Course: General Methods of Teaching (8601) Semester: Autumn, 2022


  1. 1 Analyze the effectiveness of guided discussion method.


The Guided Discussion Method

This method contrasts the Lecture method discussed in the last article, by relying on the students to interact by discussing their ideas, experiences, and opinions about the information being covered.  It is extremely useful in the classroom and on the range or track once a student can relate to the topic being covered either by gained knowledge, previous experience, or a similar model to resource.  The guided discussion method is essentially the opposite of the lecture method.  The goal is for the Coach to extract, from the students, their knowledge in such a way as to “guide” their ideas in the proper direction instead of “telling them” what they should know.  This is a departure from a typical pedagogy into coaching and more importantly into education where a long-term and much broader idea of creating a mental model and value systems are accomplished as discussed by Stolovitch and Keeps (2002).

The more intense the discussion and the more participation by the students, the greater the effectiveness of learning in the process.  Key to this teacher/learner transaction is ensuring that all the students are following the discussion and that everyone is treated in an impartial manner.  Questions must be encouraged by the coach to foster the desire of inquiry, sometimes exercising patience and tact, but always allowing appropriate responses and comment.  With this method, a coach should be open enough to accept where the conversation goes, guide it back to where it needs to be, and manage the discussion to eliminate sarcasm and ridicule that would otherwise be a barrier to free flowing ideas.

In a guided discussion, questions are used to evoke thought, foster inquiry, and meet the intent of learning the topic at hand.  Skillful questions by the coach can direct the conversation, emphasizing where the focus should be, or find the root information or reason for beliefs and values of the students to reinforce the positive ones and divert away from those which are questionable.  Most discussions are started with an over-arching question that opens the topic for discussion with a purpose of gaining student attention and focusing the dialog.  This is sometimes called the “lead-off” question which implies its main function.  After the discussion begins, students have ownership of the conversation (conceivably) until the learning outcome has been reached or the coach interjects to follow-up or guide the discussion.

Q.2 What is cooperative learning and what is different strategies use for it?


Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning is a strategy used within groups of learners and aims to improve their learning experience and understanding of a learning subject.

This type of learning strategy uses small group tasks and activities as a learning experience. Each member is responsible for learning new information and skills, and at the same time, assisting teammates in learning.

Types of Cooperative Learning

Cooperation among coworkers in an organization will rarely occur naturally. It is up to employers to make an effort by taking steps that bring employees together.

Cooperative learning is divided into three types, with a different implementation of each.

  1. Formal Cooperative Learning

It involves the assignment of tasks and projects to a team by an employer. The team members have a clear structure of what is to be done and stay together until the project is complete. It can range from a few hours to several weeks.

  1. Informal Cooperative Learning

This type of learning involves quickly forming teams for short periods to complete a small task at hand. They require no prior planning and have very little structure. They can help bring closure to a day’s work or a small project.

  1. Group-Based Learning

It is the most common type of cooperative learning implemented in organizations. It involves long-term groups that can last up to a year or more with members giving each other support, encouragement, and assistance.

Some good examples are the different departments in an organization, each with a group of people expected to make productive progress. It also works in long-term organizational projects.

Purpose of Cooperative Learning

The more employees continue to work cooperatively, the more their corporate environment becomes productively beneficial. The following are some of the primary purposes of implementing cooperative learning culture in an organization:

Development and acquisition of necessary life skills

Sharing of information

Building a team that cooperates

Q.3 (a) Elaborate the components of presentation skills.

Let’s be real, public speaking, for most people, is more than a little terrifying. Speaking to a group of people, whether in person or virtually, can be nerve-wracking. In fact, in a study of “America’s Top Fears”, almost 30% of Americans report that they are “Afraid” or “Very Afraid” of public speaking.

Presentations and public speaking, however, are vital for almost every industry, both internally and for external purposes (clients, speaking events, PR for the company, etc.). Not to worry, though, because we have made a list of the key components of a great presentation in order to get you started on your journey to public speaking success.


A good way to begin your presentation is to start with an overview so your audience knows there’s a focused agenda and a purpose to what they’re listening to. Once you’ve provided that outline, you’ll want to engage your audience and hold their attention by explaining “what is” (what is the problem, idea, process, etc.) that you want to explain or change. Then you can discuss “what could be”. This is what the outcome of your solution could look like or how this new process can better your listeners’ current experiences.


Keep your audience in mind – long, over-complicated sentences, too many statistics and numbers or even never-ending stories can all serve to overwhelm your audience. A straightforward and focused presentation that moves at a steady pace will keep your listeners engaged and intrigued.

A good way to keep it simple: use and stick to a 3-part list with the main points outlined in your introduction. Reiterate the points at the beginning and end, and there’s a better chance your audience will have a strong takeaway of the key information.


Help your audience visualize what you are saying by using imagery. Images help the audience remain engaged, whether you include pictures, graphs, charts, or animations. These visuals will only help enhance and reinforce the main points of your presentation.


Many of the most powerful speakers and speeches capture the attention of their audiences because they are passionate, firm and educated on their topic. And trust us, the audience can tell. Prior to giving a presentation, you should, of course, feel knowledgeable and confident about the topic you are discussing, and if possible, you should feel passionate about your topic of discussion.  This can only help your audience connect more with your presentation. Use stories, real-life examples and ask and answer questions to help fuel this engagement.


If you are presenting at an event, in front of a client, or even for an internal company project, mastering and utilizing non-verbal behavior can help you engage with your audience. Using calm hand gestures, smiling and changing up your vocals here and there can help you retain attention and enhance your speaking. Managing nervous non-verbal behavior can also help you seem more confident; try not to cross your arms, wring your hands or put yo

  1. b) What are the standards of identifying learning difficulties of students?

Many children have trouble reading, writing, or performing other learning-related tasks at some point. This does not mean they have learning disabilities. A child with a learning disability often has several related signs, and they don’t go away or get better over time. The signs of learning disabilities vary from person to person.

Please note that the generally common signs included here are for informational purposes only; the information is not intended to screen for learning disabilities in general or for a specific type of learning disability.

  • Common signs that a person may have learning disabilities include the following:
  • Problems reading and/or writing
  • Problems with math
  • Poor memory
  • Problems paying attention
  • Trouble following directions
  • Clumsiness
  • Trouble telling time
  • Problems staying organized1

A child with a learning disability also may have one or more of the following1:

  • Acting without really thinking about possible outcomes (impulsiveness)
  • “Acting out” in school or social situations
  • Difficulty staying focused; being easily distracted
  • Difficulty saying a word correctly out loud or expressing thoughts

ur hands in your pockets.

Q.4 Write short note on:

  1. a) Small group

One way to change the pace in your classroom is to do a small group activity. But what type of small group should you use? It depends on the size of your class, the length of time you have available, the physical features of the classroom, and the nature of the group task. Here are several options you could try. Consult the Centre for Teaching Excellence teaching tip “Group Work in the Classroom: Small-Group Tasks” for task ideas.

Buzz groups

Class size: any

Time frame: 3-10 minutes

Setting: no limitations

Description: These groups involve students engaging in short, informal discussions, often in response to a particular sentence starter or question. At a transitional moment in the class, have students turn to 1-3 neighbours to discuss any difficulties in understanding, answer a prepared question, define or give examples of key concepts, or speculate on what will happen next in the class. The best discussions are those in which students make judgments regarding the relative merits, relevance, or usefulness of an aspect of the lecture (Brookfield &Preskill, 1999). Sample questions include, “What’s the most contentious statement you’ve heard so far in the lecture today?” or “What’s the most unsupported assertion you’ve heard in the lecture today?” Reconvene as a class and have a general discussion in which students share ideas or questions that arose within their subgroups.

Comments: This method is very flexible: it is easy to implement in any size of class and in most classrooms, even the most formally arranged lecture hall. Consider how to regain the attention of a large group: turning the lights off and on is one simple yet effective method.


Class size: any

Time frame: 5-10 minutes

Setting: no limitations

Purpose: generate ideas, increase students’ confidence in their answers, encourage broad participation in plenary session

Description: This strategy has three steps. First, students think individually about a particular question or scenario. Then they pair up to discuss and compare their ideas. Finally, they are given the chance to share their ideas in a large class discussion.

Comments: Think-pair-sharing forces all students to attempt an initial response to the question, which they can then clarify and expand as they collaborate. It also gives them a chance to validate their ideas in a small group before mentioning them to the large group, which may help shy students feel more confident participating.

Q.5 a) Briefly express the need and importance of teaching tools in education.

Education is paramount to our children’s future and living standards in the modern world. Innovative and effective teaching tools that teachers can use online at home or school can make learning effective and accessible.

Teaching tools are vitally important for a teacher when teaching a class. These tools help you be more organized and make your style easier to understand. Many tools may help teachers by providing great information, free access, or making homework easier.

Check out the listicle below and explore the best free online teaching tools available today to find the best options for you.

Trusted Teaching Tools for Enhanced Learning


You can access free online teaching tools to help you elevate your classroom standards. As a teacher, you know you never have enough time in the day to do all the things you want and have to do. Including staying updated on the latest trends and technology while finding new teaching tools.

Teaching is a gratifying profession, but it’s not easy. Teachers work long hours, sometimes outside the classroom, so they need to find ways to save time and make their jobs easier. If you have students who use social media more often than their books, then this guide will help you find the best teaching tools available online.

  1. SplashLearn

SplashLearn is a fun and engaging online math program for children in Pre-K through grade 5. It has over 350 curriculum-aligned math games that are played by over 10 million children every month! SplashLearn offers comprehensive math practice for all the topics that kids study at school including numbers, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, and decimals. SplashLearn also offers a range of detailed reports that help teachers and parents measure a child’s progress over time.

Teachers who use SplashLearn as a learning tool can assign the topic to their students, who then play games and learn at their own pace within the topic.

  1. Quizlet

Quizlet has been around for a long time but only recently became popular. It allows you to share your sets with other users through a web interface or email for them to use them as well. Users can create their own sets or import existing ones from other sources (such as flashcards). It also supports multiple languages and has an iOS app available on the App store.

  1. Google Classroom

It is one of the widely used teaching tools that allows teachers to create classes and invite students into them. They can then assign homework assignments, quizzes, etc. Students can submit these assignments online in Google Docs format or by emailing them directly from their phones/tablets/computers; thus making it very easy for teachers to check work quickly without having to download any files (though it does support this if necessary).

  1. Edmodo

Edmodo is a social networking site that enables teachers to give out homework assignments, quizzes, and tests, track students’ progress, and more. The platform includes tools for both students and teachers, and it offers a variety of custom apps that enable users to create their content for the site.

  1. Word Cloud Creator

This is a website where you can type in words, creating a cloud of words. You can change the colors, grid size, and how the terms are placed on the page. We use this after reading stories to see what words stand out most to us from the story. The students always enjoy seeing what words stand out to their classmates.

Leave a Reply

Ad Blocker Detected

Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker.

Scan the code