Course: Curriculum Development (8603) Semester: Spring, 2022 Level: B.Ed (One and half years)
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
- 1 Critically analyze the process of educational planning in the implementation of curriculum in Pakistan.
EDUCATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS
It’s the process of laying out a logical structure called a plan.
- It is cyclic in nature i.e.
- It varies from one country to another due to:
- Degree to which the education plan forms the integral part of the economic plan
- The weakness or strength of the statistical services
- The features of the school systems-both private and public
- The weakness or strength of the statistical services
There are five stages
- Base Situation Analysis/identification of the national goals
- Prepare the draft education plan/determine the best of the alternative
- Approval and experimentation
- Implementation/Decision making
- Evaluation/ Feedback World Bank
Base Situational Analysis/identification of the national goals
- Look at education system from a wider perspective e.g. societal, enrolment rate (gross/apparent or real/net)
Answers questions such as:
Q.2 Analyze variuos models of objectives and develop a model for Pakistan.
The model objectives are the maximization of ENPV and the minimization of financial risk. To assess risk, four different risk measures were used and compared: variance, variability index, downside risk and conditional value-at-risk. Choosing the most adequate risk measure depends on the decision maker.
The Objectives Model The objectives model of curriculum design contains content that is based on specific objectives. These objectives should specify expected learning outcomes in terms of specific measurable behaviours.
Q.3 How does and to what extent a social and economic diversities affect curriculum development? Discuss in detail.
The term curriculum may be defined in many different ways: as a subject matter, or a set of rules and experiences, which help to choose the best way of development, or a plan that has to be followed.
Jon Wiles (2008) explains curriculum as “a set of desired goals or values that are activated through a development process and culminate in successful learning experiences for students” (p.2).
Curriculum development is an integral function that depends on numerous political, economical, social, technological, and psychological factors. Right now, political (political instability) and technological (variety of innovations) factors affective curriculum development will be evaluated.
Modern world continues progressing day by day: people present new inventions, demonstrate demands, change interests, forget about their primary functions, and try to follow their personal ideas. Each sphere undergoes considerable changes and causes the development of everything.
It is not a surprise that curriculum development becomes dependent on certain factors. Among the variety of these factors, such points like political instability and technological innovations are regarded as the most important ones.
Politics has a certain impact on all spheres of life, and instability of politics leads to instability in everyday life. It usually defines goals and content; political considerations need to be admitted while curriculum development; and political decisions may change the requirements for curriculum development.
Q.4 What is the impact of instructional technology on the development of curriculum in Pakistan?
The term „curriculum‟ signified a course of studies followed by a pupil in a teaching institution. Presently, it means, generally speaking, the contract between society, the State and educational professionals with regard to the educational activities that learners should undergo during a certain phase of their lives to learn something desirable. Standard dictionaries define curriculum as a course of study offered by an academic institution. Joseph (2011) described that the curriculum is formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices/ of an academic institution. In other words, curriculum can be defined as the total experience. According to Slattery, (2006) curriculum is not only the content selected and delivered, but also the planned and unplanned activities in which individuals‟ participate as students. According to De Conic (2008), curriculum, more than ever before, is now viewed as being at the center of daily life and the responsibility of society as a whole. Curriculum development today presents both a strategic process challenge as well as a policy challenge. Curriculum development is an important and central area of higher education. Curriculum provides desirable experiences. Curriculum development is a process in which choices of learning experiences are made and activated through coordinated activities. Main factors of curriculum development are; goals, learners, bases of curriculum, and curriculum design, it is architectural portion of whole process. Curriculum is the foundation of the teaching-learning process. The development of programs of study, learning and teaching resources, lesson plans and assessment of students, and even teacher education are all based on curriculum. Curriculum and curriculum development at first glance appear to be of chief concern to educators, governments and parents, and both have relevance and impact on the development of communities and prosperity. Qureshi, (2007) discussed that the term “Curriculum” would be understand to including all major factors related to concept of curriculum process of curriculum development, role of curriculum development, global trends of curriculum development, selection, analysis and organization of curriculum development and qualities of a good curriculum developer. In a nutshell, the term curriculum development indicates key areas of activity that and educationist and experts has to follow when developing the curriculum of specific level.
Technology plays vital role as it helps in research and development. Learn the importance of technology in instructional design over here. When making plans for higher education in order to seek career advancement or to achieve any other sets of goals, it is important to look at the big picture.
Q.5 Critically review the existing schemes of studies at secondary level of education. How schemes of studies are developed and processed in our country after 18th constitutional amendment?
Scheme of Studies: The scheme of studies means the courses/syllabi prescribed at different levels of education. The scheme of studies is given as follows:
- Primary Level: The subjects at the primary level are regional languages, Urdu, Counting, Simple Arithmetic, Nature Study and Islamiyat.
- Middle Level: The subjects at the middle level are regional languages, Urdu, English, Algebra, Geometry, Science, Social Studies, and Islamiyat.
- Secondary Level: The subjects at the secondary level are Urdu, English, Islamiyat, Pakistan studies – compulsory subjects for all groups. Humanities group students study General Science and Mathematics as additional compulsory subjects and two optional subjects of their choice.
18th Constitutional amendment
At present, the following schemes targeted at secondary stage (i.e. class IX to XII) are being implemented in the form of Centrally Sponsored Schemes: