AIOU Course Code 8601-1 solved Assignments Spring 2022

AIOU Course Code 8601-1 solved Assignments Spring 2022

Semester   spring 2022   

   course code  8601

Assignment No 1


  1. 1 Specify the personal and professional characteristics of good teachers.


Personal characteristics


1) Fairness

Fairness  is  one of  the characteristics  of  the  students’  favorite teachers. All  humans possess  an inbuilt  sense  of  fair  play. Whenever  a person  violates,  the other  person in this  situation is  prone  to react  negatively.

Any impression of  favoritism,  or  lack  of  fairness,  leaves  scars  on the  life  of  persons that  lasts  forever.  The  students  report  in great  detail,  the  unfair  actions  of  their teachers  when  they  had  negative experience of  competition  between  classmates, even  after  many  years  have passed.

2)    Positive  Attitude

Another  characteristic  that  students’  like  most  is  the  positive  attitude  and  approach of  their  teachers  they  use into  the  classroom. Scholars  suggest  that  effective teachers  are  those  who use  meaningful  verbal  praise  to get  and  keep students actively  participating  in  the  learning  process.  The effective teachers  are generally positive  minded  individuals  who  believe  in the  success  of  their  students  as  well  as their  own ability  to help students  achievements.


3)  Sense of  Belonging

Teachers  developed  a sense  of  family  in  their  classrooms. A  variety  of  strategies, such  as  random  act  of  kindness  awards, class  picture albums, and  cooperative class goals  build  a  sense  of  unity and belongings  and  maintain  an emotionally safe classroom.  Good  teachers  also took  strong  measures  to  prevent  mean and  hurtful behavior  like  teasing and  bullying.  Effective  teachers  know  well  that  when children feel  emotionally  and  physically  safe,  they  learn  far  better.

4 ) Personal  Touch

Teachers  who  are connected  personally  with  their  students;  call  them  by  name, smile  often,  ask  about  students’  feelings  and  opinions,  and  accept  students  for  who they are.  As  well  as  the  teachers  who tell  stories  of  their  own lives  events  which relate  to subject  matter  currently being taught,  motivate  student’s  interest  and endorse  bonding with the  students.  Teachers  who  show  interest  in their  students have  interested  students.


5) Creativity

Students  always  like  the  unusual  things  that  their  teachers  do in creative  ways. Construction of  models  or  things  from  wastage  like  plastic  bottles  provides  a  field into which children could  go and  work  by themselves  quietly on academics activities  like  puzzles  and word-finds. Fun activities  arranged  by teachers  into the  classroom  encourage  the  students towards  learning.  Teachers  can  use unique  ways  of  motivating  their  class. Teacher can  set  a reward  for  the class  on  reaching  a particular  academic goal. For  example  a teacher  can give  extra  marks  of  work  done  by  the  students  in a  creative  way.


6) Forgiving

The  effective  teachers  reflect  a  willingness  to forgive  students  for  misbehavior.  For example if  a student  repeatedly  asks  irrelevant  questions  and  detracts  others  from the  lesson.  The  teacher  can simply  say the  question is  irrelevant  and  direct  the student  for  further  study.

7) Respect

The teachers  desire be respected  by  their  students. The  teachers  who  give respect  to their  students  are always  respected  by  them. Effective teachers  can  train  their students  be  respectful  by  many  ways  such as,  he  can keep  individual  grades  on papers  confidentially,  or  can speak  to students  privately after   misbehavior  not  in front  of  others.   Good  teachers  show  sensitivity for  feelings  and  consistently avoid situations  that  unnecessarily make  students  uncomfortable.

8) High expectations

Teachers  with positive  attitudes  also possess  high expectations  for  success. Teachers’  expectation  levels  affect  the ways  in  which  teachers  teach  and  interact with  students. Generally, students  either  rise to  their  teachers’  expectations  or  do not  perform  well  when expectations  are  low  or  non-existent.  The best  teachers  have the  highest  standards.  They  consistently challenge  their  students  to  do their  best.

9) Sense  of  Humor

If  a  teacher  has  the  ability  to  break  the  ice  in  difficult  situations  with  the  use  of humor,  this  is  an extremely valuable  asset  for  teaching.  According to  McDermott  & Rothenberg (2000)  students  enjoy teachers  with a  sense  of  humor  and  remember those  teachers  who  made  learning a  fun.  Good  teachers  enjoy a  laugh with the  class occasionally.


Professional characteristics



The  teacher  works  with others  to achieve  a  common goal.

  1. i) Interacts constructively with peers/colleagues, administrators, supervisors,  staff, mentor  teachers, and  parents
  • Shows consideration and respect  for  thoughts  and  feelings  of  others
  • Demonstrates effective verbal and  non-verbal  communication  skills
  • Demonstrates flexibility with  others
  • Solicits suggestions and  feedback from  others
  • Maintains communication with colleagues,  supervisors,  and  mentor  teachers when questions  or  concerns  arise
  • Recognizes a range  of  valid  viewpoints
  1. ii) Functions as a  contributing member  of  an  instructional  team  to achieve  long-term curriculum  goals, state content  standards, and  district  standards
  • Communicates effectively both verbally and  non-verbally
  • Shares ideas and materials
  • Offers ideas and observations  at  IEP  meetings

Honesty  and  Integrity 

The  teacher  demonstrates  truthfulness,  professional  behavior,  and trustworthiness.

  1. i) Displays honesty and integrity
  • Maintains confidentiality
  • Elicits trust and respect  from  both peers  and  supervisors
  • In completing course  and  field  experience  assignments,  produces  original work  and credits  sources  when appropriate


The  teacher  honors,  values,  and demonstrates  consideration and  regard  for  oneself  and others.

  1. i) Is respectful of  cultural  patterns  and  expectations  within a  community context •  Presents self  in  a professional  manner  (e.g.,  dress, communication)
  • Speaks and  behaves  in a  manner  that  is  sensitive  to linguistic  and  cultural differences  and  respects  the  dignity  and  worth  of  others
  • Establishes good  rapport  with students  and colleagues
  • Seeks to address  the  varied  learning needs  of  students  in his/her  classroom, including lower-performing children  and those  with disabilities
  • Recognizes and respects  identities  informed  by a  group’s  historical  context

Commitment  to  Learning

The  teacher  values  learning for  self  and  students.

  1. i) Exhibits energy,  drive,  and  determination to make  one’s  school  and  classroom  the best  possible  environment  for  teaching and  learning •
  • Plans and  delivers  instruction that  engages  all  students  in his/her    classroom and  addresses  their  learning needs Values  ongoing assessment  as  essential  to  the  instructional  process

Emotional Maturity

The teacher demonstrates situation appropriate behavior.

  1. i) Is self-confident and enthusiastic
  • Displays enthusiasm for teaching and the subject matter
  • Demonstrates self-confidence through body language, voice tone, eye contact, preparedness
  • Exhibits energy, drive, and determination to become a professional educator
  1. ii) Is dependable, conscientious, and punctual
  • Arrives early or on-time
  • Completes assigned tasks in a timely manner
  • Follows through with assignments and expectations

iii)  Models social skills, character traits and dispositions desired in students.

  • Establishes caring and mutually respectful relationships with students
  • Explicitly teaches and models desired behaviors and attitudes

Leadership and Responsibility

The teacher acts independently and demonstrates accountability, reliability, and sound judgment.

  1. i) Is aware of and acts according to school policies and practices
  • Has obtained and read school policy manual
  • Adheres to class, school, and district rules and policies.


Q.2 Define effective teaching. Discuss the factors contributing towards effective teaching ?


Effective Teaching

The  concept  of  “Effective Teaching” is  considered  as  a range of  factors  that  collectively work  together  and  result  in effective  learning.   Most  of  the  people  agree  that  the  basic purpose  of  teaching is  to enable  learning.  An elaboration to this  concept  is  required  to fulfill  the  needs  of  today’s  youth in a  knowledge-driven society where  information rapidly  increases  at  great  scale.   Therefore  the  concept  of  teaching  should  move  beyond the  lower  order  skills  of  acquisition and  reproduction of  knowledge  and facts.

The  students  require  equipping them  with more  recent  and advanced body of  knowledge, and  enabling  them  to apply,  upgrade  and  create  knowledge.

There  are various  aspects  of  effective  teaching, such  as;

  1. Effectively managing a  classroom,
  2. Starting each class with a  clear  objective, Engaging students  with questioning strategies, Consolidating the  lesson at  the  end of  a  period,  and   Diagnosing common  student  errors  and  correcting them  that  can be  systematically measured  by observing classrooms  and  by asking students.

Factors  of Effective  Teaching

Gurney,  (2007)  suggests  five  key factors  that  could  contribute  to an  effective  learning and teaching environment.

KEY  FACTOR 1:  Teacher Knowledge,  Enthusiasm and  Responsibility  for  Learning Good  classroom  is  one  in which knowledge  is  shared  among teacher  and  students. Teacher  not  only gives  instructions  but  takes  ideas  of  students  during the  teaching- learning process  and  carry out  discussions.  In  such an environment  the  knowledge  is shared;  students  and  teachers  all  become  learners  and  discover  the world  of  the subject.   In  such  an  environment, a  teacher  takes  responsibility for  the  sharing and  enjoyment  of the  knowledge.

KEY  FACTOR 2:  Classroom Activities  That  Encourage  Learning

In  a  classroom  of  opportunity and  experience,  the  learners  explore  and  do experiment.   In such  a climate  the process  of  learning  become  a measure of  success  and  the students  feel that  they  are  the  masters  of  their  own learning. Attitudes  of  the  teacher  in  such  a classroom  can  influence  the  outcome. A  teacher  needs to be  prepared to  test  what  is  going on in the  class.   The  class  activities  used  to  engage  the students  must  be reviewed, revisited  and  refocused in order  to  draw  students  into  an effective  interaction with  the  subject.

KEY FACTOR 3:  Assessment  Activities  That  Encourage  Learning

Through  Experience The assessment  contributes  towards  the  creation of  an  effective  learning process.   If  the  students  know  the  value  of  assessment  in  the  ongoing learning process,  not  at  the end,  then  they  can work  well  and  take  part  in  the  process  and  use  it  to gain better  results.   The  effective  learning  environment  involves  the  processes  of  peer  tutoring,  co-operative learning,  questioning,  clarifying and  summarising.  All  of  these  processes  are  used  to empower  the  learners.  For  example  if  teacher  asks  the  question:  ‘What  do you do  in the classroom?’  If  assessment  activities  are part  of  the  ‘doing’  then  they  become a  central part  of  the  learning process.

KEY  FACTOR 4:  Effective Feedback  That  Establishes  the  Learning

Processes In  the Classroom Appropriate  learning related  feedback  is  one  of  the  important  factors  in effective teaching. Different  methods  of  feedback  enable  the  teacher  to engage  the  students  with learning. All  explanations,  questioning methods,  instructions  are  part  of  feedback  and  student  input (Hattie,  1999,  p.9).   In  an effective  classroom  the  students  actively seek the  feedback  of their  performance.  Alton  Lee  (2003)  highlights  the  value  of  feedback  but  warns  that  too much  can  be harmful  as  too  little.  The feedback  that  a  teacher  gets  from  the  students  is also  essential  to  the  creation  of  a learning  environment. The more feedback  that  a teacher can  obtain  from  students, and  the more the teacher  can  act  on  that  feedback,  the better  the learning  environment  will  be  that  is  created.

KEY  FACTOR 5:  Effective  Interaction  between  the  Teacher  and  the  Students, Creating  an  Environment  That  Respects, Encourages  and  Stimulates  Learning through  Experience Learning is  an emotional  exercise.  Students  like  those  things  or  actions  that  appeals  to them  emotionally.  The  teacher  who brings  a  sense  of  personal  involvement  to the classroom,  and  who  wants  to  share  the  knowledge  with the  class,  who  shows  that  he/she is  also a  part  of  the  learning cycle,  is  setting up  a  relationship with the  learners.  The working environment  generated  by the  interaction can remove  the  stigma  of  ‘working’ and  turn the  learning process  into rewarding.


Q.3 Highlight the steps of planning “development of instruction”.



The  plans  of  class  room  activities  to be  happened  each  day make  the  teaching effective. The  teachers  go through many steps  for  planning a  lesson.   Six steps  are  given below  to guide  the  teachers  to  create their  first  lesson  plans.  Each step  is  comprised  by  a  set  of questions:

  1. Outline learning objectives

The  lesson  objectives  are  usefully  stated  in  terms  of  what  students  will  achieve  at the  end  of  the  lesson.  The  first  step is  to  determine  as  a  teacher  what  you  want students  to learn  and  be  able  to  do at  the  end  of  class.  To help you specify your objectives  for  student  learning,  answer  the  following questions:

  • What is the topic of  the  lesson?
  • What do I want students  to  learn?
  • What do I want them  to understand  and be  able  to  do at  the  end of  class?
  • What do I want them  to  take  away from  this  particular  lesson?

Once  you outline  the  learning objectives  for  the  class  meeting,  rank  them  in terms of  their  importance.  This  step will  prepare  you for  managing class  time  and completing the  learning objectives.  Consider  the  following questions:

  • What are the  most  important  concepts,  ideas,  or  skills  I  want  students  to be able  to grasp and apply?
  • Why are they important?
  • If I ran out of  time,  which ones  could not  be  omitted?
  • Which ones could be skipped?

2  Develop  the introduction

After  determining learning objectives  and specifying them  in order  of  their importance, the teacher  has  to  design  the specific activities  for  the  students.  They may  already  be familiar  with  the topic;  therefore it  is  necessary  to  gather background  information from  the  students  prior  to lesson.  You  may  start  with a question or  activity  to  assess  students’  knowledge  of  the  topic.   For  example  you can  ask  a question or  take  a  simple  poll:  “How  many  of  you  have  heard  about  this? Raise  your  hand  if  you have”  or  ask  them  to write  comments  on paper.  This additional  information can help you to  shape  the  introduction and  learning activities  of  the new  concept.

Develop a  creative  introduction  to  the  topic  to encourage  thinking.  You  can use  a variety  of  approaches  to engage  students  for  example,  personal  anecdote,  historical event,  real  example,  short  video clip,  practical  application,  probing question,  etc. following  questions  may help you in planning your  introduction:

  • How will I check whether  students  know  anything about  the  topic?
  • What are  some  commonly held  ideas  (or  misconceptions)  about  this  topic that  students  might  be  familiar  with?
  • What will I do to  introduce  the  topic?
  • Q.5 What is an activity? Discuss the importance of activity method.  Name the different types ofactivities you would use in English.


    Activity Method

    Before  explaining the  activity method,  it  seems  better  to answer  this  question,  what  is  an activity?  Anything which is  carried  out  with a  purpose  in a  social  environment  involving physical  and mental  action.  Such  activities  help in  the  establishment  of  stimulating environment  for  creative  expression.

    Importance of Activity Method

    The  learners  are  actively  involved as  the  environment  is  democratic. The activities  are  interactive  and  student-centered. The teacher  facilitates  a process  of  learning  in  which  students  are encouraged  to  be responsible  and  autonomous.   Children  learn on their  own pace. Provision of  more  time  for  self-directed  learning  and  teacher  directed  learning  is reduced considerably. Group learning,  mutual  learning and  self  learning are  promoted.   Teachers  teaching time  is  judiciously distributed  among children.  Only needy children  are addressed  by  teachers.   Children  participation in every step is  ensured  in the  process  of  learning.   Evaluation  is  inbuilt  in  the  system  it  is  done  without  the  child  knowing it.

    Activity-based learning can successfully be used to improve both learning as well as teaching. One of the greatest challenges that an educator is mentoring students successfully by teaching hordes of students, all of whom have different personalities, capabilities and learning preferences. With high expectations of everything digital, students wish for a variety of activities, rewards, surprises and humour to stay abreast in their interest in learning. When you find new ways to grab the attention of learners and engage them in the learning process is becomes one of the main challenge and issue nowadays.

    Activity based teaching and learning method is a technique adopted by teachers to emphasize their method of teaching through activity in which the students participate willingly and get efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered approach. It is a method in which the child is actively involved in participating mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the main focus in this method. Learning by doing is important in successful learning since it is well proved that more the senses are stimulated, more a person learns and longer he/she retains.



    Types  of  Activities:

    Activities  can  be of  three  types:

    1. Exploratory – Knowledge  getting
    2. Constructive –  Experience  getting
    3. Expressional –  Presentation



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