aiou course code 6553-1 solved assignment autumn 2022
Course: Textbook Development-II (6553) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Q.1 What are some relevant training methods for groups and adult learners?
For the most part, adults choose to be in a learning environment; they understand how the content applies to their lives, and they see a direct connection between learning the material and being more successful.
Understanding the motivation adults have to learn as well as the most effective methods to teach them is critical to the success of your training programs, so here are five tips for improving your internal training programs and engaging participants.
- Get them involved.
Most people retain information more thoroughly and for a longer period of time when they can interact with the material. Some effective ways to keep adult learners engaged include the following:
- Group activities and discussions
- Role playing
- Real-life examples and scenarios
For example, if you are conducting a sales training course, you could pair up the participants and have one be the salesperson and the other a customer. Then, you could present them with a scenario and have them play out the situation. They could also switch roles to see what it’s like on the opposing side.
One important aspect to remember with group activities like this is to discuss them as a class. Actually doing the activity helps participants experience situations from different sides of the spectrum, but analyzing the activity shows them the lessons to be learned and allows them to take away some key points.
- Show them value and relevance.
If adults are going to spend their precious time, and sometimes even personal money, to take a training course, they want to be able to see how the training is going to improve their skills and increase their knowledge base and marketability.
Training should provide practical solutions that are applicable to the participants’ jobs. For example, a company providing sales training for a new product could first show everyone how to properly use the product, and then allow them to test it out themselves. The employees will have hands-on experience and be more knowledgeable when selling the product.
- Share their experience.
Adults have gained a lot of experience, work-related and personal, and giving them the opportunity to share that experience helps them and other participants; the instructor doesn’t have to do all of the talking, but participants can learn from each other as well.
Try to connect their experiences with the new content to show relevance. Also, use discussion questions to get the learners to share instances when they have dealt with a certain problem or process, and then sharing various experiences can facilitate more learning and keep everyone engaged.
For example, if an instructor is talking about protocol for avoiding legal implications, someone in the class might have had a specific experience with the topic that could provide participants with a practical and relatable approach to handling situations. Often, instructors can provide generic examples, but it’s also the examples that the participants encounter at their jobs that can really reinforce the material.
- Make scoring friendly.
Adults typically appreciate having some control over their learning experience. To give them this control, you can avoid quantitative scoring for assessments or allow a number of corrective attempts before the final results are recorded. Avoiding letter grades removes pressure and allows participants to focus on the actual learning without the pressure of being scored.
Alternatives to traditional assessments include the following:
- Skills demonstrations: Participants can show what they learned by demonstrating their skills in a realistic job environment or by completing a relevant task. This will show their understanding of how to apply the content in addition to their knowledge about the subject.
- Discussion questions: Instructors can gauge participants’ understanding of the material by posing questions that call for detailed responses.
- Group activities: By observing how learners contribute to group activities, instructors can measure their level of competence with the subject matter.
- Be positive and supportive.
In order to create and maintain a successful training environment, instructors should keep the atmosphere professional yet friendly and treat participants with respect. A positive, supportive atmosphere should encourage the learners to share their opinions and experiences.
In addition, allowing mistakes gives the learners more freedom and motivation to participate. There is usually a way to put a positive twist on an incorrect answer and turn it into a lesson by using supporting explanations and relevant examples.
Another approach is to ask open-ended questions that don’t have a wrong answer, if possible. That way, participants’ answers are all valued, and the instructor can guide the discussion to get to the best option or solution.
Q.2 Critically analyze development of copy right material. Mention some of the considerations, while developing copyright materials.
“Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to do and to authorize others to do the following:
+ To reproduce the work in copies or ;
+ To prepare derivative works based upon the work;
+ To distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
+ To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works;
+ To display the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and
+ In the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.
In addition, certain authors of works of visual art have the rights of attribution and integrity as described in section 106A of the 1976 Copyright Act.”
Among its several other provisions, Circular 1 states:
“Copyright protects ”original works of authorship” that are fixed in a tangible form of expression.”
“Copyright protection subsists from the time the work is created in fixed form. The copyright in the work of authorship immediately becomes the property of the author who created the work. Only the author or those deriving their rights through the author can rightfully claim copyright. In the case of works made for hire, the employer and not the employee is considered to be the author. Section 101 of the copyright law defines a “work made for hire” as: (1) a work prepared by an employee within the scope of his or her employment; or (2) a work specially ordered or commissioned for use as a contribution to a collective work, as a part of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, as a translation, as a supplementary work, as a compilation, as an instructional text, as a test, as answer material for a test, or as an atlas, if the parties expressly agree in a written instrument signed by them that the work shall be considered a work made for hire…… The authors of a joint work are co-owners of the copyright in the work, unless there is an agreement to the contrary.”
“Copyright in each separate contribution to a periodical or other collective work is distinct from copyright in the collective work as a whole and vests initially with the author of the contribution.”
Section I — Ownership Principles
MSU follows standard academic practice in disclaiming ownership of, and royalties proceeding from, traditional academic works (books, essays, works of art, musical compositions and recordings, and the like), unless one or more “Special Circumstances” exist. The Special Circumstances that cause the University to retain copyright ownership are set forth in Section II, below. Works for which Special Circumstances exist and of which the University retains ownership are called “University-owned” works in this Policy.
It is also the tradition at Michigan State University and its peer institutions for eligible “University Authors” to share in third-party licensing revenue received by the University in those cases where Special Circumstances cause the University to retain copyright ownership. Eligible University Authors are identified in Section III.
Students who author or create copyrighted works which are submitted to meet course requirements own the copyrights in such works, even if they have been created using University facilities. Neither the course instructor nor the University may utilize or distribute student-owned copyrighted works for purposes beyond those of the course in which they are submitted without obtaining the written permission of the student. Students also own the copyrights in their theses and dissertations.
Section II — Special Circumstances in which the University Retains Copyright Ownership
The University retains the ownership of copyrighted works created by one or more of its employees within the scope of their employment whenever at least one of the following Special Circumstances applies:
- Creation of the work involved substantial2 use without charge of equipment, materials, or staff services of any of the various units of the University;
- Creation of the work was supported with money, released time3 , or other substantial2 resources from any unit of the University;
- Creation of the work was directly commissioned4 by the University or one of its units, where the employee(s) who created the work did so using some part of the time for which compensation was received from any University budget, including any grant or contract budget administered by the University or any budget based on special legislative appropriations; or
- Creation of the work occurs in University-approved faculty outside work for pay, if in the opinion of the administrators approving such outside work for pay the work predictably competes with University functions or products that are, or reasonably might be, developed and offered by the University in the furtherance of its mission.
In some cases, University units may wish to provide substantial support for the creation of copyrightable works without such support constituting a Special Circumstance. (For example, manuscript completion subventions are common in certain disciplines.) In such event, the unit should contact the Office of the Provost prior to providing the support. The Office of the Provost shall have discretion to grant a waiver in appropriate cases, after obtaining the agreement of all units providing support for the work in question.
Payment of salary to an individual on sabbatical shall not be construed as support for the creation of a specific work, and hence shall not by itself constitute a Special Circumstance.
Any person who has a question as to whether the creation of a particular work falls within the scope of employment and/or qualifies under one or more of the Special Circumstances should initiate an inquiry with the Office of the Provost as soon as possible after the question arises.
Section III — University Authors of Works Owned by MSU
For the purposes of this Policy, a University Author of a work is anyone of the following who, in the scope of his/her employment at the University, authors or creates, either alone or in collaboration with others, a University-owned work:
- faculty member,
- executive manager,
- postdoctoral research fellow,
- research associate appointed through the academic personnel system,
- MSU Extension or Experiment Station field staff member,
- FRIB/NSCL continuing appointment system staff member,
- graduate or graduate professional student conducting academic research or creative activity, or
- undergraduate student conducting academic research or creative activity.
Any member of the University community who contributes to the creation of a University-owned work may be treated as a University Author with respect to that work upon the written agreement of all authors or creators of that work who are themselves University Authors.
In addition, the Office of the Provost shall have discretion to enter into agreements whereby University Author status is granted to and accepted by other individuals who hold a copyright interest in a given work and who assign such interest to the University.
If for a given University-owned work there exists no living or dead University Author, then the provisions of this Policy regarding University Authors are inapplicable to that work.
Section IV — External Constraints on Copyright Ownership
Copyrighted works created by University employees and produced under grants to the University from the federal government or other extramural funding sources, or produced under contracts between the University and third parties, shall be subject to the contract or grant with respect to copyright ownership, distribution and use, and other rights.
Q.3 Define information superhighway. How it is helpful in e learning?
Information superhighway is a term that was used mainly in the 1990s to describe a national communications network that would span the United States and allow Americans to quickly access and exchange information via voice, data, video and other services.
The term information superhighway is closely associated with the politician Al Gore Jr., who championed the benefits of a high-speed information network as early as 1978 and, as vice president during the Clinton Administration, promoted the concept of an information superhighway on the national stage. The information superhighway would bring benefits such as better education to citizens, regardless of income level.
The term, however, has accrued various meanings. Some dictionaries define the information superhighway as a synonym for the Internet. It is also used to refer to a global information network of communication systems, (including telephone, cable television and satellite communications networks) accessed for a flat fee or pay-per-use. Other languages have similar terms. Infobahn (after the German autobahn) refers to a high-speed computer network, as does the word infostrada, the name for a prototype information network built in Poland in the early 1970s.
While intended as a metaphor, the term information superhighway could soon refer to actual highways, as the “connected car,” or cars equipped with Internet access, communicate with each other on the road.
Q.4 What is style manual? Also differntiate between international style guide and academic style guide.
A style manual provides the writing rules for this particular academic discipline. When you follow those rules, you can produce a work whose form is recognizable by other readers in the discipline. When all members of a discipline write professional articles in a common form, they can more easily understand one another. The style manual helps keep the members of a discipline in touch with one another.
Following the manual will cause you to present your paper in a consistent and readable form. Each manual will include information such as how wide your margins should be, how to present tables or illustrations, how to cite research within the text of the paper, what to document, how to abbreviate, and whether to write numbers as words or figures. The manual will explain how and when to make title pages and how to write headings within your paper. For example, if you have several sections in the main body of your paper, you may want to put a heading before each section. The style manual will tell you whether to capitalize that heading or whether to center it. When you use a style manual, your writing style will be consistent throughout your paper; it also will be understandable to the reader because your reader also will be a scholar who knows these standards.
Remember that your style manual fundamentally is used to locate rules about how to present the form and shape of your paper; however, some style manuals include sections about how to approach the subject matter of your research paper. Those sections often review how to select a topic, use the library, compile a bibliography, and take notes. Although these sections are not exhaustive, they may provide enough guidance for you to get started on your paper.
Usually, you will not use the manual to create the ideas in your paper; you will use it to determine form. Because you concern yourself with form after you generate content, you may not consult the style manual until you reach the final drafts of your paper. If you try to make your rough drafts conform to the style manual, you may slow down your creative process and interrupt your good thinking. If you are writing your first research paper and never have used a style manual before, wait until you reach the last stages of writing before you consult one for rules of form. At that point you will be ready to discover how to write headings, present numbers, create bibliographies, etc.
If, however, you are writing a thesis or a long research paper, you may want to consult the manual earlier so you do not have to rewrite parts of your paper. For example, if you consult the manual for bibliographic form, you can record your sources correctly as you go. When you finish your paper, you will not have to rewrite your bibliography (which can be several pages long) or go back to the library to search for bibliographic information you did not retrieve when you had the source. Graduate students will do themselves a favor by using a single style manual consistently throughout their graduate work so they can become familiar with the style requirements before the students begin their thesis work.
Choose a style manual according to your purpose. If you are writing an article for an academic journal, select the style used by that journal. If you are writing for a professor, ask her/his preference. Generally speaking, if you are writing behavioral, scientific, or social scientific research, use APA. If you are writing artistic or humanistic work, use MLA. Keep in mind that these are not the only two styles available; you may select the style that best fits your preferences and those of your reader.
Q.5 How textbooks are converted from print to electronic format and what are their benefits?
As an educator, you’re used to seeing hundreds, or even thousands, of books stored in your textbook room. In those stacks are out-of-date editions printed before new state standards were adopted. There are books with torn or missing pages. Plus, books have gone missing over the years. While K-12 schools have traditionally used printed textbooks, they are now turning to the benefits of digital textbooks.
Are digital textbooks better than traditional textbooks? What are the benefits of digital textbooks? Read on to find out why they make content easier to access, more engaging and even more customizable. Here are 12 reasons digital textbooks are the best option for K-12 schools, teachers and learners.
Why are online textbooks better?
According to the University of Michigan, 30 million trees were cut down last year to print traditional textbooks. Trees remove harmful carbon dioxide and provide oxygen, which is essential for creating cleaner air. By using digital versus physical textbooks, your school district can help support a stronger, healthier environment.
Printed textbooks can be forgotten at home or at school. The online versions, though, can be accessed on a computer, a Chromebook or even a phone, so there’s no downtime to learning.
Learners and teachers can access eBooks anywhere from any device since publishers make them compatible for different devices. It makes it easy for schools to transition between remote, hybrid and in-person learning since the content is available in different formats. Digital textbooks can also be downloaded, so students can use them offline if internet service isn’t available.
Why should schools use digital textbooks?
When comparing traditional textbooks versus digital textbooks, there is a cost factor. E-textbooks are more affordable for schools, especially when new editions come into play. When a traditional textbook publisher releases a new edition, those have to be purchased by a school or a district. Updated online textbooks, on the other hand, don’t require a hefty price tag or shipping costs. In fact, Public School Review found that digital versions are 53% cheaper than new printed textbooks.
With digital options, schools no longer need to order textbooks and wait for them to be delivered to the school. Online books are available instantly. Instead of having students and families line up to pick up their books, the content can simply be downloaded to a device. This is also a great solution if a school decides mid-year to add a supplemental textbook or purchase books for specific learners.
No storage needed
Imagine a world where classrooms don’t need to find a place to fit stacks of traditional textbooks. With digital textbooks, space opens up for learning centers or more student movement in the classroom. Schools also don’t have to store new textbooks in a textbook room and spend time keeping track of each book.
Traditionally, publishers update K-12 textbooks every several years. Once new editions are written, schools then have to purchase them, wait for them to ship and store them. With digital textbooks, any update can be made automatically with no down-time. That means your school district curriculum stays relevant and aligned with standards and current events.
Why should teachers use digital textbooks?
Teachers can easily see how their learners perform when they use digital textbooks. That allows for customizing lessons and assignments for groups or individual students. Font sizes for online books can also be enlarged and page brightness can be turned up or down. Page colors can often be inverted, too, which helps some learners see the content more easily. Read-aloud versions of the text are also available to help students who need that accommodation.
Online textbooks also give teachers the chance to collaborate with the class or allow learners to share with each other. They can share notes, ideas and questions directly through the digital textbook or an online hub related to the text. Collaboration makes learning more meaningful and helps students comprehend content more thoroughly.
Online textbook formats empower learners by giving them the chance to learn at their own pace.
Students can visit hyperlinks that take them to additional reading. This can help them better understand a concept or allow for further learning if they’re interested in a topic. Learners can also bookmark pages as they read and quickly return to them later for review.
Online editions of textbooks also often include audio and video links. These options personalize the experience for students with different learning styles. Many eBooks also provide students with quizzes or practice questions based off of chapters they’ve just read. Students can use these to take responsibility for their own learning without outside instruction.
Why are eBooks better for students?
Students are constantly immersed in technology and social media. Another one of the benefits of digital textbooks is that the format mirrors how kids absorb content in their daily lives. By embracing digital textbooks versus printed textbooks, school districts teach learners in the way that is most familiar to them.
Another one of the huge benefits of digital textbooks is that they are interactive. K-12 learners can’t mark up a printed textbook, but they can interact with an online book. Teachers no longer need to make photocopies of book pages in order for students to highlight and make annotations directly on the text. Learners can also search for key terms and quickly copy and paste quotes into their notes.
When course content is loaded onto a device, students don’t have to lug heavy textbooks around in a backpack. It makes their lives much easier by being able to carry their math, language arts, social studies, science and other textbooks on one device.
The best option for K-12 school districts
If your school district wants to re-envision your technology integration, consider the benefits of digital textbooks in the classroom. Not only are they a more affordable solution than traditional versions, but they also make it easy to customize learning experiences. Look beyond printed textbooks so your students can easily learn from anywhere.