposes (aka objectives)

Identify educational experiences related to purpose

Organize the experiences

Evaluate the purposes

Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction

Step one is determining the objectives of the school or class. In other words, what do the students need to do in order to be successful? Each subject has natural objectives that are indicators of mastery. All objectives need to be consistent with the philosophy of the school and this is often neglected in curriculum development. For example, a school that is developing an English curriculum may create an objective that students will write essays. This would be one of many objectives within the curriculum.

Step two is developing learning experiences that help the students to achieve step one. For example, if students need to meet the objective of writing an essay. The learning experience might be a demonstration by the teacher of writing an essay. The students than might practice writing essays. The experience (essay demonstration and writing) is consistent with the objective (Student will write an essay).

Step three is organizing the experiences. Should the teacher demonstrate first or should the students learn by writing immediately? Either way could work and preference is determined by the philosophy of the teacher and the needs of the students. The point is that the teacher needs to determine a logical order of experiences for the students.

Q.3 Select any level of education (Primary to higher secondary), evaluate its scheme of studies and prepare a brief report.

Education System

The system of education includes all institutions that are involved in delivering formal education (public and private, for-profit and nonprofit, onsite or virtual instruction) and their faculties, students, physical infrastructure, resources and rules. In a broader definition the system also includes the institutions that are directly involved in financing, managing, operating or regulating such institutions (like government ministries and regulatory bodies, central testing organizations, textbook boards and accreditation boards). The rules and regulations that guide the individual and institutional interactions within the set up are also part of the education system.

Education system of Pakistan:

The education system of Pakistan is comprised of 260,903 institutions and is facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. The system includes 180,846 public institutions and 80,057 private institutions. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes.

Analysis of education system in Pakistan

Pakistan has expressed its commitment to promote education and literacy in the country by education policies at domestic level and getting involved into international commitments on education. In this regard national education policies are the visions which suggest strategies to increase literacy rate, capacity building, and enhance facilities in the schools and educational institutes. MDGs and EFA programmes are global commitments of Pakistan for the promotion of literacy.

A review of the education system of Pakistan suggests that there has been little change in Pakistan’s schools since 2010, when the 18th Amendment enshrined education as a fundamental human right in the constitution. Problems of access, quality, infrastructure and inequality of opportunity, remain endemic.


A)    MDGs and Pakistan

Due to the problems in education system of Pakistan, the country is lagging behind in achieving its MDGs of education. The MDGs have laid down two goals for education sector:

Goal 2: The goal 2 of MDGs is to achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE) and by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. By the year 2014 the enrolment statistics show an increase in the enrolment of students of the age of 3-16 year while dropout rate decreased. But the need for increasing enrolment of students remains high to achieve MDGs target. Punjab is leading province wise in net primary enrolment rate with 62% enrolment. The enrolment rate in Sindh province is 52%, in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KPK) 54% and primary enrolment rate in Balochistan is 45%.

Goal 3: The goal 3 of MDGs is Promoting Gender Equality and Women Empowerment. It is aimed at eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and in all levels of education not later than 2015. There is a stark disparity between male and female literacy rates. The national literacy rate of male was 71% while that of female was 48% in 2012-13. Provinces reported the same gender disparity. Punjab literacy rate in male was 71% and for females it was 54%. In Sindh literacy rate in male was 72% and female 47%, in KPK male 70% and females 35%, while in Balochistan male 62% and female 23%.

B)    Education for All (EFA) Commitment

The EFA goals focus on early childhood care and education including pre-schooling, universal primary education and secondary education to youth, adult literacy with gender parity and quality of education as crosscutting thematic and programme priorities.

EFA Review Report October 2014 outlines that despite repeated policy commitments, primary education in Pakistan is lagging behind in achieving its target of universal primary education. Currently the primary gross enrolment rate stands at 85.9% while Pakistan requires increasing it up to 100% by 2015-16 to fulfil EFA goals.  Of the estimated total primary school going 21.4 million children of ages 5-9 years, 68.5% are enrolled in schools, of which 8.2 million or 56% are boys and 6.5 million or 44% are girls. Economic Survey of Pakistan confirms that during the year 2013-14 literacy remained much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and higher among males.

1)      Lack of Proper Planning: Pakistan is a signatory to MDGs and EFA goals. However it seems that it will not be able to achieve these international commitments because of financial management issues and constraints to achieve the MDGs and EFA goals.

2)      Social constraints: It is important to realize that the problems which hinder the provision of education are not just due to issues of management by government but some of them are deeply rooted in the social and cultural orientation of the people. Overcoming the latter is difficult and would require a change in attitude of the people, until then universal primary education is difficult to achieve.

3)      Gender gap: Major factors that hinder enrolment rates of girls include poverty, cultural constraints, illiteracy of parents and parental concerns about safety and mobility of their daughters. Society’s emphasis on girl’s modesty, protection and early marriages may limit family’s willingness to send them to school. Enrolment of rural girls is 45% lower than that of urban girls; while for boys the difference is 10% only, showing that gender gap is an important factor.

4)      Cost of education: The economic cost is higher in private schools, but these are located in richer settlements only. The paradox is that private schools are better but not everywhere and government schools ensure equitable access but do not provide quality education.

5)      War on Terror: Pakistan’s engagement in war against terrorism also affected the promotion of literacy campaign. The militants targeted schools and students; several educational institutions were blown up, teachers and students were killed in Balochistan, KPK and FATA. This may have to contribute not as much as other factors, but this remains an important factor.

6)      Funds for Education: Pakistan spends 2.4% GDP on education. At national level, 89% education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teachers’ salaries, while only 11% comprises of development expenditure which is not sufficient to raise quality of education.

7)      Technical Education: Sufficient attention has not been paid to the technical and vocational education in Pakistan. The number of technical and vocational training institutes is not sufficient and many are deprived of infrastructure, teachers and tools for training. The population of a state is one of the main elements of its national power. It can become an asset once it is skilled. Unskilled population means more jobless people in the country, which affects the national development negatively. Therefore, technical education needs priority handling by the government.

Q.4 Analyze the process of curriculum development in Saudi Arabia

Official Education in Saudi Arabia

Official public education in Saudi Arabia was established in 1925, and it was placed under the Director of

Knowledge. The public school was only for boys, as girls were not allowed to enroll in public school. During

that time, girls were taught at home, which is called “Ktateb”, where a scholar woman taught her students at her

home, covering subjects such as religious studies and language (Hamdan, 2005). At that time, some girls tried to

get their education from the public school system, especially girls, who were from the west and the east coast

areas of the country. Before analyzing women’s education in Saudi Arabia, it is important to know the structure

of Saudi Arabian society and understand that the role of tradition and religion is vital to interpreting social

change in the country, especially as it relates to women (Hamdan, 2005). Saudi Arabia is composed of five areas:

east, west, south, north of the country. The east and west areas are multicultural and have people from different

social classes, so they are less conservative than the other parts of the country; this means most girls who were

fighting for their education were from the east and west areas of the country. This effort was confronted strongly

by society, especially religious men, who thought girls should not have the same opportunity as boys. Smith

states, “[w]e are not talking about prejudice or sexism as particular bias against women or a negative stereotype

of women. We are talking about the consequence of women’s exclusion from a full share in the making of what

becomes treated as our culture” (Smith, 1987: p. 20). In fact, there are three different explanations for why so-

ciety fought girls’ education.

The first explanation is that religious men believed that by allowing girls to study at public schools, Saudi so-

ciety would be exposed to the West and its culture, and then the Saudi society would be negatively affected

(AlMunajjed, 1997). In fact, the religious men usually believed that any item or any idea imported from Western

culture was not to be trusted, even though society might be in need of that idea.

The second explanation is that if girls were allowed to study in public school, society would be in danger, be-

cause the main role of women is to raise children and be a good mother (Hamdan, 2005), Therefore, the struc-

ture of the Saudi family would be threatened by women’s education. Unfortunately, this argument was not only

used in Saudi Arabia, but it has also been prevalent in most areas of the world when women have been fighting

for their education. In the United States, some communities thought the role of women is to raise children, not

obtain higher education. Therefore, women struggled to find housing on campus because they were not welcome

inside campus, and they did not receive what the men on campus received. Not only that, but they also did not

get jobs after finishing their bachelor degrees, so they ended up staying at home as housewives or mothers

(Gordon, 1987).

The third explanation is related to religion, as most men in Saudi society, especially religious men, believed

women should stay at home. They are not allowed to be out of their home unless they have a convincing reason,

such as seeing a doctor or buying groceries for their homes. This idea developed because religious men thought

if women were allowed to leave their home, society would become corrupt because women would deal and talk

with strange men, which is against religion as they believed it. Therefore, girls were fighting for their education

for more than forty years to be part of the public school system. After this historical explanation, this paper will

illustrate the three major challenges for girls’ education in Saudi Arabia including how the curriculum has been

reformed from time to time.

3. Girls’ Curriculum in 1960

Without persuading religious men in the country and getting their support, it was impossible to establish girls’

education in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, “[i]n 1959, King Saud discussed the issue of educating women in Saudi

Arabia, and he sought support from religion’s scholars to start education for girls” (Alamri, 2011: p. 88). In

1960, King Faisal issued a decision that announced the establishment of girls’ public schools. In the middle of

the country, especially in Buriadah, people were against the King’s decision, so they went out with their guns to

close any girls’ school in their city by force (Hamdan, 2005). After that, they met the King and asked him to

cancel his decision. According to Lacey, “whenever King Faisal faced resistance” He would ask, “Is there any-

thing in the Holy Quran which forbids the education of women?” He would further state, “We have no cause for

argument, God enjoins learning on every Muslim man and women” (Lacey, 1981: p. 368). At the end of the

meeting, the King told them they were not obligated to enroll their girls in public school. In fact, for pacification

of the religious men, the King established an education institution for girls’ education that was separate from the

Ministry of Knowledge for boys. The head and director for girl’s education institution was “The Mufti of the

Country,” who was also the head of religion of the country. Therefore, these groups made the decisions regarding how girls’ education should look.

In the Girls’ Education Constitution, the religious men indicated that the purpose of educating a girl, as stated by the Directorate General, was “to bring her up in a proper Islamic way so as to perform her duty in life, be an

ideal and successful housewife and a good mother, ready to do things which suit her nature as teaching, nursing,

and medical treatment” (Alireza, 1987). Also, in another article, they wrote that girls must be separate from boys’

schools at all education level except kindergarten (Alireza, 1987). Those schools were guarded by men to pre-

vent any man from entering those schools. Amani states, “Each girls’ school, college or university is assigned at

least two men who are usually in their 50 s or 60 s who are responsible to check the identity of those who enter

the school, deliver and pick up the mail and generally to safeguard the girls inside the school until they are

picked up by their fathers or brothers” (Hamdan, 2005: p. 50).

Even though society, knowledge, and students can be a source of curriculum (Tanner, D., & Tanner, L. N.,

1975), girls in Saudi Arabia were ignored and were not asked about their needs or their interests. Smith states

that in regards to women’s education in Saudi Arabia, “women need to learn to relate to one another and treat

each other as sources of knowledge” (Smith, 1987: p. 35). Dewey believed it is very important to relate curricu-

lum to students’ interests and experiences (Dewey, 1902). At that period of time in Saudi Arabia, boys were the

only ones who appeared to benefit from girls’ education because schools were preparing girls to be good wives

for their husbands. Therefore, girls at that time were taught a different curriculum from boys because the pur-

pose of schooling was different. According to Tanner, D., & Tanner, L. N. (1975), the purpose of school is for

preparing students for him or herself, a career, and citizenship. For boys, the purpose includes all three purposes

with a different balance. However, the purpose for women in Saudi Arabia was only preparing her for herself.

Because girls were not allowed to work at any job or to offer any thing for their country as a part of citizenship,

schools only prepared them to be a good wife and mother. At that time, what was considered most worthwhile

was to teach Islamic studies, Arabic language, basic math and housekeeper. The content of those curricula was

totally different from what boys are taught because they are offered from different institution. The Ministry of

Knowledge, which was for boys, has people who created the curriculum who were very well educated and held

education degrees. On the other hand, people who created women’s curriculum were religious and did not hold a

degree or have knowledge on designing curriculum. In fact, when I analyzed the language curriculum from that

time, I found that I was confused when I tried to find the objective or the goals of curriculum. It appears that so-

ciety was afraid to give anyone a chance to lead girls’ education except religious men. Women who graduated

from public school stayed at home or received training to be a teacher for a girl’s school.

One purpose of high school is preparing students for college (Tanner, D., & Tanner, L. N., 1975).  Higher

education was established in Saudi in 1949 when the Islamic college started enrolling students for first time, and

in 1957, King Saud University was found and started enrolling students in several colleges (Hakeem, 2012).

However, higher education was only for boys, and girls were prevented from getting higher education. There-

fore, boys’ schools were improved to reach the higher education criteria. In 1969, the girls’ education institution

found that they had a shortage of teachers, so they decided to establish girls’ teacher colleges in order to employ

those girls for their schools (Hakeem, 2012). Unfortunately, girls were not allowed to take any major as was the

case for men; the only major they could study at those colleges was teaching and basic courses such as cooking.

That affected the curriculum they were taught girls’ teaching colleges because it was only focused on one pur-

pose, which was preparing for teaching and ignoring the other proposes of schooling, that are citizenship and

self. From 1960 until 1969, women received some rights to attend public schools and higher education. Even

thought they did not have equal opportunities compared to men, it was great improvement inside the very con-

servative society.

4. Girls’ Curriculum after 9/11

The situation of the isolation of the institutions of girls’ education from boys’ education was stabled for more

than thirty years. Girls’ schooling in elementary, secondary, high school and university remained under the De-

partment of Religious Guidance until 2002, while the education of boys was overseen by the Ministry of Educa-

tion (Hamdan, 2005). After the attacked of 9/11, the country came under criticism, especially for women’s


The Gulf Wars have also drawn world attention to the events in the Gulf nations and to the status of women in that part of the world. Ironically, the events of 9/11 brought to light again and more powerfully than ever before

the issue of women’s rights in Saudi society. In the aftermath of 9/11, the Saudi system in general and its reli-gious education system in particular became the focus of much criticism. One question put forward by Prokop

captures the essence of that criticism. Prokop asked to what extent the education system had been shaped and used by religious, political, and socioeconomic forces and interests (Hamdan, 2005: p. 56).

Most criticism centered on schools and curriculum because it might have influenced the output of terrorism.

Therefore, Islamic radicalism was blamed, and many educators petitioned the Saudi government to reform its

curriculum (Elyas & Picard, 2013). From that time, the battle was established between the liberalism lobby and

the religious men in the terms of curriculum. Each side thought they represented society and wanted to use their

agenda to develop curriculum. In 2002, the liberals found that it was a time to release girls’ education from reli-

gious men. According to Hamdan, “In 2002, the General Presidency for Girls’ Education and the Ministry of

Education were amalgamated as a result of requests from both the general public and the government after a fire

in March 2002 in an elementary girls’ school in Mecca resulted in the death of 15 young girls” (2005: p. 44).

People were angry about that decision because they believed it was the first step to changing the society, and

girls and boys could be integrated at the same schools in future.

Even though girls’ schools were now under the Ministry of Education, they were not receiving education in

the same subjects as boys. The content of curriculum for girls still focused on how to be a good mother and ig-

nored other important issues in women’s lives in Saudi Arabia, such as how to be a good leader. As an example,

girls were not allowed study any sport subjects because society was afraid if girls’ were given a chance to play

sports that might affect her negatively. Even thought Islam does not prevent girls from playing sports, the cul-

ture had power to prevent this because it was not acceptable for women to play sports even in closed buildings

where men were not allowed to get in.

Another subject that has been disregarded for girls is citizenship education; even though boys are taught citi-

zenship from first grade through twelfth grade, girls were not taught this subject at all. I believe that because the

society still did not believed that women could serve in any role for their country as a part of their citizenship.

Not only were girls prevented from taking those subjects, but also they did not have a chance to attend vocational

schools even though it is as important as academic subjects (Tanner, D., & Tanner, L. N., 1975). The number of

girls who enrolled in public school was almost equal to the number of boys, but girls did not receive the quality

of curriculum and subject. Also, girls were not allowed to practice any kind of marketing or work in positions

such as a cashier. Even though the society was changing gradually, it was still impossible for women to work

beside men in public. Therefore, girls did not take any class or skills about how markets work that boys were

taking. Even though girls’ education was under the Ministry of Education, it could not change the curriculum,

not only for girls but also for boys, because of the expected reaction of society, especially religious men.

After 2001, women’s higher education began flourishing, and now most universities have a campus for girls.

Also, girls could now major in medicine, biology, and computer science in most of those campuses. However,

even though there were many campuses for girls around the country, they still were not allowed to attend every

class at some colleges. For example, girls’ campuses did not have engineering colleges, and the reasoning was

that even if they offered that degree, girls would not have a chance to work in that field when they graduated.

Moreover, society made the decision about what girls should take and what they should not, so society did not

accept that girls could take the same courses that boys were going to take. Therefore, when girls were preparing

for the college level they were not prepared like boys. For example, when I asked my sisters what do they want

to be after graduating from high school they said that “there is no choice for us, we are obligated to be a teacher”

while my brothers could make choices to be what they wanted to. It seems girls and boys were operating differ-

rently at school. According to Lloyd, Mensch, and Clark (2000: p. 113) “[m]uch research on the determinants of

school enrollment, retention, and ultimate grade attainment in developing countries has been confined to an ex-

ploration of the role of individual and family factors, often with particular attention given to the ways in which

these factors may operate differently for boys and for girls”.

5. King Abdullah’s Project

The last challenge and development for girls’ education started with era of King Abdullah. In 2006, the King

announced the project of development education. The aims of the project are to increase the capacity of Saudi

Arabia to be competitive and to build a knowledgeable society through a variety of programs, including the following:

• Building an integrated system of educational standards, calendar, and accounting.

• Head the implementation of the programs for the development of education, including the following five


1) Continuing professional development for all those working in education.

2) Development of curricula and learning materials.

3) Improve the school environment to enhance learning.

4) Use information technology to improve learning.

5) Develop non-classroom activities and student services.

(Mashroa Almalek Abdullah Ltatwer Atalyem, 2012).

Those aims were for both girls and boys, so the first development was that they should have the same curri-

culum and that it should be revised to meet international standards. Once again there was opposition, especially

from religious men, because they thought it was impossible for girls to study the same subjects that boys are

taking. However, the power of the religious men inside society is weaker than it was before. Also, in 2009, King

Abdullah decided to give women a chance to be Ministry Education leaders. Dr. Noura al-Fayez is Deputy Mi-

nister of Education Affairs for girls. That means that at this time girls are perceived in the same manner that

boys are. For example, now girls are allowed to play sports inside their some schools, which was impossible ten

years ago. The quality of curriculum that boys were given is the same for girls right now.

This improvement is not only at K-12 level but also at the higher education level. In 2006, King Abdullah’s

scholarship was established. The scholarship is offered for study in universities around the world. Girls are given

same chance that boys are, with more flexibility for girls. According to the Ministry of Higher Education “Cur-

rently, more than 300 higher education colleges exist for women in the country alongside universities, and

women represent more than 56.6% of the total number of Saudi university students and more than 20% of those

benefiting from overseas scholarship program.” (Ministry of Higher, 2010) With scholarship girls are allowed to

major in the same fields as are boys. For example, they can be lawyers or engineers, which was impossible for

them 10 years ago.

Q.5 Write short notes on the following:

 (a) Levels of Content and their Function

 (b) Procedures of content Selection

 (c) Principles of Curriculum Organization

(d) Selection and Organization of Teaching Methods

(a) Levels of Content and their Function

A content level refers to the level of content in a brand hierarchy. Higher levels are more rooted in your core brand experience, while lower levels support them in terms of strategy, branding, or function. You can use content levels to better understand the interconnectedness of the branded content you create for your business.

11 levels of brand content

1.      Core

2.      Vertical

3.      Hub

4.      Franchise

5.      Campaign

6.      Pillar

7.      Ladder

8.      Skyscraper

9.      Foundational

10.  Asset

11.  Element

1. Core

At a minimum, core content is content essential to your business offerings. Without it your brand wouldn’t exist — and you’d be unable to generate awareness or revenue. Core content often includes your website, key product and services pages, functional messaging and automation, as well as your brand’s mission and vision.

You define your core content.

Please note that the definition of core content is subjective. Always clarify what it means to your brand when communicating with content strategists and creators. For instance, if you opted to only have a brand presence on Facebook, your Facebook page and feed would be your core content. Or, if you’re like many marketers and publishers, you might casually refer to “core content” in the generic sense, meaning any content that is essential to a strategy, campaign or project. Context matters

2. Vertical

Verticals are major categories or broad themes of content toward the top of your content taxonomy. Think of the Yellow Pages, for instance. Within the directory you’ll find major business categories, such as Restaurants, Health, and Home Services. You could consider each of these top categories as verticals because each has dozens of sub-categories under their larger umbrella in the taxonomy (e.g., dozens of cuisine types under Restaurants).

3. Hub

Content hubs are organized collections of content. They can be as simple as navigable guides or blogs (such as the ClearVoice Blog) or as sophisticated as aggregates of multiple content types, links and feeds.

4. Franchise

Franchises are media produced on a recurring basis within a particular theme or story, or by a particular author/creator. They can range from newsletters and recurring columns, like our monthly Content Radars on Marketing Studies by Chad Buleen, to full-on entertainment franchises, like Harry Potter or the Marvel Universe.

5. Campaign

Campaigns are themed content initiatives tied to specific goals/KPIs and limited to predetermined time periods (or “flight times”). They can range from simple, themed series of posts on your social media to complex national advertisements, or even in-person events. (Yes, an in-person event or presence at a conference should be treated like a campaign.) Campaigns also can take on the feel of franchises, with multiple campaigns that build upon one another in a progressive series.

6. Pillar

Content pillars are bundles of content pages (or assets) supporting a specific theme or topic. Synonymous terms often include topic clusters, spokes-and-wheels, pillar pages, pillar posts, content bundles, or content series.

7. Ladder

Content ladders are long-form content pages (or assets) that are intended to be updated frequently. They often might grow or change in length from their first published version, and can reach lengths of 3,000 words or more. Ladders are meant to evolve over time.

8. Skyscraper

Skyscrapers are long-form content pages (or assets), often 1,500 words or more in length (similar to this one), that are used for link-building on particular topics. The term “skyscraper” refers to the “skyscraping height” of long content that requires significant vertical scrolling. Skyscrapers can be pages within a content pillar or a hub, but not necessarily. They also can be core content pages of your website. Unlike content ladders, however, the content on a skyscraper should be evergreen in nature, with only periodic updates.

9. Foundational

Foundational content can cover any content you create or solicit (e.g., user-generated) for your branded experiences that supports the higher levels of content and strategy.

10. Asset

Assets are valuable, distinct pieces of branded content that can be used for multiple purposes or strategies. They can range from infographics and branded templates to standalone brand experiences and promotional items for distribution. Assets can include a wide variety of content types: ebooks, videos, presentations, podcasts, reports, collateral, boilerplates, executive bios, podcasts, webinar recordings, original photos, ads, swag, merch, et al.

11. Element

Elements are similar to assets but they cannot stand on their own. Elements are building blocks that are used in the creation of higher levels of content. Examples include graphics, photos, widgets, forms, frames, code, non-branded templates (e.g., in Adobe, Microsoft Office, or other software), raw data, fonts, palettes et al.

B,,,Procedures of content Selection

Seven Criteria for the Selection of Subject-matter or Content of the Curriculum

The 7 criteria below can be utilized in the selection of subject matter for micro curriculum, and for the content, subjects needed for the curricular program or course, of the macro curriculum.

1. Self-sufficiency

To help learners attain maximum self-sufficiency at the most economical manner is the main guiding principle for subject matter or content selection (Scheffler, 1970) as cited by Bilbao et al., (2008). Economy of learning refers to less teaching effort and less use of educational resources; but students gain more results. They are able to cope up with the learning outcomes effectively.

This means that students should be given chance to experiment, observe, and do field study. This allows them to learn independently.

With this principle in mind, I suggest that for a high school curriculum or preparatory year, there should be a one day independent learning activity each week. However, this should be carefully planned by the teacher. When the students return, they should present outputs from the activity.

2. Significance

The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organized for the development of learning activities, skills, processes, and attitude. It also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills, and considers the cultural aspects of the learners. Particularly, if your students come from different cultural backgrounds and races, the subject matter must be culture-sensitive.

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