aiou course code 6511-2 autumn solved asignment 2022/Course: Teaching of Pakitan Studies (6511) 

aiou course code 6511-2 autumn solved asignment 2022/Course: Teaching of Pakitan Studies (6511)

Course: Teaching of Pakitan Studies (6511)                Semester: Autumn, 2022 Level: MA/M.Ed



Assignment No.2



Q.1 Discuss the classification of assignment. How can a good assignment be written?

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Classification is a way to organize the data in categories so that this data can be used in an efficient manner to obtain the best results. When the data classification is done properly, one can use the data in the best way. This data can be used to manage risk, compliance and legal discoveries. The data is required at any point in time and irrespective of the situation. The most critical part of the data classification is that you would require a security code post classification so that only authorized persons can view the data. The data would be classified based on its sensitivity.


How is Data Classified

Data is of 3 types

  • Restricteddata: When the data is restricted, only authorized user who has permission to view the data can gain access to it. For instance, the university data would be classified as restricted data. This data can be accessed by the concerned person using a password. As this information is secured, so not everyone will have access to view this data.
  • Privatedata: This is the data that is not exposed to be viewed by the public. This must be kept secured and safe.
  • Publicdata: The data can be viewed by the people, but there are no changes made to it without the permission of the concerned person.

In statistics, the data are classified into the following four types. These include:

  • Geographical classification: In this type of classification, the data would be classified based on the area and place. This type of classification is called areal or spatial classification. The data would be distributed in terms of the area such as country, state, district and zone. To refer to the data quickly for ranking, the data has to be arranged in alphabetical order or the size of the frequencies. This classification is carried out for the data that is distributed across the geography, i.e. based on the population, mineral resources, sales, students of the universities, production, etc.
  • Chronological classification: The gathered data would be classified based on the time the incident occurred. The data that is obtained in this classification is known as time series. In this type of classification, the data is classified for a certain duration of time by population, sales result, production, etc. The data would be arranged with the earliest or the latest period.
  • Qualitative classification: The data is classified based on the descriptive character or based on sex, literacy, honesty, intelligence, religion, eyesight, etc. This type of classification is known as descriptive classification. This type of classification is divided into two groups such as deaf, non-deaf, blind and non-blind.
  • Quantitative classification: The data gathered would be classified based on income, market, expenditure, profits, loss, height, weight, price, production and so on.


Q.2 Explain the role of Pakistan Studies teacher in national integration. What measures sould be taken for their continuous professional development?

National integration is the mean by which the people constituting a nation are brought together so that the whole people are unified by the leadership on the basis of their common system of symbols and institutions which these groups select, standardize, maintain arid transmit from generation to generation. National integration has two important aspects; firstly, the existing pattern of state and government and secondly; the formation and development of the character, mind and consciousness of every individual or citizen on the basis of the common ideals, values, norms, laws, beliefs and customs.

Pakistan has a traditional society which is full of several kinds of inequalities and various kinds of prejudices and discriminations based on caste, creed, race, tribe, sex, wealth language etc. So in these circumstances Pakistani nationalism is the only ideology of the Pakistani nation. Its ideal and principles are love and devotion to Pakistan as a country and as a nation. Pakistani patriotism inspires all Pakistanis, regardless of any discrimination, to defend Pakistan against all challenges ot its unity, solidarity and integrity. The principles of Pakistani nationalism were proclaimed by Quaid-e-Azam in his speech at Dhaka on 21 March, 1948, in which he said

You belong to a Nation now, you have now carved out a territory, vast territory, it is all yours; it does not belong to a Punjabi, or a Sindhi, or a Pathan, [or a Balochi] … it is yours.

These words of Quaid-e-Azam are the true essence of Pakistani nationalism and are the real basis of Pakistan’s unity, solidarity and integrity. But it is a misfortune of Pakistan that since the death of Quaid-e-Azam it did not always have a dedicated political leadership and love of democratic practices.

Pakistani nationalism had taken shape in the minds of the Muslims of the Sub Continent long before Pakistan actually came into existence. An ideology acquired territorial recognition to let the Islamic way of life flourish within its parameters. Preaching the same lesson of nationalism Quaid-e-Azam, during the presidential address to the Constituent Assembly on 11 August, 1947, said

Work together in a spirit that everyone of you, no matter to what community he belongs, … no matter what is his colour, caste or creed, is first, second and last a citizen of his State with equal rights, privileges and obligations…. I cannot emphasize it too much. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities… will vanish… Your may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state… We are starting with the fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State.”

National Integration is the “will” of the people to live together which comes from sharing common ideals, culture, language, tradition, history, religion, custom etc. This “will”, however, is not to be taken for granted, a blunder committed by our earlier leadership. Unfortunately, they became self-satisfied, relying too heavily on religious factor which they thought no Pakistani could afford to violate. The fact is the national identity is one thing and national integration quite another. The identity factor is individualistic in character while the integration is a state that is achieved through the merger of individual identities, May be that national identity once acquired by an individual is hard to erase from his psyche. National Integration, however once it gets out of hand is difficult to restore.

The forces that tend to subvert the “will” of the people of a nation to live together are cultural, ethnic and economic. When a culture with its languages, customs, religions and other exclusive features fails to find roots in a society, it tends to develop its own separate identity. Ethnicity is a basic human prejudice which can be ignited by the fiery speeches of the charismatic leader. Once crimes against the humanity are committed in the name of race, creed and cult, a chain reaction sets in that ends up in death and destruction of the millions. Economic deprivation and exploitation of one section of a nation by the other brushes the national respect and honour aside and struggle for the control of material means starts off. The main casualty under all these circumstances is the national integration.

There is need to develop a Pakistani nationhood which should give people the feeling that despite regional differences, they form a people destined for common statehood. Diverse groups may also continue in a common state for reasons of economic and other advantages but if the advantage is uncertain and solidarity missing, the state will have to rely mainly on aggressive power to maintain itself. The people of Pakistan have an important role to play in national integration. These include intellectuals, media people, educationaists, students and people of all provinces. Sincerity of approach and purpose is the most vital element of success. The ruling party must evolve an identity of its own which should inspire faith, hope and confidence. It must follow the unifying parth of democracy. All threats to national solidarity must be faced courageously. Parochialism and regionalism must be replaced by national integration and cohesion. This is only possible through mutual understanding and co-operation, tolerance and unity in diversity and a policy of mutual respect.

Q.3 Highlight the need and importance of instructional resources. Discuss the utilization of library resources in the teaching of Pakistan Studies.

As an individual who imparts knowledge and education, your chief responsibility as a teacher is to make the little ones learn, develop, and grow mentally. This is imperative in their formative years if they are to become capable and productive social citizens going forward. Your teaching will play a very important role in shaping their personalities. Not to mention the equally significant factor of your students imbibing knowledge and getting equipped with the right life skills.

Instructional materials about K-12 content play a significant role in helping the child learn and develop mentally. This applies to classroom training where you are physically present before your student, or conducting a virtual setting. Pictorial, colourful instructional materials, along with regular textbooks and workbooks, ensure the child is fully engaged and finds all the learning topics interesting enough.

You could just state facts verbally or write a few lines on the blackboard or whiteboard as part of your teaching technique. Or, you could use colourful teaching aids and instructional materials that are interactive and fun. Certainly, the latter is more useful in explaining basic principles and teaching the young ones their subjects.

In this blog, we will discuss in some detail the use of instructional materials for K12 content. We will also assess their importance and benefits in the life of your pupils.

Types of Instructional Materials

Fortunately, creative teachers across the length and breadth of our country have come up with numerous instructional materials. These serve as teaching aids and help change the K12 educational content from drab and boring to fun and mentally fascinating. Always appealing to the interests of the little ones, this teaching sometimes aids and also mentally stimulates and challenges the students, particularly in higher grades.

Some broad categories of instruction materials are:

Print Materials

  • Books – Based on subject fundamentals, differentiated instructions, student activities, skills practice
  • Reference books – Includes maps, research and discovery, atlas, vocabulary builders
  • Workbooks: Supplementing with STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) curriculum
  • Practice sets – Exercises based on mathematics, science, grammar, writing, and reading and language skills

Electronics, Technology, and Media Devices

  • Microscopes
  • Binoculars and telescopes
  • Calculators
  • Audiovisual media
  • CD and cassette players
  • Microphones
  • Computers

Visualisations and Graphics

  • Graphic Organisers: Graphs, diagrams, flow charts, tables, and visual explanations of statistics
  • Infographics: Text-based or image-based infographics explaining breaking down concepts, statistics

Games and Interactive Resources

  • Puzzles and brainteasers
  • Role-play
  • Games

Broadly speaking, you could have audio or visual teaching aids as instructional materials to use in your regular classes. Or, these could be a combination of audiovisual cues and material. Sometimes, pictorial material that is attractively drawn and painted helps with object recognition in the initial stages of education, for instance, in kindergarten through first and second grades. Of course, when you combine pictorial instructional material with audiovisual cues, the child learns not only the object’s name, but also its spelling and correct pronunciation.

Then, there are the more interactive quizzes and games that act as excellent instructional materials as well. In fact, kids have such fun playing with these that retention of content and information becomes very easy. These games are also competitive in nature, and thereby naturally motivate the young pupils to do their best. In the process, they end up learning more thoroughly.

Advantages of Instruction Materials

But how exactly are such instructional materials more advantageous than regular teaching?

Regular blackboard or whiteboard teaching easily becomes monotonous for the child after a period of time. Listening to teachers drone on about various topics for 5 to 6 hours every day can become tedious for the most patient of us adults. Needless to say, children have relatively smaller attention spans.

Instructional materials are used in classes because of the following advantages they provide:

  • They take away some of the monotony in the class & offers content that makes students sit up and take notice
  • They arouse curiosity and make the child want to know and learn more.
  • They are more interactive and engage students in a fun language they understand.
  • The bright colours and quirky background music (in the case of audiovisual content) make the topics appealing to watch and listen to.
  • There are also quizzes, charts, and presentations that do their job for the higher grades. Again, these are all unique, interesting ways of imparting education and providing information than merely using a whiteboard.

When teachers use such teaching aids as instructional materials, they essentially add a lot of quality and raise the fun quotient of their teaching. For students, there are various factors that appeal to their young minds. These are the visual attractiveness of colourful posters, the joy of listening to audiovisual content, and the mental stimulation of completing quizzes and games in a group. All of this makes learning much more fun, effective, and overall less uninteresting and tiresome.

Q.4 Prepare a four stage lesson plan of “Tehreek e Khilifat”.

Sectarian violence in Pakistan refers to attacks and counter-attacks against people and places in Pakistan motivated by antagonism toward the target’s sect, usually a religious extremist group. Targets in Pakistan include the Shia, Barelvis, Sunnis, Sufis, Ahmadis, Hindus and small groups of Deobandis. As many as 4,000 people are estimated to have been killed by Shia-Sunni sectarian attacks in Pakistan between 1987–2007. And since 2008, thousands of Shia have been killed by Sunni extremists according to Human Rights Watch (HRW). One significant aspect of the attacks in Pakistan is that militants often target Sunni and Shia places of worship during prayers in order to maximize fatalities and to “emphasize the religious dimensions of their attack”.[ Human Rights Watch also states that in 2011 and 2012, Pakistan minority groups including Hindus, Ahmadi, and Christians “faced unprecedented insecurity and persecution in the country”. Attacks on Sufi shrines by Salafis have also been reported.

Among those blamed for the sectarian violence in the country are mainly Deobandi militant groups, such as the Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), and Jundallah (affiliates of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant). Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan “has claimed responsibility for most of the attacks” on Shia according to Human Rights Watch. Salafi militant groups are also blamed for attacks on Shias, Barelvis and Sufis.

Religions and sects

Shia and Sunni

Estimates of the size of the two largest religious groups in Pakistan vary. According to the Library of Congress, Pew Research Center,  Oxford University, the CIA World Factbook,[  and other experts, adherents of Shi’a Islam in Pakistan make up between 9-15% of the population of Pakistan while the remaining 70–75%are Sunni.

Pakistan, like India, is said to have at least 16 million Shias. Globally, Shia Islam constitutes 10–20% of the total Muslims, while the remaining 80%–90% practice Sunni Islam. Of the Sunni, the majority follow the Barelvi school, while 15-25% follow the Deobandi school of jurisprudence.

Ahmadi and Sunni

An estimated 0.22%-2.2% of the population are Ahmadi, who were designated ‘non-Muslims’ by a 1974 constitutional amendment, although they consider themselves Muslims, due to pressure from Sunni extremist groups.

Other groups

Hinduism is the second largest religion in Pakistan after Islam, according to the 1998 Census. Non-Muslim religions also include Christianity, which has 2,800,000 (1.6%) adherents as of 2005. The Bahá’í Faith claims 30,000, followed by Sikhs, Buddhists and Parsis, each claiming 20,000 adherents, and a very small community of Jains.

Intra-Muslim sectarianism


Barelvis form the majority within the Sunni sect, while the Deobandis form 15-25%. However, the Barelvis have been targeted and killed by Deobandi groups in Pakistan such as the TTP, SSP, and Lashkar-e-Taiba. Suicide attacks, vandalism and destruction of sites considered holy to those in the Barelvi movement have been perpetrated by Deobandi extremist groups. This includes attacks, destruction and vandalism of Data Darbar in Lahore, Abdullah Shah Ghazi’s tomb in Karachi, Khal Magasi in Balochistan, and Rahman Baba’s tomb in Peshawar. The murder of various Barelvi leaders have also been committed by Deobandi terrorists.

Barelvi clerics claim that there is a bias against them in various Pakistani establishments such as the DHA, who tend to appoint Deobandi Imams for mosques in their housing complexes rather that Barelvi ones. Historical landmarks such as Badshahi Masjid also have Deobandi Imams, which is a fact that has been used as evidence by Barelvi clerics for bias against Barelvis in Pakistan. The Milade Mustafa Welfare Society has asserted that the Religious Affairs Department of DHA interferes with Human Resources to ensure that Deobandi Imams are selected for mosques in their housing complex.

In April 2006, the entire leadership of two prominent Barelvi outfits, the Sunni Tehreek and Jamaat Ahle Sunnat were killed in a bomb attack in the Nishtar Park bombing, in Pakistan’s largest city and business hub Karachi. On 12 June 2009, Sarfraz Ahmed Naeemi, a prominent cleric of the Barelvi sect and outspoken critic of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan was killed in a suicide bombing. Between 2005 and 2010, hundreds of Barelvi sect members have been killed in more than 70 suicide attacks at different religious shrines.


After the demise of Jinnah, the prime minister of Pakistan, Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, allied with the ulema and passed the Objectives Resolution and adopted the Islam as state religion. Jinnah’s appointed law minister, Jogendra Nath Mandal, resigned from his post. Shias of Pakistan allege discrimination by the Pakistani government since 1948, claiming that Sunnis are given preference in business, official positions and administration of justice. Although the sectarian hateful literature has been pouring into Punjab since Shah Abd al-Aziz wrote his Tuhfa Asna Ashariya, however, major incidents of anti-Shia violence began only after mass migration in 1947. Many students of Molana Abdul Shakoor Farooqi and Molana Hussain Ahmad Madani migrated to Pakistan and either set up seminaries here or became part of the Tanzim-e-Ahle-Sunnat (TAS) or Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam (JUI). They travelled through the length and breadth of the country and called for attacks on Azadari and wrote books and tracts against it. Among them were: Molana Noorul Hasan Bukhari, Molana Dost Muhammad Qureshi, Molana Abdus Sattar Taunsavi, Molana Mufti Mahmood, Molana Abdul Haq Haqqani, Molana Sarfaraz Khan Safdar Gakharvi, and Molana Manzoor Ahmad Naumani. The sectarian clashes of Lucknow had attracted zealous workers of religious parties from Punjab and KPK, but with influx of sectarian clergy, the religious sectarianism and narrow-mindedness of UP was injected to Sufism-oriented Punjab and Sindh.

In the 1950s, Tanzim-e-Ahle-Sunnat started to arrange public gatherings all over Pakistan to incite violence and mock Shia sanctities. TAS issued an anti-Shia monthly, called Da’wat. In Muharram 1955, attacks took place on at least 25 places in Punjab. In 1956, thousands of armed villagers gathered to attack Azadari in the small town of Shahr Sultan, but were stopped by Police from killing. On 7 August 1957, three Shias were killed during an attack in Sitpur village. Blaming the victim, TAS demanded that government should ban the thousand years old tradition of Azadari, because it caused rioting and bloodshed. In May 1958, a Shia orator Agha Mohsin was target-killed in Bhakkar. Police needed to be appointed to many places, the scenario became more like in the pre-partition Urdu Speaking areas. It is important to note here that the Shia ulema were becoming part of religious alliances and not supporting secularism. The syllabus taught at Shia seminaries does not include any course on the history of the subcontinent. Shia clerics don’t have an independent political vision: they were strengthening the puritanism which was going to deprive Shias of basic human rights, like equality, peace and freedom.

Ayyub Khan enforced Martial Law in 1958. In the 1960s, Shias started to face state persecution when Azadari processions were banned at some places and the ban was lifted only after protests. In Lahore, the main procession of Mochi gate was forced to change its route. After Martial Law was lifted in 1962, anti-Shia hate propaganda started again, both in the form of books and weekly papers. The Deobandi organisation, Tanzim-e-Ahle-Sunnat, demanded the Azadari to be limited to Shia ghetto’s. Following Muharram, on 3 June 1963, two Shias were killed and over a hundred injured in an attack on Ashura procession in Lahore. In a small town of Tehri in the Khairpur District of Sindh, 120 Shias were slaughtered. The press did not cover the incidents properly, as the identity of both the perpetrators and the victims, and their objective was concealed. On 16 June, six Deobandi organisations arranged a public meeting in Lahore where they blamed the victims for the violence. In July, a commission was appointed to inquire into the riots. Its report was published in December that year, but it too did not name any individual or organisation. Nobody was punished. Mahmood Ahmad Abbasi, Abu Yazid Butt, Qamar-ud-Din Sialvi and others wrote books against Shias.

In 1969, Ashura procession was attacked in Jhang. On 26 February 1972, Ashura procession was stone pelted on in Dera Ghazi Khan. In May 1973, the Shia neighbourhood of Gobindgarh in Sheikhupura district was attacked by Deobandi mob. There were troubles in Parachinar and Gilgit too. In 1974, Shia villages were attacked in Gilgit by armed Deobandi men. January 1975 saw several attacks on Shia processions in Karachi, Lahore, Chakwal and Gilgit. In a village Babu Sabu near Lahore, three Shias were killed and many were left injured.

On the other hand, Mufti Mahmood, Molana Samiul Haq, Ihsan Illahi Zaheer and others wrote and spoke furiously against Shias. Molana Samilul Haq wrote in the editorial of Al-Haq magazine:

“We must also remember that Shias consider it their religious duty to harm and eliminate the Ahle-Sunna …. the Shias have always conspired to convert Pakistan to a Shia state … They have been conspiring with our foreign enemies and with the Jews. It was through such conspiracies that the Shias masterminded the separation of East Pakistan and thus satiated their thirst for the blood of the Sunnis”.

The liberation struggle of Bangladesh was instigated by economic and cultural grievances, not religion. The religious reality is that the Shia population of Bangladesh was less than 1%, and similarly the Mukti Bahni was pre-dominantly Sunni. The members of Al-Badr and Al-Shams, the jihadi militias set up by Pakistan armed forces to crush the Bengali fighters, were recruited from Jamaat-i-Islami and followed wahhabist form of Islam preached by followers of Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismael Dihlavi. Shias of Pakistan form a small minority in civil and military services and they too try to downplay their religious identity for fears of discrimination.

After Zia’s takeover in 1977, the influence of socialism and modernism started to wane and religious parties felt empowered by Zia’s islamization program. They began to recruit workers and volunteers. In February 1978, Ali Basti, a Shia neighborhood in Karachi, was attacked by a Deobandi mob and 5 men were killed. Next Muharram, in 1978, Azadari processions were attacked in Lahore and Karachi leaving 22 Shias dead. After Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, the country became a safe haven for Shia phobic militants. They could now train in the name of Afghan Jihad, kill Shias and go to Afghanistan in hiding. The number of hate crimes against the Shias increased. During Muharram 1980, the Afghan Refugees settled near Parachinar attacked Shia villages and in 1981, they expelled Shias from Sada. At that time, Kurram Militia was employed in Kurram Agency and they successfully contained this violence. In 1983, Shias neighbourhoods of Karachi were attacked on Eid Milad-un-Nabi. 94 houses were set on fire, 10 Shias were killed. On Muharram 1983, there were again attacks on Shias in Karachi. On 6 July 1985, police opened fire on a Shia demonstration in Quetta, killing 17 Shias. Shias responded and 11 attackers were killed. According to police report, among the 11 attackers who died in the clash only 2 were identified as police sepoys and 9 were civilian Deobandis wearing fake police uniforms. In Muharram 1986, 7 Shias were killed in Punjab, 4 in Lahore, 3 in Layyah. In July 1987, Shias of Parachinar, who were ready to defend, were attacked by the Afghan Mujahideen again and as a result, 52 Shias and 120 attackers lost their lives. In 1988, Shia procession was banned in Dera Ismail Khan and 9 unarmed Shia civilians were shot dead while defying the ban. The government had to restore the procession. In the 1988 Gilgit Massacre, Osama bin Laden-led Sunni tribals assaulted, massacred and raped Shia civilians in Gilgit after being inducted by the Pakistan Army to quell a Shia uprising in Gilgit.

It is important to note here that it was not Zia, but Liaquat Ali Khan who had patronised the perpetrators of Lucknow sectarianism and started the process of Islamization. Ayyub Khan not only alienated Bengalis but also promoted a historical narrative of Ghulam Ahmad Pervaiz, a conspiracy theorist who attacked Shias in his books like Shahkaar-e-Risalat. Long before Zia, the two-nation theory of Jinnah had been attributed to Ahmad Sirhindi and Shah Waliullah. These hate preachers were presented as heroes and real founders of Pakistan in Syllabus.

Other significant event was the Islamic revolution of Iran. It indirectly strengthened the Islamists in Pakistan. Molana Maududi’s Jamaat-e-Islami shared common ideas of political Islamism. They were the first to support it and publish Khomeini’s writings and speeches in Pakistan. Shias did not support this revolution until 1985, when Molana Arif al-Hussaini assumed leadership of the Shia organisation Tehreek-e-Jafariya. Molana Manzoor Ahmad Naumani had been writing against Jamaat-e-Islami for long time. Fearing that this revolution might actually empower Jamaat-i-Islami and the Shias, he obtained funding from Rabta Aalam-i-Islami of Saudi Arabia and wrote a book against Shias and Khomeini. Meanwhile, Molana Nurul Hasan Bukhari and Attaullah Shah Bukhari had died and Taznim-e-Ahle-Sunnat (TAS) was in a bad shape. The need for its re-organization was met by another Deobandi cleric of lower rank, Molana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi from Punjab. With same ideology and support base, he chose the name Anjuman Sipah-e-Sahaba (ASS) and later changed it to Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP).

Just as the Soviet forces were leaving Afghanistan, a wave of civil disobedience and protests erupted in Kashmir. Pakistan decided to send in the Jihadis trained for Afghan Jihad. The followers of Syed Ahmad Barelvi’s puritanical form of Islam were trained at Balakot, the place where he was killed while fleeing the joint Sikh-Pashtun attack in 1831. New organisations, like Hizbul Mujahideen, were set up, but their members were drawn from the ideological spheres of Deobandi seminaries and Jamaat-e-islami. This made matters worse for Shias in Pakistan, as the jihadis trained for Kashmir used to come home and act as part-time sectarian terrorists. The state initially turned a blind eye. Sipah-e-Sahaba became more lethal, and the incidents of Shia killing became more organised and more targeted. Shia intellecticide began in the 1990s: doctors, engineers, professors, businessmen, clerics, lawyers, civil servants and other men of learning were being listed and murdered. Mainstream media, either under fear of jihadists or out of ideological orientation of majority of journalists, chose to hide the identity of Shia victims and create false binaries which made it difficult for the people to understand the gravity of the situation and researchers and human rights activists to gather the correct data and form a realistic narrative. Another tactic deployed for this strategy of confusion was to change the names of sectarian outfits: in the 1980s Tanzim-e-Ahlesunnat (TAS) had come to be known as Sipahe Sahaba (SSP), in the 1990s a new umbrella was set up under the name of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ), whose members, if caught red-handed, were supported by SSP’s lawyers and funding.

In 2001, after the September 11 attacks on the Twin Towers in the United States, Pakistan decided to join America in her war against terrorism. President Musharraf banned Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Sipah-e-Muhammad. In October 2001, Mufti Nizam al-Din Shamzai, a renowned Deobandi religious authority, issued a fatwa calling for Jihad against the US and Pakistani States[This fatwa justified means by ends and apostatised government employees as infidels. The fourth point of the fatwa reads:

“All those governments of the Muslim countries who side with America in this crusade, and putting on their disposal the land and resources, or sharing intelligence with them, are no more legitimate. It is a duty of every Muslim to bring these governments down, by any means possible”


Q.5 What are the different types of tests used in the teaching of Pakistan Studies? How are they evaluated?

PAKISTAN Studies is a subject that aims at enhancing students’ knowledge about history, culture and geography of Pakistan and to inculcate patriotism in the hearts of students so that they may become a good citizen.

Although Pakistan Studies is a compulsory subject from Class IX up to the university level, it is an astonishing fact that many of the students are unaware of important historical figures and events.

Even if they know some, it’s just the names of some of the famous personalities and not the details about their achievements, life and causes of success or downfall.

The books on Pakistan Studies of different levels cover the topics which are repeated in all of them.

There is no need to teach about those selected topics at each level. Instead the need is to include more topics, which could be informative, as well as beneficial, for the students.


Besides history, there should be topics of current issues and problems which our country is currently facing.

Human rights and its importance must be taught to eradicate social evils and problems which our country is facing.

Moreover, the content presented in the book should not mould students to become narrow-minded and parochial. Aims should be to open the faculty to accept past follies and learn to rectify the mistakes.

This would create enlightenment in students and encourage them to get what their ancestors did not achieve.

It is highly important that textbooks are free from indoctrination and any kind of bias or stereotyping and should give actual facts and figures.

This does not mean that textbooks should only contain facts and figures, rather they should be presented in an interesting way so that students enjoy learning and reading books.

It should create and develop interest towards the subject and help widen their outlooks and open new vistas of knowledge. There should be a variety of questions, as well as activities, for learners so that they can learn with fun.

References and sources must be given in the books for further study.

I hope the implementation of suggestions will be beneficial in attaining the objectives of teaching of Pakistan Studies. Authorities concerned should do the needful.

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