Course: Educational Psychology and Guidance (6501) Semester: Autumn, 2022
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
It’s a specialized field or area that lets us study how people think as they relate to their educational setting.
Throughout this article, you will learn more about Educational Psychology, especially about how Educational Psychology helps teachers.
Educational psychology can be said to be applied to psychology, as I explained in my previous article.
Benefits of Educational Psychology to a Teacher:
The purpose of this article is to show you how educational psychology can be applied in various contexts and to explain how educational psychology can be helpful to a teacher in school?
My aim is to explain how educational psychology can aid a teacher in various areas.
A recent essay I wrote focused on the purpose and function of educational psychology.
Education psychology is important for teachers because:
Our education system is becoming increasingly complex. Despite your excellent teaching style, you will not be able to satisfy every single student with your approach.
It is therefore essential that every teacher studies and understands child psychology, which helps them deliver effective lessons and to understand their students better.
Educational Psychology Helps Teachers
1. The study of educational psychology helps a teacher to understand how the memorizing process occurs and how to improve it.
2. Education psychology helps teachers to understand how an individual’s learning process should be initiated or started.
3. An educator can motivate students and conduct learning activities with the help of educational psychology.
4. Using educational psychology, you can guide your child properly so that they will follow a single, right path according to their abilities, without having any confusion.
5. The psychology of education helps a teacher understand how students learn.
6. An educator can greatly develop a student’s personality with the help of educational psychology.
7. A teacher can solve the problems of their students with the help of educational psychology.
Each and every teacher should have some knowledge about educational psychology in order to benefit from it.
Children’s prosperity and development are the responsibility of teachers.
Educational Psychology Helps Teachers in School
In educational psychology, a teacher teaches students how to solve their problems and monitor their own behavior in school.
A school is a place where teachers need to devote their full time to students because students in school don’t have the maturity to know what to do and how to do it.
For a teacher to guide students accurately and correctly, they must be extremely knowledgeable and patient with them.
The study of educational psychology can greatly help a teacher in this regard.
Through educational psychology, a teacher can access the mental abilities of each student and give them a boost.
Educating students and nurturing them are two sides of the same coin. Teachers use educational psychology to both educate and nurture their students.
Growing up in school is the initial stage of learning. Everything they see around them catches their attention.
Thus, educational psychology helps create environments in which children can learn effectively and efficiently.
How Educational Psychology helps Teachers in Classrooms:
In a classroom, a teacher can create the right kind of environment so that students will be able to learn easier.
In addition, the teacher can make students feel disciplined, guided, and kind.
Teachers can use educational psychology to engage students in activities regarding their subjects so that they will be able to learn more effectively.
Educational Psychology Helps a Teacher in college
The teacher reveals the hidden talents of the students and makes their students aware of what skills they possess and what profession is most suitable for them.
The college student is kind of like a group of professionals with specific goals and a plan to achieve them.
Teachers in college are unable to give their students full-time attention as they did in schools, but they can use educational psychology to solve the problems of their students that act as a barrier.
Educational Psychology helps a Teacher at University
Students at universities can learn practical skills to be successful in their respective fields with the help of educational psychology.
In education, a university is the highest level of an institution and the final step before a student can begin their professional or practical career.
As a result, educational psychology assists a teacher in guiding their students about their fields in an efficient manner.
Q.2 Explain the concept and nature of cognitive development and also describe Piaget theory of cognitive development in your own words.
Children grow and develop rapidly in their first five years across the four main areas of development. These areas are motor (physical), language and communication, cognitive and social/emotional.
Cognitive development means how children think, explore and figure things out. It is the development of knowledge, skills, problem solving and dispositions, which help children to think about and understand the world around them. Brain development is part of cognitive development.
As a parent, it is important to foster your child’s cognitive development as soon as he/she is born because doing so provides the foundation for your child’s success in school and later in life. For example, research shows that children who can distinguish sounds at six months of age are better at acquiring the skills for learning to read at four and five years of age.
To promote your child’s cognitive development, it is important that you actively engage in quality interactions on a daily basis. Examples include:
· Talking with your baby and naming commonly used objects.
· Letting your baby explore toys and move about.
· Singing and reading to your baby.
· Exposing your toddler to books and puzzles.
· Expanding on your child’s interests in specific learning activities. For example, your toddler might show an early interest in dinosaurs, so you can take him/her on a trip to the natural history museum to learn more about the time that these creatures roamed the earth.
· Answering your child’s “why” questions.
Another way that you can foster your child’s cognitive development is to provide him/her with choices and prompt him/her to make thoughtful decisions. You should also allow your child to explore different ways of solving problems. While you may want to provide some gentle guidance and encouragement, allow your child some time to figure out things, like a new puzzle. This may require some patience on your part, but it will ultimately help him/her to learn.
Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of learning. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence.1 Piaget’s stages are:
Sensorimotor stage: Birth to 2 years
Preoperational stage: Ages 2 to 7
Concrete operational stage: Ages 7 to 11
Formal operational stage: Ages 12 and up
Piaget believed that children take an active role in the learning process, acting much like little scientists as they perform experiments, make observations, and learn about the world. As kids interact with the world around them, they continually add new knowledge, build upon existing knowledge, and adapt previously held ideas to accommodate new information.
History of Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Piaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s and was a precocious student, publishing his first scientific paper when he was just 11 years old. His early exposure to the intellectual development of children came when he worked as an assistant to Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon as they worked to standardize their famous IQ test.
Much of Piaget’s interest in the cognitive development of children was inspired by his observations of his own nephew and daughter. These observations reinforced his budding hypothesis that children’s minds were not merely smaller versions of adult minds.
Piaget proposed that intelligence grows and develops through a series of stages. Older children do not just think more quickly than younger children. Instead, there are both qualitative and quantitative differences between the thinking of young children versus older children.
Based on his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults—they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget’s discovery “so simple only a genius could have thought of it.”
Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget’s view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses to changes in mental operations.
The Sensorimotor Stage
During this earliest stage of cognitive development, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. A child’s entire experience at the earliest period of this stage occurs through basic reflexes, senses, and motor responses.
During the sensorimotor stage, children go through a period of dramatic growth and learning. As kids interact with their environment, they continually make new discoveries about how the world works.
The cognitive development that occurs during this period takes place over a relatively short time and involves a great deal of growth. Children not only learn how to perform physical actions such as crawling and walking; they also learn a great deal about language from the people with whom they interact. Piaget also broke this stage down into substages. Early representational thought emerges during the final part of the sensorimotor stage.
By learning that objects are separate and distinct entities and that they have an existence of their own outside of individual perception, children are then able to begin to attach names and words to objects.
The Preoperational Stage
The foundations of language development may have been laid during the previous stage, but the emergence of language is one of the major hallmarks of the preoperational stage of development.
At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people. They also often struggle with understanding the idea of constancy.
For example, a researcher might take a lump of clay, divide it into two equal pieces, and then give a child the choice between two pieces of clay to play with. One piece of clay is rolled into a compact ball while the other is smashed into a flat pancake shape. Because the flat shape looks larger, the preoperational child will likely choose that piece, even though the two pieces are exactly the same size.
Q.3 Describe different aspects of Personality Development in adolescence. How social learning theory would guide a teacher regarding Personality Development of learners.
I have described Personality Development as the process by which a pattern of behaviour, attributes and attitudes are developed in an individual.
All the things that goes into making this individual unique and different from others is personality development.
There are a several things to be considered when we talk about personality development as there are no two individuals that are the same.
We may look the same and may have had similar experiences in life but we are all unique in our own ways.
Our reactions and personality development process would be different. People who are brought up in the same household will develop their own peculiar pattern of reacting and responding various situations they face.
Relations also who may resemble each other physically are still different and unique in their own way.
The attributes of a person make him or her special but there are various factors that contribute to the type of personality that is formed.
These are: temperament, environment and character and they may have a negative or positive effect on personality development.
There are a lot of factors that have gone into the development of a particular type of personality. From childhood to adulthood, we go through a lot of process, experiences and situations that all contribute to the formation of our personality.
These have all played a role in making us who and what we are today. We have the capability to become whatever we desire as long we are willing to commit our time, resources and efforts in making it possible.
In this article, I shall be examining the basic aspects of personality development which are referred to as the Big 5. Most experts in the field agree that these are the basic ones. These five aspects include: extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism. Several other theorists have written on several other aspects of personality development, some of which include the mental aspects, spiritual aspects, emotional aspects, physical aspects, social aspect, moral aspect. These various aspects provide us a different view into the process by which an individual’s personality is developed.
Aspects of Personality Development
The Big 5 theory is quite broad and they have a range of other specific traits. They were derived from statistical analysis of the traits which tend to occur when people describe themselves or other people. Sometimes, researchers refer to them as the five- factor theory or five-factor model.
This trait describes an individual’s outgoing or social attitude. They are sometimes seen as the life of the party and enjoy hanging out with people, going out for social events and are generally full of life and energy. Those who are low in extraversion are less outgoing and prefer to stay by themselves. The introverts have less energy and love to be quiet. The ones who score high in it enjoy relating with people and are enthusiastic about life and very action-oriented. These are extroverts. Various types of jobs require different levels of extraversion and it will be useful in jobs that are related to teaching, sales and general interaction with people.
Each of the Big 5 personality traits is also made up of at least 6 sub traits. Under extraversion, we have: cheerfulness, excited, activity level, assertiveness, gregariousness and friendliness.
This manifests itself in an individual’s behaviour that shows kindness, sympathy, warmness and consideration for others. Those who score high here are very empathetic with others and accommodate them. They are also positive minded. The ones that score low are selfish and lack empathy. They seem to always be in competition with others and try to manipulate their way through situations instead of co-operating with others. Those with a high score here tend to desire harmonious living and put aside their own interests in order to please others. They believe that people are honest and trustworthy. These individuals will enjoy team building activities and working harmoniously while those that score low would be good scientists, critics or soldiers. The sub-traits here include: sympathy, modesty, co-operation and trust.
This describes the open mindedness of an individual. A person who scores high here will enjoy trying new things. They tend to be imaginative and generally open minded about everything. Others who score low would be close minded and prefer routine. They are resistant to change and would be very analytical. Those with an open mind will also tend to love the arts and think deeply too. An individual with this trait may fit in advertising, research while those who score low would enjoy jobs that require routine work. The sub traits here include: imagination, adventurousness, emotionality, artistic interests, intellect and liberalism.
This trait describes how an individual controls, regulates and directs their impulses. Individuals who score high with this personality trait tend to have a high level of self discipline. They always follow a plan instead of acting on the spur of the moment. This makes them successful in their endeavours and able to achieve their goals. They are seen as responsible and reliable. They may also be workaholics and perfectionists which may make them boring and inflexible. The sub traits of this aspect include: achievement-driven, dutifulness, orderliness, self-efficacy, self-discipline and cautiousness. Individuals with this trait will always stay focused on their goals regardless of challenges and obstacles because they believe they will always succeed if they follow their plan. They will be able to fit in across different occupations. Their need for achievement is the constant driving force.
This also means emotional stability. It describes an individual’s ability to stay balanced and stable when faced with tough challenges. One who scores high in neuroticism has the tendency to experience negative emotions. On the other hand, those who score high in emotional stability react less emotionally and don’t get upset easily. They are usually calm and stable, though it does not mean they experience a lot of positive feelings. Those who are high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and feel threatened or get into bad moods even in a normal situation. They may also find it difficult to think clearly when they are stressed. Those with high emotional stability are preferred in most professions as they have control over their emotions while those with low stability can be distracted by deadlines, personal situations and pressure. The sub traits here include: anxiety, anger, depression, self-consciousness, vulnerability and immoderation.
Q.4 Write brief but comprehensive note on the followings:
· Principles of Learning
Research in the learning sciences has produced massive amounts of information on the brain, intelligence, and the learning process. Because the education system and our learning processes are complex, research provides no silver bullet to improve our schools.
There are, however, key principles that emerge when reviewing the literature on relevancy, engagement, and contemporary theory about intelligence and learning. While not comprehensive, the following list can can help educators take a research-backed approach to supporting learners:
1. Learning is developmental. Based on the physical development of the brain, there’s a logical progression to how people develop skills and learning habits.
2. Individuals learn differently. People learn at their own pace, with different methods and strategies for acquiring and processing information.
3. People learn what is personally meaningful to them. Motivation increases when people can see how new knowledge and skills can be applied to their personal life and work.
4. New knowledge is built on current knowledge. Accurate prior knowledge provides a strong foundation for learning; however, inaccurate or insufficient prior knowledge can make learning more difficult. People learn by connecting newly acquired information with prior knowledge. If those connections are well organized, knowledge can be retrieved and applied more readily.
5. Learning occurs through social interaction. When learning offers opportunities for active response and exchange among peers and experts, it is more effective than passive listening, reading, or watching media in isolation.
6. People learn when they accept challenging but achievable goals. Within this “zone of proximal development,” learners are often able to exceed the limitations of their prior knowledge and skill levels through collaborative work with more knowledgeable peers and experts.
7. Learners master basic and component skills through practice. The skills necessary to complete a more complex tasks are mastered when practice is routine and applied in various contexts. Timely and accurate feedback is essential to this process.
8. Acquiring and applying habits of mind improves learning performance. Habits of mind can be taught. These habits include routine practices such as assessing the nature and difficulty of a task, evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses in light of the task, planning how to solve related problems, applying varied problem solving strategies, and self-monitoring success with those strategies.
9. Learning is stronger and more permanent in a positive emotional climate. When students feel safe, connected to their peers and leaders, and in touch with goals, they are in supportive emotional climates.
10. Learning is influenced by the total environment. Air quality, light, room color, furnishings – all of these things affect learners. They are also affected by their interactions with others, physiological needs, the nature of their personal goals, and the organizational goals set by schools and employers. Each learning environment – classrooms, schools, neighborhoods, cities, nations – influences learners’ perspectives about their lives and their hopes.
For educators, these principles may seem obvious. But it’s important to be aware of the ample research behind each, and use these research-based principles to support what teachers already do best: support learners.
· Problem Solving
Problem solving is the act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying, prioritizing, and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution.
· The problem-solving process
· Problem solving resources
THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS
In order to effectively manage and run a successful organization, leadership must guide their employees and develop problem-solving techniques. Finding a suitable solution for issues can be accomplished by following the basic four-step problem-solving process and methodology outlined below.
1. Define the problem
· Differentiate fact from opinion
· Specify underlying causes
· Consult each faction involved for information
· State the problem specifically
· Identify what standard or expectation is violated
· Determine in which process the problem lies
· Avoid trying to solve the problem without data
2. Generate alternative solutions
· Postpone evaluating alternatives initially
· Include all involved individuals in the generating of alternatives
· Specify alternatives consistent with organizational goals
· Specify short- and long-term alternatives
· Brainstorm on others’ ideas
· Seek alternatives that may solve the problem
3. Evaluate and select an alternative
· Evaluate alternatives relative to a target standard
· Evaluate all alternatives without bias
· Evaluate alternatives relative to established goals
· Evaluate both proven and possible outcomes
· State the selected alternative explicitly
4. Implement and follow up on the solution
· Plan and implement a pilot test of the chosen alternative
· Gather feedback from all affected parties
· Seek acceptance or consensus by all those affected
· Establish ongoing measures and monitoring
· Evaluate long-term results based on final solution
1. Define the problem
Diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, not just its symptoms. Helpful problem-solving techniques include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a process and cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze root causes.
The sections below help explain key problem-solving steps. These steps support the involvement of interested parties, the use of factual information, comparison of expectations to reality, and a focus on root causes of a problem. You should begin by:
· Reviewing and documenting how processes currently work (i.e., who does what, with what information, using what tools, communicating with what organizations and individuals, in what time frame, using what format).
· Evaluating the possible impact of new tools and revised policies in the development of your “what should be” model.
2. Generate alternative solutions
Postpone the selection of one solution until several problem-solving alternatives have been proposed. Considering multiple alternatives can significantly enhance the value of your ideal solution. Once you have decided on the “what should be” model, this target standard becomes the basis for developing a road map for investigating alternatives. Brainstorming and team problem-solving techniques are both useful tools in this stage of problem solving.
Many alternative solutions to the problem should be generated before final evaluation. A common mistake in problem solving is that alternatives are evaluated as they are proposed, so the first acceptable solution is chosen, even if it’s not the best fit. If we focus on trying to get the results we want, we miss the potential for learning something new that will allow for real improvement in the problem-solving process.
3. Evaluate and select an alternative
Skilled problem solvers use a series of considerations when selecting the best alternative. They consider the extent to which:
· A particular alternative will solve the problem without causing other unanticipated problems.
· All the individuals involved will accept the alternative.
· Implementation of the alternative is likely.
· The alternative fits within the organizational constraints.
4. Implement and follow up on the solution
Leaders may be called upon to direct others to implement the solution, “sell” the solution, or facilitate the implementation with the help of others. Involving others in the implementation is an effective way to gain buy-in and support and minimize resistance to subsequent changes.
Regardless of how the solution is rolled out, feedback channels should be built into the implementation. This allows for continuous monitoring and testing of actual events against expectations. Problem solving, and the techniques used to gain clarity, are most effective if the solution remains in place and is updated to respond to future changes.
Q.5 Comparatively discuss cognitive and associative theories of learning by explaining the underlying concepts of these theories with the help of relevant examples.
Although associative learning and cognitive learning are both related to the process of learning, there is a key difference between these two types of learning. Associative learning can be defined as a type of learning in which a behavior is linked to a new stimulus. However, cognitive learning can be defined as the learning processes where individuals acquire and process information. This is the key difference between the two types of learning.
Associative learning can be defined as a type of learning in which a behavior is linked to a new stimulus. It highlights that our ideas and experiences are connected and cannot be recalled in isolation. Psychologists point out that in most situations our learning is a connected experience. According to them, associative learning can take place through two types of conditioning. They are,
1. Classical conditioning
2. Operant conditioning
The term conditioning came into psychology with the Behavioral perspective. Psychologists such as Pavlov, Skinner and Watson stressed that human behavior was an important feature in psychology. With the theories of conditioning, they pointed out how behavior can be altered, or new behavior can be created with the assistance of new stimuli from the surrounding environment. In associative learning, this line of thought is pursued.
Through classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov pointed out how a completely unrelated stimulus can create a response in an organism through the use of a dog and a bell. Usually, a dog would salivate at the sight of food, but not at the hearing of a bell. Through his experiment, Pavlov highlights how a conditioned response can be created for a conditioned stimulus.
Skinner in his experiments of operant conditioning presented how rewards and punishments can be used to train new behavior. In Associative learning, this pairing of a new stimulus with behavior can thus be examined.
Cognitive learning can be defined as the learning processes where individuals acquire and process information. The key difference between associative learning and cognitive learning is, unlike in associative learning where the focus is on the behavior and external stimuli, in cognitive learning the focus is on the human cognition.
According to cognitive learning theories, people learn things both consciously and unconsciously. When consciously learning the individual makes an effort to learn and store new information. In the case of unconscious learning, this naturally takes place.
When speaking of cognitive theories there are mainly two types. They are,
1. Social cognitive theory
2. Cognitive behavioral theory
According to the social cognitive theory, personal, environmental and behavioral factors influence learning. On the other hand, in the cognitive behavioral theory of Aaron Beck, he points out how cognition determines the behavior of the individual.
Definitions of Associative and Cognitive Learning:
Associative Learning: Associative learning can be defined as a type of learning in which a behavior is linked to a new stimulus.
Cognitive Learning: Cognitive learning can be defined as the learning processes where individuals acquire and process information.
Characteristics of Associative and Cognitive Learning:
Associative Learning: The focus is on the impact of new stimuli.
Cognitive Learning: The focus is on the mental processes.
Associative Learning: Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning can be considered as types of associative learning.
Cognitive Learning: Social cognitive theory and cognitive behavioral theory are two theories that explain cognitive learning and different variables included in the learning process.