AIOU Course Code 8601- solved Assignments Spring 2022

Course  code 8601                          Semester Spring 2022

Assignment No 2

  1. 1 Identify advantages and disadvantages o discussion method. Analyze the rules to organizeclassroom discussion.


Jones  et  al  (1994)  has  given the  following  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  discussion method: Advantages:

  1. The  information acquired  through discussion  method  is  meaningful  and  helps students  to  develop critical  thinking and problem  solving skills.
  2. Discussion technique  leads  students  towards  attitudinal  change  through selfawareness.
  3. Discussion technique  can help the  student  to  develop a  positive  self-concept.
  4.  During discussion,  student  maintains  high degree  of  mental  alertness.  Thus, discussion  puts  positive  effect  upon students’  mental  activity.  This  alertness  is  one reason why discussion is  often praised  as  being a  motivator.
  5. Discussion gives  the  teacher  information about  the  student  which can help in  a better  understanding of  students,  individually  and collectively.
  6. If  teacher  is  carefully  observing the  discussion  session,  it  can  provide  him  information about  the  social,  psychological,  emotional,  and  skill  development  of  the  student.


  1. Discussion requires much time.  That’s  why this  technique  is  usually timeconsuming.
  2. Discussion often becomes a  confused,  meaningless  activity because  of  some  boring topics  or  lack of  students’

Q.3   ( b )   Discuss the process of identifying learning difficulties of students.


Every student  has  a  unique  identity,  mind,  learning styles  and  learning needs.  During instruction  students  face  different  learning  difficulties.  Interstate New  Teachers Assessment  and  Support  Consortium  (INTASC)  (2010,  Pp.1-4)  has  presented some standards  for  teachers  to identify learning  difficulties  of  students.

Standard #  l:  The  teacher  understands  the  central  concepts,  tools  of  inquiry,  and structures  of  the discipline(s)  he or  she teaches  and  can  create learning  experiences  that make  these aspects  of  subject  matter  meaningful  for  students. To accomplish this  standard,  the  teacher  should  understand major  concepts,  assumptions, debates,  processes  of  inquiry,  and  ways  of  knowing that  are  central  to the  discipline(s) s/he  teaches.  The  teacher  should  also understand how  students  ‘conceptual  frameworks and  their  misconceptions  for  an area  of  knowledge  can influence  their  learning.  In  this regard,  the  teacher  relates  his/her  disciplinary  knowledge  to other  subject  areas. The teacher  realizes  that  subject  matter  knowledge is  not  a fixed  body  of  facts  but  is complex  and  ever-evolving.  S/he  seeks  to  keep  abreast  of  new  ideas  and  understandings in  the field.  The teacher  appreciates  multiple perspectives  and  conveys  to learners  how knowledge  is  developed  from  the  vantage  point  of  the  learner.  The  teacher  has enthusiasm  for  the  discipline(s)  s/he teaches  and  sees  connections  to  everyday  life.  The teacher  is  committed  to continuous  learning and  engages  in  professional  discourse  about subject  matter  knowledge  and children’s  learning of  the  discipline. The  teacher  can  do following performances

  • The teacher effectively uses  multiple  representations  and  explanations  of disciplinary  concepts  that  capture key  ideas  and  links  them  to  students’  prior understandings.
  • The teacher  can represent  and use  differing viewpoints,  theories,  “ways  of knowing,”  and  methods  of  inquiry in his/her  teaching of  subject  matter  concepts.
  • The teacher can  evaluate teaching  resources  and  curriculum  materials  for  their comprehensiveness, accuracy,  and  usefulness  in  representing  particular  ideas  and concepts.
  • The teacher  engages  students  in generating  knowledge  and  testing hypotheses according to the  methods  of  inquiry and  standards  of  evidence  used  in  the discipline.
  • The teacher develops  and  uses  curricula  that  encourage  students  to see,  question, and  interpret  ideas  from  diverse perspectives.
  • The teacher can  create  interdisciplinary  learning  experiences  that  encourage  students  to integrate  knowledge,  skills,  and  methods  of  inquiry from  several  subject  areas.

Standard  #2:  The  teacher  understands  how  children learn and  develop,  and  can provide learning opportunities  that  support  their  intellectual,  social,  and personal  development.To accomplish  this  standard,

Q.4  Critically discuss different techniques of students’ evaluation.


According to Tufo (2002)  evaluation  is  the  process  of  determining the  value  or  worth of  a program,  course,  or  other  initiative,  toward  the  ultimate  goal  of  making  decisions  about adopting,  rejecting,  or  revising the  innovation.  It  should  not  be  confused  with assessment, which encompasses  methods  for  measuring or  testing performance  on a  set  of competencies. Evaluation  is  the  more  inclusive  term,  often making use  of  assessment  data in addition to many other  data  sources.  While  student  evaluation is  to make  decisions about  teaching and  students’  performance.  Understanding the  purposes  of  evaluation helps  teachers  make decisions  about  the  types  of  assessments  and  criteria  they will  use  in evaluating student  progress.    The  purpose  of  an assessment  may  be  clarified  by asking “who is  this  information for  and how  will  it  be  used.

There are  different  techniques  for  students’  evaluation.  Davis  (1993)  has  highlighted following tools  for  students’  evaluation:


  1. 5 ( a ) Discuss the use of different kinds of projected and non-projected aids during lecture.


There  is  need  of  proper  planning for  using  effective  audio visual  aids  for  the  students; Following are  some  suggestions  which can be  helpful  for  the  planning to use  the  material.

  1. The teacher  must  be  trained  and  fully  skilled in  the  use  of  the  teaching aids.  They should  be  actually  taught  and  does  not  used  for  deco rational  or  ornamental  value  in the  class.
  2. While using the  aid,  active  participation of  the  students  should  be  sought.
  3. The teaching aid should  be  adequately protected  and  preserved  for  maintaining due interest  and motivation of  the  students.
  4. The teaching aid should  be  within the  range  of  immediate  availability in  the  hour  of urgent  need.
  5. The aid should  be  evaluated  at  regular  intervals  in order  to  know  their  use  and effect  of  learning.

Q.5  ( b ) Write down the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia.


  • Whiteboard ink  markings  are  less  susceptible  to  external  factors, such  as  water, because the  ink  adheres  in  a different  manner  than  does  chalk  to  a chalkboard. Using markers  does  not  generate  the  dust  that  comes  from  using and  erasing chalk, allowing  their  use  in areas  containing dust-sensitive equipment. Some who  are allergic  to  chalk  or  are  asthmatic  use whiteboards  as  an  alternative.
  • A whiteboard can be  used  as  the  projecting  medium  for  an overhead  or  video projector. This  allows  the  person  giving the  presentation to fill  in blanks,  edit,  and  underline  and make  comments  by  writing  directly  onto  the  whiteboard,  which  in  turn  shows  through the  projected  image.  Proper  dry  wipe  boards  are  high gloss  to enable  the  dry  marker  ink to  be  wiped  off  easily and  high  gloss  surfaces  will  reflect  the  projector  light,  creating  a so  called  “hot  spot”, a  glare  back  from  the  board. Semi-matte  whiteboards  are  better suited  for  projection  but  more  difficult to  dry  wipe  clean.
  • A whiteboard pen  is  easier  than  chalk  to  hold  and  write with. This  can  benefit persons  with  limited  mobility  in their  hands,  such as  those  affected by diseases such  as  arthritis  or  systemic  lupus  erythematosus.  In addition,  marking on a whiteboard  takes  less  time,  effort,  and pressure  than marking on a  chalkboard •  Like chalkboards,  whiteboards  help  to save  paper.
  • When compared to a  chalkboard  a  whiteboard  can have  significantly more  colors because markers  have  a greater  range of  color  than  chalk.


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