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Define model of teaching, its characteristics, functions, assumptions and elements. Elaborate the need of model of teaching.



The classic definition of teaching is the design and creation of environments. Students learn by interacting with those environments and they study how to learn (Dewy, 1916). A model of teaching can be defined as the depiction of teaching and learning environment, including the behaviour of teachers and students while the lesson is presented through that model. Models of teaching enable the students to engage in robust cognitive and social task and teach the student how to use them productively. Models of teaching are the specific instructional plans which are designed according to the concerned learning theories. It provides a comprehensive blue print for curriculum to design instructional materials, planning lessons, teacher pupil roles, supporting aids and so forth. Joyce & Weil (2014) defines A model of teaching is a description of a learning environment, including our behavior as teachers when that model is used. Eggen (1979) defines that Models are prescriptive teaching strategies which help to realize specific instructional goals. Models of teaching are really models of learning. It helps students to acquire information, ideas, skills, value, way of thinking and means of expressing themselves. Hence models of teaching train the student on how to learn.  In fact the most important long term outcome of instruction may be the student’s increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the future. Hence the main aim of models of teaching is to create powerful learners.


The following are the chief characteristics of a good teaching model

  • Each model has built up based on particular learning theory
  • Creation of congenial learning environment in the classroom
  • Effective interaction between the teacher and students
  • Planned use of appropriate strategies
  • Teaching process are systematically, sequentially and logically arranged
  • Clear and specified roles for teachers and students
  • Large scope for supporting material
  • Ensure active participation of entire students in the class
  • It raises the students’ level of aspiration, motivation and interest in learning
  • Every model foster and strengthen the cognitive structure of the student


Element of a model of teaching represent its structure, process and teaching aids of the instruction. A model of teaching consists of syntax, social system, principle of reaction and support system. The detailed descriptions are as follows.


It is the steps or phases of the model being presented before the class. It illustrates the logical and sequential order of the teacher student activities of the instruction procedure. It describes the complete programme of action of the model.

Social system

Social system of a model explains its nature of learning environment. It describes the role and relationship of the teacher and students through the phases as well as designing the lesson. As each and every model is unique, the role of teacher and students in every model may vary according to the respective learning theory of the model is built. It also varies in phases to phases.

Principle of Reaction

This is the extension of social system. It deals with the rules of reaction to the students responses in the classroom interaction. The reaction of the teacher must be in accordance with the theory of which model has been built. The teacher reaction is desired when the students’ responses/ behavior are untouched with expected level responses and for giving reinforcement. It depends the family of the model is presented.

Support system

It includes all instructional aides used in a model of teaching. Eg. Books, Encyclopedia, Video clips, slides, News paper, Tab, Expert, Films, Specimen etc.

Effect of models of Teaching

Models of teaching have a very positive effect on students’ behavior. Bruce Joyce classified the effect as Instructional effect and Nurturant Effect. Instructional effects are the direct effect of an instruction on students’ cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. Nurturant effects are the indirect effect other than the teacher intends to achieve through the model.  It is the additional achievement gained by the students through the unique nature classroom interaction. Examples are the development of problem solving ability, analytical thinking, critical thinking, social skill, tolerance etc.


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