Course: General Methods of Teaching (8601) Semester: Autumn, 2022



  1. 1 A teacher’s personality traits are important to create and maintain a classroom/learning environment. Why?


Personality Traits That Help Teachers and Students Succeed

Personality traits are a combination of characteristics that are innate to people as individuals as well as characteristics that develop from specific life experiences. The personality traits that make up a person go a long way in determining how successful he is.

There are certain personality traits that help teachers and students succeed. Success may mean different things for different people. Teachers and students who hold the majority of the following characteristics are almost always successful regardless of how success is defined.


This is the ability to handle a sudden change without making it a distraction.

Students who have this trait can handle sudden adversity without letting academics suffer.

Teachers who have this trait are quickly able to make adjustments that minimize distractions when things do not go according to plan.


Conscientiousness involves the capacity to complete a task meticulously with efficiency and of the highest quality.

Conscientious students can produce high-quality work consistently.

Conscientious teachers are extremely organized and efficient, and they provide their students with quality lessons or activities daily.


This is the ability to use original thinking to solve a problem.

Students who have this trait can think critically and are adept problem solvers.

Teachers who have this trait are able to use their creativeness to build a classroom that is inviting to students, create lessons that are engaging, and incorporate strategies to individualize lessons for every student.


A person with determination can fight through adversity without giving up to accomplish a goal.

Students who have this trait are goal orientated, and they do not allow anything to get in the way of accomplishing those goals.

Teachers with determination figure out a way to get their job done. They do not make excuses. They find ways to reach even the most difficult students through trial and error without giving up.

Q.2 Describe the process of course design and planning.


Begin the process early, giving yourself as much time as you can to plan a new course. Successful courses require careful planning and continual revision. Consult with colleagues who have taught the same or similar courses to learn from their strategies and their general impressions of the students who typically take the course. If you are team-teaching, you and your teaching partner(s) should begin meeting well in advance to discuss course goals, teaching philosophies, course content, teaching methods, and course policies, as well as specific responsibilities for each instructor.

Define course goals. Determining the goals for the course will clarify what you want the students to learn and accomplish. Having these course goals in mind will then help you make decisions about which content to include, which teaching methods to use, and what kinds of assignments and exams are appropriate. For a useful introduction to curriculum planning that begins with defining goals for student learning, rather than with course content, see Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe’s Understanding by Design (1998).
When you define the course goals, focus on student learning. One way to formulate these goals is to determine what students should be learning in terms of content, cognitive development, and personal development. Be as specific as you can and make sure that the goals define learning in ways that can be measured. Consider the following questions:

What do you want your students to remember from your course in 5-10 years?

How should taking your course change students?

What skills should students gain in this course?

How does this course relate to other courses in the discipline? How, then, might you define the course goals accordingly (e.g., for an introductory, fundamental, or advanced course in the discipline)?

Q.3 What strategies a teacher can use in the classroom to motivate students?


Strategies to Motivate Students in the Classroom

Children, those with and without special needs, often suffer from a lack of motivation when it comes to learning. This lack of motivation can impact the students in the classroom in many ways. Developing strategies to address the student’s lack of motivation is vital to school success.  Motivation comes in two forms: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.  Intrinsically motivated students are naturally motivated to do their work.  Extrinsically motivated students are motivated by external rewards

The following are some ideas for motivating students:

Build relationships with your students. You will be able to better understand their learning needs and, therefore, tailor your instruction when you know more about your students. Showing a personal interest in your students will also inspire their trust in you and make it more likely that they will be open to learning new material without the fear of failure.

Use examples as often as possible. Many students want to see a finished product so that they fully understand what is expected of them. This will help them to be more confident as they learn new concepts thus increasing their motivation to learn.

When possible, hand over control to the student. If students have control they are much more likely to be committed to the lesson.  Offer students choices of how the material will be presented and what type of activities they would like to engage in for reinforcement of the lessons.  Ask the students for input regarding the methods by which they learn best. This will help you to offer differentiated instruction to the students that require different methodologies.  It also helps the students to know that you care about them and are willing to do your part in their success.

Q.4 What is meant by inductive reasoning, provide examples regarding applicatoin of this method in classroom setting?


Inductive Reasoning-

Inductive reasoning, or inductive logic, is a type of reasoning that involves drawing a general conclusion from a set of specific observations. Some people think of inductive reasoning as “bottom-up” logic, because it involves widening specific premises out into broader generalizations

What Is an Example of Inductive Reasoning?

Here is a basic form of inductive reasoning, with a premise based on concrete data and a generalized conclusion:

  1. All the swans I have seen are white. (Premise)
  2. Therefore all swans are white. (Conclusion)

In this example, the conclusion is actually wrong—there are also black swans. This is what’s called a “weak” argument. However, it’s easy to make the conclusion stronger, by making it more probable:

  1. All the swans I have seen are white. (Premise)
  2. Therefore most swans are probably white. (Conclusion)

3 Ways Inductive Reasoning Is Used

Inductive reasoning is used in a number of different ways, each serving a different purpose:

  1. We use inductive reasoning in everyday lifeto build our understanding of the world.
  2. Inductive reasoning also underpins the scientific method: scientists gather data through observation and experiment, make hypotheses based on that data, and then test those theories further. That middle step—making hypotheses—is an inductive inference, and they wouldn’t get very far without it.
  3. Finally, despite the potential for weak conclusions, an inductive argument is also the main type of reasoning in academic life.

6 Types of Inductive Reasoning

There are a few key types of inductive reasoning.

  1. Generalized. This is the simple example given above, with the white swans. It uses premises about a sample set to draw conclusions about a whole population.
  2. Statistical. This form uses statistics based on a large and random sample set, and its quantifiable nature makes the conclusions stronger. For example: “95% of the swans I’ve seen on my global travels are white, therefore 95% of the world’s swans are white.”
  3. Bayesian. This is a method of adapting statistical reasoning to take into account new or additional data. For instance, location data might allow a more precise estimate of the percentage of white swans.
  4. Analogical. This form notes that on the basis of shared properties between two groups, they are also likely to share some further property. For example: “Swans look like geese and geese lay eggs, therefore swans also lay eggs.”
  5. Predictive. This type of reasoning draws a conclusion about the future based on a past sample. For instance: “There have always been swans on the lake in past summers, therefore there will be swans this summer.”
  6. Causal inference. This type of reasoning includes a causal link between the premise and the conclusion. For instance: “There have always been swans on the lake in summer, therefore the start of summer will bring swans onto the lake.”
  7. Q.5 Summarize the main points bearing on te role of research project
  8. Ans-Research articles use a standard format to clearly communicate information about an experiment. A research article usually has seven major sections: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion, and References. Determine your focus The first thing you should do is to decide why you need to summarize the article. If the purpose of the summary is to take notes to later remind yourself about the article you may want to write a longer summary. However, if the purpose of summarizing the article is to include it in a paper you are writing, the summary should focus on how the articles relates specifically to your paper. Reading the Article Allow enough time. Before you can write about the research, you have to understand it. This can often take a lot longer than most people realize. Only when you can clearly explain the study in your own words to someone who hasn’t read the article are you ready to write about it. Scan the article first. If you try to read a new article from start to finish, you’ll get bogged down in detail. Instead, use your knowledge of APA format to find the main points. Briefly look at each section to identify: • the research question and reason for the study (stated in the Introduction) • the hypothesis or hypotheses tested (Introduction) • how the hypothesis was tested (Method) • the findings (Results, including tables and figures) • how the findings were interpreted (Discussion) Underline key sentences or write the key point (e.g., hypothesis, design) of each paragraph in the margin. Although the abstract can help you to identify the main points, you cannot rely on it exclusively, because it contains very condensed information. Remember to focus on the parts of the article that are most relevant. Read for depth, read interactively. After you have highlighted the main points, read each section several times. As you read, ask yourself these questions: • How does the design of the study address the research questions

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