aiou course code 6552-2 solved autumn assignment 2022
Course: Textbook Development-I (6552) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Q.1 Define the main objectives of the middle School project. Which textbooks are developed by Middle school project can be considered best and why?
In education, learning objectives are brief statements that describe what students will be expected to learn by the end of school year, course, unit, lesson, project, or class period. In many cases, learning objectives are the interim academic goals that teachers establish for students who are working toward meeting more comprehensive learning standards.
Defining learning objective is complicated by the fact that educators use a wide variety of terms for learning objectives, and the terms may or may not be used synonymously from place to place. For example, the terms student learning objective, benchmark, grade-level indicator, learning target, performance indicator, and learning standard—to name just a few of the more common terms—may refer to specific types of learning objectives in specific educational contexts. Educators also create a wide variety of homegrown terms for learning objectives—far too many to catalog here. For these reasons, this entry describes only a few general types and characteristics.
While educators use learning objectives in different ways to achieve a variety of instructional goals, the concept is closely related to learning progressions, or the purposeful sequencing of academic expectations across multiple developmental stages, ages, or grade levels. Learning objectives are a way for teachers to structure, sequence, and plan out learning goals for a specific instructional period, typically for the purpose of moving students toward the achievement of larger, longer-term educational goals such as meeting course learning expectations, performing well on a standardized test, or graduating from high school prepared for college. For these reasons, learning objectives are a central strategy in proficiency-based learning, which refers to systems of instruction, assessment, grading, and academic reporting that are based on students demonstrating understanding of the knowledge and skills they are expected to learn before they progress to the next lesson, get promoted to the next grade level, or receive a diploma (learning objectives that move students progressively toward the achievement of academic standards may be called performance indicators or performance benchmarks, among other terms).
Learning objectives are also increasingly being used in the job-performance evaluations of teachers, and the term student learning objectives is commonly associated with this practice in many states. For a more detailed discussion, including relevant reforms and debates on the topic, see value-added measures and student-growth measures.
Learning objectives are also a way to establish and articulate academic expectations for students so they know precisely what is expected of them. When learning objectives are clearly communicated to students, the reasoning goes, students will be more likely to achieve the presented goals. Conversely, when learning objectives are absent or unclear, students may not know what’s expected of them, which may then lead to confusion, frustration, or other factors that could impede the learning process.
While the terminology, structure, and use of learning objectives can differ significantly from state to state or school to school, the following are a few of the major forms that learning objectives take:
- School-year or grade-level objectives:In this case, learning objectives may be synonymous with learning standards, which are concise, written descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to do at a specific stage of their education. Grade-level learning objectives describe what students should achieve academically by the end of a particular grade level or grade span (terms such as grade-level indicators or grade-level benchmarks may be used in reference to these learning objectives or standards).
- Course or program objectives:Teachers may also determine learning objectives for courses or other academic programs, such as summer-school sessions or vacation-break programs. In this case, the objectives may be the same academic goals described in learning standards (in the case of a full-year course, for example), or they may describe interim goals (for courses that are shorter in duration).
- Unit or project objectives:Teachers may determine learning objectives for instructional units, which typically comprise a series of lessons focused on a specific topic or common theme, such as an historical period, for example. In the case of project-based learning—an instructional approach that utilizes multifaceted projects as a central organizing strategy for educating students—teachers may determine learning objectives for the end of long-term project rather than a unit.
- Lesson or class-period objectives: Teachers may also articulate learning objectives for specific lessons that compose a unit, project, or course, or they may determine learning objectives for each day they instruct students (in this case, the term learning targetis often used). For example, teachers may write a set of daily learning objectives on the blackboard, or post them to an online course-management system, so that students know what the learning expectations are for a particular class period. In this case, learning objectives move students progressively toward meeting more comprehensive learning goals for a unit or course.
In practice, teachers will commonly express learning objectives in different ways to achieve different instructional goals, or to encourage students to think about the learning process is a specific way. While the minutia and nuances of pedagogical strategy are beyond the scope of this resource, the following are a few common ways that learning objectives may be framed or expressed by teachers:
- Descriptive statements:Learning objectives may be expressed as brief statements describing what students should know or be able to do by the end of a defined instructional period. For example: Explain how the Constitution establishes the separation of powers among the three branches of the United States government—legislative, executive, and judicial—and articulate the primary powers held by each branch. State learning standards, which may comprise a variety of learning objectives, are commonly expressed as descriptive statements.
- “I can” statements: Teachers may choose to express learning objectives as “I can” statements as a way to frame the objectives from a student standpoint. The basic idea is that “I can” statements encourage students to identify with the learning goals, visualize themselves achieving the goals, or experience a greater sense of personal accomplishment when the learning objectives are achieved. For example: I can explain how the Constitution establishes the separation of powers among the three branches of the United States government—legislative, executive, and judicial—and I can articulate the primary powers held by each branch.
- “Students will be able to” statements:“Students will be able to” statements are another commonly used format for learning objectives, and the abbreviation SWBAT may be used in place of the full phrase. For example: SWBAT explain how the Constitution establishes the separation of powers among the three branches of the United States government—legislative, executive, and judicial—and articulate the primary powers held by each branch.
Q.2 Explain the concept of Core in textbook designing and give some implication for textbook designing at secondary level.
To align the curricula with the Aims of Education in the 21st Century, the Curriculum Development Institute has conducted a holistic review of the curricula and developed an open and flexible curriculum framework that caters for students’ diverse needs. The current curriculum aims to help students learn how to learn, cultivate positive values and attitudes, and a commitment to life-long learning. Being broad and balanced, the curriculum promotes life-wide learning, whole-person development and the development of generic skills for equipping students with knowledge and skills to cope with challenges in the future.
- To implement the curriculum effectively, it is necessary to have in place a learning environment conducive to successful learning. The environment requires, among other things, a flexible curriculum adaptable to the needs of students, teachers sharing the same philosophy in the learning/teaching process, a variety of quality learning experiences and the provision of quality learning/teaching resources.
- Students can learn in different environments and through different ways. Learning may take place beyond the boundary of textbooks and the classroom; it may take place through a diversity of learning materials and experiences. Though textbooks are not the only learning resources, they still play an important role in student learning. Textbooks are not only teaching materials for teachers, but also students’ self-directed learning materials for preparation and revision purposes.
- Quality textbooks, including both printed and electronic textbooks (e-textbooks), which support a learner-focused curriculum contain the core elements of the subject curriculum, as well as learning strategies useful for the study of the subject. Being important sources of reading for students, quality textbooks help develop students’ ability to learn through reading. The amount and quality of the texts to be included therefore deserve greater attention. Other desirable features of a good textbook include interactivity, the ability to arouse the interest of students, and the capacity to actively engage and involve them in the learning process. In other words, good textbooks tell, involve and interact with students.
Overview of Guiding Principles for Quality Textbooks
- The purposes of developing the Guiding Principles for Quality Textbooks are –
- The Guiding Principles include criteria for quality textbooks in areas such as Content, Learning and Teaching, Structure and Organisation, Language, Textbook Layout (for printed textbooks only), Technical and Functional Requirements as well as Pedagogical Use of e-Features (for e-textbooks only). These principles are generic and central to textbooks for kindergartens, all Key Learning Areas (KLA) and subjects at primary and secondary levels, although some principles may be more applicable to certain subjects and levels than others. It is hoped that school principals, teachers, textbook writers, publishers and educators will all find the Guiding Principles useful for their work. Further details and examples specific to different KLA/subject curricula can be found in the relevant curriculum or subject guides, or in subject-specific textbook guidelines where appropriate.
- Besides, using electronic learning resources to enhance interactive and self-directed learning has become a global trend in education. The interactive and diversified sets of e-textbooks developed in line with our local curricula are an alternative to printed textbooks. Schools may select to adopt e-textbooks according to their students’ learning needs and capacity, as well as the school infrastructure and technical support. This set of Guiding Principles is also applicable to e-textbooks. Comments as well as suggestions are welcome so that further refinement will be made when necessary.
Guiding Principles for Quality Textbooks
- The Guiding Principles cover the following areas –
The following sections describe the main features which characterise quality textbooks.
A textbook of a particular subject area manifests or translates the four components of the curriculum (aims, content, learning/teaching strategies, assessment) for the purpose of student learning.
|C – 1||The aims, targets and objectives align with those laid down in the relevant curriculum or subject guide.|
|C – 2||The content is self-contained and sufficient to address effectively the learning targets of the curriculum without requiring the use of additional supplementary materials associated with the textbooks. The core elements of the subject curriculum are included. No superfluous information is covered, in order to leave room for students to learn how to learn. If the materials included are non-core, non-foundation topics or serve for enrichment only, they should be properly indicated.|
|C – 3||The content is current. Information and data are relevant and accurate. The sources of information are appropriately indicated.|
|C – 4||Concepts are correct and precise. Ideas are coherent. There are adequate examples and illustrations. Such examples and illustrations are interesting and relevant to students’ experience. In the development of concepts, new ones are built on old ones and are introduced when and where appropriate.|
|C – 5||There is an appropriate balance between depth and breadth in the treatment of the subject content.|
|C – 6||The level of difficulty of the content is consistent with the curriculum requirements and the cognitive level of students.|
|C – 7||Appropriate consideration is given to students’ prior knowledge and learning experience. There is continuity in the development of concepts and skills to facilitate a smooth transition between different key stages of learning / year levels. Connections between related topics or concepts are highlighted. There is no unnecessary repetition in content.|
|C – 8||There are multiple perspectives and balanced viewpoints on issues.|
|C – 9||There is no bias in content, such as over-generalisation and stereotyping. The content and illustrations do not carry any form of discrimination on the grounds of gender, age, race, religion, culture, disability etc., nor do they suggest exclusion.|
|C – 10||To encourage and facilitate students to read larger amounts of materials on their own, selected further reading lists or related websites are included to let students read extensively. An index is included to make easy reference.|
Learning and Teaching (L/T)
The development of generic skills is fostered by engaging students in various learning activities to help students learn how to learn. There is a balanced coverage of cognitive skills of all levels, e.g. skills in information gathering, remembering, focusing, organising, integrating, analysing, generating, etc.
|L/T – 1||Generic skills are developed through learning and teaching in the contexts of different subjects or KLAs. (Exemplars are available in the relevant curriculum or subject guides.)|
|L/T – 2||There is a balanced coverage of cognitive skills of all levels.
Q.3 Explain the Dynamic quality, size, picture replacement in text and its effects on textbook desing.
In the last decade, the use of e-Textbooks has received attention in research and practice. However, the expanded use of e-Textbooks was not easily achieved because of the missing standards in learning content and functionalities, and barriers in utilizing e-Textbooks, such as screen reading and intellectual property protection. This paper provides insights on the design, development, and learning with e-Textbooks by reviewing studies, project reports, and cases on its use. Results reveal the increased promotion and implementation of e-Textbook development in several countries. Criticisms on different e-Textbook types began during the early stages of open multimedia learning resources and digitized textbooks, and continued until the integration of information and communication technologies, authoring tools, and learning platforms. The study examined advantages of e-Textbooks and different factors that influenced e-Textbook applications. The study also reviewed the literature on learning through e-Textbooks in terms of acceptance and perception of users, and the comparison of the learning effectiveness of this format with printed textbooks. Moreover, learning in e-Textbooks is not fully realized, and requires increased in-depth studies. This paper suggests investigating the pedagogical design of e-Textbooks and further evaluation of e-Textbook functions to support learning.
The rapid adoption of iPads, tablets, and e-book readers as personal digital devices in the education systems around the world has been observed recently. In Shanghai, over two million students in 2000 K-12 schools are required to use the “e-schoolbag,” which consists of a small personal computer (Gu 2011). Similarly, the classroom phenomenon of maintaining a 1:1 ratio of device per student is rapidly spreading in elementary school classrooms in Taiwan, and to elementary classrooms around East Asia (Chan 2010). As personal learning devices become accessible to learners, the mode of e-learning also changes. The personal device has emerged as a learning platform, and the e-Textbook has evolved as the corresponding learning interface with tools and services available from within the platform and from external connections.
As the metaphorical textbook, an e-Textbook is the equivalent of the printed textbook in the electronic schoolbag, a general term for all of the digital learning devices. Hence, the e-Textbook becomes an integral component of an electronic schoolbag and a main learning resource. The e-Textbook can be more advanced in its transition from traditional printed textbook to e-Textbook, as it integrates multimedia and contains more interactive functions (Choi et al. 2011; Lee et al. 2013; Reynolds 2011). An e-Textbook can be conceived as a platform for learning that combines e-learning and e-publishing technologies, and serves as a dynamic and interactive reading material, and as an interface for learning activities among learners and the learning communities. Learners can personalize their own text by writing notes, highlighting, and combining related sections together based on their understanding and prior knowledge. Many studies use different terms such as digital-Textbook, electronic textbook or e-Textbook to refer to the similar concepts (Choi et al. 2011; Daniel & Woody 2013; Kim et al. 2010b; 2013; Liu 2012; Luik and Mikk 2008; Rockinson-Szapkiw et al. 2013; Weisberg 2011). In this review study, we deem these terms as synonyms and use e-Textbook consistently.
For several years, the increased widespread use of e-Textbooks in education has been anticipated because of its flexibility, accessibility, interactivity, and extensibility (Daniel and Woody 2013; Murray and Perez 2011; Nelson 2008a, b; Woody et al. 2010). However, the anticipation has not come to fruition. Although e-Textbooks have drawn wide attention, the missing standards of learning content and functionalities and barriers in the use of e-Textbooks (i.e., screen reading, licensing restrictions) are among the problems that require solutions (Liu 2012; Nelson 2008a, b; Reynolds 2011; Yuen et al. 2012). Besides, how e-Textbook affects teaching and learning remains unclear. Therefore, this review article looks into the current studies and projects on the design, development, and learning with respect to e-Textbooks with the intention of clarifying the key requirements for e-Textbooks’ functionality and investigating the learning impacts of adopting e-Textbooks.
This article is organized as follows. “Methodology” section describes the methodology that was utilized to obtain the sources for the review. “E-Textbook projects around the world” section presents an overview of existing projects on e-Textbooks. “Design, development, and experiments on e-Textbooks” section presents general opinions on the widening spread of e-Textbooks. “Discussion” presents an in-depth review of the design and development of e-Textbooks and related empirical studies. In conclusion, this article provides a discussion on the directions for research and practice on the subject.
We selected a mixture of empirical studies that focused on the design, development, and learning with e-Textbooks that were conducted around the world during the last decade. Employing databases, such as ScienceDirect, Web of knowledge, EBSCO, SpringerLink, Wiley Online Library, and GoogleScholar, we searched using several keyword combinations including “e-textbook,” “electronic textbooks,” “digital textbook,” “design,” “development,” and “learning.” We utilized the snowball method to select additional articles from the references of the reviewed papers, and ruled out articles that were nonempirical descriptions of e-Textbook projects and opinion papers on this topic. In total, we examined 43 articles that reported empirical findings on the design, development, and learning with e-Textbooks.
In collecting the cases on the use of e-Textbooks, we initiated two rounds during which we called for e-Textbook use cases with the ISO/IEC/JTC 1/SC 36, as part of the study on the key requirements for e-Textbook functionality for Project 18120 (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 WG6 2013). These two rounds of calls lasted for approximately one and a half years, with the first round held from September 2010 to August 2011, and the second, from March to September 2011. This period resulted in 55 e-Textbook use cases (ISO/IEC 2010; 2012a). These cases were submitted by the national bodies of ISO/IEC/JTC 1/SC 36, including the UK, Canada, Australia, France, China, Korea, and Kenya, and were received from e-Textbook organizations, such as the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) and Open Educational Resources (OER) programs.
In collecting the project reports, we searched project websites and selected representative projects that presented the current situation in e-Textbook pioneer countries, such as Singapore, Korea, and the UK, from 1999 to present. These reports included completed and ongoing e-Textbook projects, with a focus on the design and development as well as the comprehensive purposes behind e-Textbooks.
Three educational researchers examined 53 empirical studies and conducted content analysis by summarizing major themes of these materials. Five categories could cover almost all topics under investigation. These categories include e-Textbook typology, e-Textbook features and its advantages, user acceptance of e-Textbook, effectiveness of e-Textbook in support of learning, and learning design of e-Textbook. Each category was analyzed to identify the lessons, experiences, and best practices on the design, development, and learning with e-Textbooks. In addition, 18 project reports were analyzed to illustrate the global picture of e-Textbooks. Fifty-five use cases were related to the functional requirements, and were classified into development for further analysis. Table 1 presents the breakdown of our data. Utilizing the constant comparative method on these articles and cases, we derived the key findings and requirements on e-Textbooks. The following paragraph will present a overview of e-Textbook project from all around the world, followed with meta-analysis results of studies and cases.
Q.4 Discuss the evaluation criteria for examining the teaching objectives and appropriate instructions.
Part I of this report describes recent research on ways to rethink and restructure teaching and learning, coupled with new approaches to evaluation and professional development for faculty. Those findings have the potential to reshape undergraduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) for a much larger number of undergraduates. However, developing strategies for implementing and sustaining such changes requires the commitment of all members of a college or university community.
In a teaching and learning community, the most effective evaluation is that which encourages and rewards effective teaching practices on the basis of student learning outcomes (Doherty et al., 2002; Shapiro and Levine, 1999). Assessment of student learning at its best enables students to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and to determine the kinds of information they need to correct their learning deficiencies and misconceptions. When such evaluation is properly employed, students learn that they can engage in self-assessment and continuous improvement of performance throughout their lives.
Accordingly, this chapter offers practical guidance to postsecondary faculty and administrators on ways to institute a system of both evaluation and professional development that can contribute to significant gains in teaching effectiveness for faculty who teach undergraduates. The chapter describes how input from students (undergraduates and graduate teaching assistants), colleagues, and faculty self-evaluation can be used for evaluating individual instructors. It also describes the advantages and disadvantages of these various approaches.
As stated in Chapter 1, ongoing formative assessment of student learn-
Suggested Citation:”5 Evaluation Methodologies.” National Research Council. 2003. Evaluating and Improving Undergraduate Teaching in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10024.×
ing can have powerful benefits both in improving learning and in helping faculty improve their teaching on the basis of the feedback they receive from a variety of sources. The information gathered during such assessments also can serve as a basis for more formal, summative evaluations that have an impact on important personnel decisions.
The technique of outcomes assessment as a means of measuring student learning and the use of that information to improve teaching are considered first. Additional strategies and methods for formative evaluation follow. The chapter concludes with a series of suggestions for improving summative evaluation of faculty. The committee emphasizes that the approaches described in this chapter are but a sampling of the techniques that appear in the research literature on improving the evaluation of teaching and student learning. They are
Assessment Is More Than Grades
To many, the word “assessment” simply means the process by which we assign students grades. Assessment is much more than this, however. Assessment is a mechanism for providing instructors with data for improving their teaching methods and for guiding and motivating students to be actively involved in their own learning. As such, assessment provides important feedback to both instructors and students.
Assessment Is Feedback for Both Instructors and Students
Assessment gives us essential information about what our students are learning and about the extent to which we are meeting our teaching goals. But the true power of assessment comes in also using it to give feedback to our students. Improving the quality of learning in our courses involves not just determining to what extent students have mastered course content at the end of the course; improving the quality of learning also involves determining to what extent students are mastering content throughout the course.
SOURCE: Excerpted from National Institute for Science Education (2001b).
Suggested Citation:”5 Evaluation Methodologies.” National Research Council. 2003. Evaluating and Improving Undergraduate Teaching in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10024.×
included here on the basis of the committee’s analysis of the research literature and the expertise of individual committee members, and with the expectation that each institution will adapt or modify these approaches according to its individual needs.
IMPROVING TEACHING BY EXAMINING STUDENT LEARNING: OUTCOME ASSESSMENT
One approach to improving student learning is outcome assessment—the process of providing credible evidence that an instructor’s objectives have been obtained. Outcome assessment enables faculty to determine what students know and can do as a result of instruction in a course module, an entire course, or a sequence of courses. This information can be used to indicate to students how successfully they have mastered the course content they are expected to assimilate. It can also be used to provide faculty and academic departments with guidance for improving instruction, course content, and curricular structure. Moreover, faculty and institutions can use secondary analysis of individual outcome assessments to demonstrate to prospective students, parents, college administrators, employers, accreditation bodies, and legislators that a program of study produces competent graduates (Banta, 2000).
Outcome Assessment Activities
Faculty members, both individually and as colleagues examining their department’s education programs, have found the following activities helpful when undertaking outcome assessment:
Developing expected student learning outcomes for an individual course of study, including laboratory skills.
Determining the point in a student’s education (e.g., courses, laboratories, and internships) at which he/she should develop the specified knowledge and skills.
Incorporating the specified learning outcomes in statements of objectives for the appropriate courses and experiences.
Selecting or developing appropriate assessment strategies to test student learning of the specified knowledge and skills.
Using the results from assessment to provide formative feedback to individual students and to improve curriculum and instruction.
Adjusting expected learning outcomes if appropriate and assessing learning again. Such a process can lead to continual improvement of curriculum and instruction.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Evaluating and Improving Undergraduate Teaching in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.
Q.5 Discuss the exemplary lesson design model that would suit better in our environment
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is an approach to teaching aimed at meeting the needs of every student in a classroom. It can be helpful for all kids, including kids with learning and attention issues. But UDL takes careful planning by teachers. Here are just a few examples of how UDL can work in a classroom.
Posted lesson goals
Having goals helps students know what they’re working to achieve. That’s why goals are always made apparent in a UDL classroom. One example of this is posting goals for specific lessons in the classroom. Students might also write down or insert lesson goals in their notebooks. The teacher refers to lesson goals during the lesson itself.
In a traditional classroom, there may be only one way for a student to complete an assignment. This might be an essay or a worksheet. With UDL, there are multiple options. For instance, students may be able to create a podcast or a video to show what they know. They may even be allowed to draw a comic strip. There are tons of possibilities for completing assignments, as long as students meet the lesson goals.
Flexible work spaces
UDL promotes flexibility in the learning environment. That’s why in a UDL classroom, there are flexible work spaces for students. This includes spaces for quiet individual work, small and large group work, and group instruction. If students need to tune out noise, they can choose to wear earbuds or headphones during independent work.
With UDL, students get feedback — often every day — on how they’re doing. At the end of a lesson, teachers may talk with individual students about lesson goals. Students are encouraged to reflect on the choices they made in class and whether they met the goals. If they didn’t meet the goals, they’re encouraged to think about what might have helped them do so.
Digital and audio text
UDL recognizes that if students can’t access information, they can’t learn it. So in a UDL classroom, materials are accessible for all types of learners. Students have many options for reading, including print, digital, text-to-speech and audiobooks. For digital text, there are also options for text enlargement, along with choices for screen color and contrast. Videos have captions, and there are transcripts for audio