Course code 8601 Semester Spring 2022
Assignment No 2
- 1 Identify advantages and disadvantages o discussion method. Analyze the rules to organizeclassroom discussion.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DISCUSSION METHOD
Jones et al (1994) has given the following advantages and disadvantages of discussion method: Advantages:
- The information acquired through discussion method is meaningful and helps students to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills.
- Discussion technique leads students towards attitudinal change through selfawareness.
- Discussion technique can help the student to develop a positive self-concept.
- During discussion, student maintains high degree of mental alertness. Thus, discussion puts positive effect upon students’ mental activity. This alertness is one reason why discussion is often praised as being a motivator.
- Discussion gives the teacher information about the student which can help in a better understanding of students, individually and collectively.
- If teacher is carefully observing the discussion session, it can provide him information about the social, psychological, emotional, and skill development of the student.
- Discussion requires much time. That’s why this technique is usually timeconsuming.
- Discussion often becomes a confused, meaningless activity because of some boring topics or lack of students’
Q.3 ( b ) Discuss the process of identifying learning difficulties of students.
IDENTIFYING LEARNING DIFFICULTIES OF STUDENTS
Every student has a unique identity, mind, learning styles and learning needs. During instruction students face different learning difficulties. Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) (2010, Pp.1-4) has presented some standards for teachers to identify learning difficulties of students.
Standard # l: The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students. To accomplish this standard, the teacher should understand major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline(s) s/he teaches. The teacher should also understand how students ‘conceptual frameworks and their misconceptions for an area of knowledge can influence their learning. In this regard, the teacher relates his/her disciplinary knowledge to other subject areas. The teacher realizes that subject matter knowledge is not a fixed body of facts but is complex and ever-evolving. S/he seeks to keep abreast of new ideas and understandings in the field. The teacher appreciates multiple perspectives and conveys to learners how knowledge is developed from the vantage point of the learner. The teacher has enthusiasm for the discipline(s) s/he teaches and sees connections to everyday life. The teacher is committed to continuous learning and engages in professional discourse about subject matter knowledge and children’s learning of the discipline. The teacher can do following performances
- The teacher effectively uses multiple representations and explanations of disciplinary concepts that capture key ideas and links them to students’ prior understandings.
- The teacher can represent and use differing viewpoints, theories, “ways of knowing,” and methods of inquiry in his/her teaching of subject matter concepts.
- The teacher can evaluate teaching resources and curriculum materials for their comprehensiveness, accuracy, and usefulness in representing particular ideas and concepts.
- The teacher engages students in generating knowledge and testing hypotheses according to the methods of inquiry and standards of evidence used in the discipline.
- The teacher develops and uses curricula that encourage students to see, question, and interpret ideas from diverse perspectives.
- The teacher can create interdisciplinary learning experiences that encourage students to integrate knowledge, skills, and methods of inquiry from several subject areas.
Standard #2: The teacher understands how children learn and develop, and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development.To accomplish this standard,
Q.4 Critically discuss different techniques of students’ evaluation.
According to Tufo (2002) evaluation is the process of determining the value or worth of a program, course, or other initiative, toward the ultimate goal of making decisions about adopting, rejecting, or revising the innovation. It should not be confused with assessment, which encompasses methods for measuring or testing performance on a set of competencies. Evaluation is the more inclusive term, often making use of assessment data in addition to many other data sources. While student evaluation is to make decisions about teaching and students’ performance. Understanding the purposes of evaluation helps teachers make decisions about the types of assessments and criteria they will use in evaluating student progress. The purpose of an assessment may be clarified by asking “who is this information for and how will it be used.
There are different techniques for students’ evaluation. Davis (1993) has highlighted following tools for students’ evaluation:
- 5 ( a ) Discuss the use of different kinds of projected and non-projected aids during lecture.
PLANNING TO USE THE MATERIAL
There is need of proper planning for using effective audio visual aids for the students; Following are some suggestions which can be helpful for the planning to use the material.
- The teacher must be trained and fully skilled in the use of the teaching aids. They should be actually taught and does not used for deco rational or ornamental value in the class.
- While using the aid, active participation of the students should be sought.
- The teaching aid should be adequately protected and preserved for maintaining due interest and motivation of the students.
- The teaching aid should be within the range of immediate availability in the hour of urgent need.
- The aid should be evaluated at regular intervals in order to know their use and effect of learning.
Q.5 ( b ) Write down the advantages and disadvantages of multimedia.
- Whiteboard ink markings are less susceptible to external factors, such as water, because the ink adheres in a different manner than does chalk to a chalkboard. Using markers does not generate the dust that comes from using and erasing chalk, allowing their use in areas containing dust-sensitive equipment. Some who are allergic to chalk or are asthmatic use whiteboards as an alternative.
- A whiteboard can be used as the projecting medium for an overhead or video projector. This allows the person giving the presentation to fill in blanks, edit, and underline and make comments by writing directly onto the whiteboard, which in turn shows through the projected image. Proper dry wipe boards are high gloss to enable the dry marker ink to be wiped off easily and high gloss surfaces will reflect the projector light, creating a so called “hot spot”, a glare back from the board. Semi-matte whiteboards are better suited for projection but more difficult to dry wipe clean.
- A whiteboard pen is easier than chalk to hold and write with. This can benefit persons with limited mobility in their hands, such as those affected by diseases such as arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, marking on a whiteboard takes less time, effort, and pressure than marking on a chalkboard • Like chalkboards, whiteboards help to save paper.
- When compared to a chalkboard a whiteboard can have significantly more colors because markers have a greater range of color than chalk.