aiou course code 6400-1solves assignment autumn 2022

Course: General Methods of Teaching (6400)                                       

Semester: Autumn, 2022

Level: B.Ed (4 Years) / ADE




  1. 1 A teacher’s personality traits are important to create and maintain a classroom/learning environment. Why? (20)


Personality traits are a combination of characteristics that are innate to people as individuals as well as characteristics that develop from specific life experiences. The personality traits that make up a person go a long way in determining how successful he is.

There are certain personality traits that help teachers and students succeed. Success may mean different things for different people. Teachers and students who hold the majority of the following characteristics are almost always successful regardless of how success is defined.



This is the ability to handle a sudden change without making it a distraction.

Students who have this trait can handle sudden adversity without letting academics suffer.

Teachers who have this trait are quickly able to make adjustments that minimize distractions when things do not go according to plan.


Conscientiousness involves the capacity to complete a task meticulously with efficiency and of the highest quality.

Conscientious students can produce high-quality work consistently.

Conscientious teachers are extremely organized and efficient, and they provide their students with quality lessons or activities daily.


This is the ability to use original thinking to solve a problem.

Students who have this trait can think critically and are adept problem solvers.

Teachers who have this trait are able to use their creativeness to build a classroom that is inviting to students, create lessons that are engaging, and incorporate strategies to individualize lessons for every student.


A person with determination can fight through adversity without giving up to accomplish a goal.

Students who have this trait are goal orientated, and they do not allow anything to get in the way of accomplishing those goals.

Teachers with determination figure out a way to get their job done. They do not make excuses. They find ways to reach even the most difficult students through trial and error without giving up.


Empathy allows a person to relate to another individual even though she may not share similar life experiences or problems.


Students who have this trait can relate to their classmates. They are nonjudgmental. Instead, they are supportive and understanding.

Teachers who have this trait can look beyond the walls of their classroom to assess and meet their students’ needs. They recognize that some students live a difficult life outside of school and try to figure out solutions for helping them.


Forgiveness is the capacity to move beyond a situation in which you were wronged without feeling resentment or holding a grudge.

Students who are forgiving can let things go that could potentially serve as a distraction when they have been wronged by someone else.

Teachers with this trait can work closely with administrators, parents, students, or other teachers who may have created an issue or controversy that was potentially detrimental to the teacher.


People who are genuine demonstrate sincerity through actions and words without hypocrisy.

Students who show genuineness are well-liked and trusted. They have many friends and are often looked upon as leaders in their classroom.

Teachers with this trait are viewed as highly professional. Students and parents buy into what they are selling, and they are often highly regarded by their peers.


Graciousness is the ability to be kind, courteous, and thankful when dealing with any situation.

Students who are gracious are popular among their peers and well-liked by their teachers. People are drawn to their personality. They often go out of their way to help others any time an opportunity arises.

Teachers who have this trait are well respected. They are invested in their school beyond the four walls of their classroom. They volunteer for assignments, help other teachers when needed, and even find ways to assist needy families in the community.


The ability to socialize with and relate to other people is known as gregariousness. Students who have this trait work well with other people. They are capable of making a connection with just about anyone. They love people and are often the center of the social universe.

Teachers who have this trait can build strong, trusting relationships with their students and families. They take the time to make real connections that often extend beyond the walls of the school. They can figure out a way to relate to and carry on a conversation with just about any personality type.


Grit is the ability to be strong in spirit, courageous, and brave.

Students who have this trait battle through adversity and stand up for others, and they are strong-minded individuals.

Teachers with grit will do anything to be the best teacher they can be. They will not let anything get in the way of educating their students. They will make difficult decisions and serve as an advocate for students when necessary.


This is the ability to work through problems or situations on your own without requiring assistance from others. Students who have this trait do not rely on other people to motivate them to accomplish a task. They are self-aware and self-driven. They can accomplish more academically because they do not have to wait on other people.

Teachers who have this trait can take good ideas from other people and make them great. They can come up with solutions to potential problems on their own and make general classroom decisions without consultation.


The ability to understand something without reason simply through instinct is intuitiveness.

Intuitive students can sense when a friend or a teacher is having a bad day and can try and improve the situation.

Teachers who have this trait can tell when students are struggling to grasp a concept. They can quickly assess and adapt the lesson so that more students understand it. They are also able to sense when a student is going through personal adversity.


Kindness is the capacity to help others without the expectation of getting anything in return.

Students who have this trait have many friends. They are generous and thoughtful often going out of their way to do something nice.

Teachers who have this trait are very popular. Many students will come into class looking forward to having a teacher with a reputation for being kind.


Obedience is the willingness to comply with a request without questioning why it needs to be done.

Students who are obedient are well thought of by their teachers. They are typically compliant, well-behaved, and seldom a classroom discipline problem.

Teachers who have this trait can build a trusting and cooperative relationship with their principal.


People who are passionate get others to buy into something due to their intense feelings or fervent beliefs.


Students with this trait are easy to motivate. People will do anything for something about which they are passionate. Taking advantage of that passion is what good teachers do.

Passionate teachers are easy for students to listen to. Passion sells any topic, and a lack of passion can lead to failure. Teachers who are passionate about their content are more likely to produce students who become passionate as they learn.


The ability to sit idly and wait on something until the timing is perfect is patience.

Students who have this trait understand that sometimes you have to wait your turn. They are not deterred by failure, but instead, view failure as an opportunity to learn more. They reevaluate, find another approach, and try again.

Teachers who have this trait understand that the school year is a marathon and not a race. They understand that each day presents its challenges and that their job is to figure out how to get every student from point A to point B as the year progresses.


Those who are reflective can look back at a point in the past and draw lessons from it based on the experience.

Such students take new concepts and mesh them with previously learned concepts to strengthen their core learning. They can figure out ways in which newly acquired knowledge is applicable to real life situations.

Teachers who have this trait are continuously growing, learning and improving. They reflect on their practice every day making continuous changes and improvements. They are always looking for something better than what they have.


Resourcefulness is the ability to make the most of what you have available to solve a problem or make it through a situation.

Students who have this trait can take the tools they have been given and make the most out of their ability.

Teachers who have this trait can maximize the resources they have at their school. They are able to make the most out of the technology and curricula that they have at their disposal. They make do with what they have.


The ability to allow others to do and be their best through positive and supportive interactions is respectfulness.

Students who are respectful can work cooperatively with their peers. They respect the opinions, thoughts, and feelings of everyone around them. They are sensitive to everyone and try to treat everyone as they want to be treated.

Teachers who have this trait understand that they must have positive and supportive interactions with every student. They maintain the dignity of their students at all times and create an atmosphere of trust and respect in their classroom.


This is the ability to be accountable for your actions and to carry out tasks that have been assigned in a timely manner.

Students who are responsible can complete and turn in every assignment on time. They follow a prescribed schedule, refuse to give in to distractions, and stay on task.

Teachers who have this trait are trustworthy and valuable assets to the administration. They are regarded as professional and often asked to help out in areas where there is a need. They are highly reliable and dependable.


  1. 2 Describe the process of course design and planning. (20)


Designing a course can seem like a daunting task, so we break it down into a few easy steps to help you navigate creating a structure that’s engaging and fun for your students.

Begin the process early, giving yourself as much time as you can to plan a new course. Successful courses require careful planning and continual revision. Consult with colleagues who have taught the same or similar courses to learn from their strategies and their general impressions of the students who typically take the course. If you are team-teaching, you and your teaching partner(s) should begin meeting well in advance to discuss course goals, teaching philosophies, course content, teaching methods, and course policies, as well as specific responsibilities for each instructor.

Define course goals. Determining the goals for the course will clarify what you want the students to learn and accomplish. Having these course goals in mind will then help you make decisions about which content to include, which teaching methods to use, and what kinds of assignments and exams are appropriate. For a useful introduction to curriculum planning that begins with defining goals for student learning, rather than with course content, see Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe’s Understanding by Design (1998).

When you define the course goals, focus on student learning. One way to formulate these goals is to determine what students should be learning in terms of content, cognitive development, and personal development. Be as specific as you can and make sure that the goals define learning in ways that can be measured. Consider the following questions:

What do you want your students to remember from your course in 5-10 years?

How should taking your course change students?

What skills should students gain in this course?

How does this course relate to other courses in the discipline? How, then, might you define the course goals accordingly (e.g., for an introductory, fundamental, or advanced course in the discipline)?

In addition, you should learn about the students who typically take the course (their level of preparation, their majors or academic interests, etc.) in order to think about how your course will help this group of students build their knowledge and understanding of the topic.

Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) provides a helpful framework for identifying the observable and measurable skills you would like your students to learn.  Bloom identified six types of cognitive processes and ordered these according to the increasing level of complexity involved: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. This page provides resources for using Bloom’s Taxonomy to help write learning goals.

Below is an example of a list of course goals, as developed for a General Chemistry course. (At Washington University, General Chemistry is a foundational course for several scientific disciplines; it attracts mainly first-year students who were in the top one percent of their high-school classes and whose academic interests represent a variety of disciplines.)


General Chemistry: Course Goals

Teach chemistry topics that must be covered to help students prepare for other courses and for standardized exams.

Teach study skills that students need to succeed in university-level science courses; these skills are distinct from those required to succeed in high-school science courses. For example, teach students how to study effectively in a group.

Teach students problem-solving and critical-thinking skills.

Demonstrate how chemistry is used in other fields and in everyday situations.

Teach students the beauty of chemistry.

Determine course content. Select the major topics and determine the order in which you will teach them.

Select the main topics to be covered. To obtain an initial list of course topics, look in current textbooks or the current literature (for a special-topics course). Determine whether there is a consensus concerning the necessary topics by obtaining previous course syllabi and discussing potential topics with colleagues. Refine your list by considering your course goals and the characteristics of your students. At the same time, use the desired content to refine the course goals.

Pare down and refine your initial list of topics. Instructors often plan initially to teach more material than they can cover in the allotted time.

Determine the structure of the course; arrange the topics in a logical order. Developing a rationale that guides the structure of the course can help you explain the material more clearly to the students. In other words, you can discuss how and why you have organized the material in a particular way, helping them to see, for example, how one topic builds on, illustrates, or offers a different perspective on another. Articulating the rationale behind the course structure also increases and maintains the students’ interest in the course content. Determining the course structure can help you decide which texts are most appropriate.

You can choose to organize the topics in a variety of ways, whether chronological, topical, conceptual, survey-oriented, or process-oriented. Think about how the structure of the course will contribute to student learning. Ask questions such as the following:


Can I organize the topics according to a theme or storyline?

Do I need to teach certain skills initially and then discuss applications?

Do I want to introduce a particular theory before illustrating it with specific examples or problems?

Develop teaching methods and tools. Once you have determined the course goals and content, think about how you will present the content. Select and develop teaching methods and tools that are 1) appropriate for the size of the class and 2) consistent with the course goals. Consider the following questions and suggestions:


What is your teaching style? How will you apply or adapt your style to suit the course goals, the size of the class, and the types of students who are likely to enroll?

Which types of teaching methods will best fulfill your course goals?

When deciding whether or not you will use technology in your teaching, identify specific goals that technology will help you reach. Plan carefully to determine how you will integrate technology with more traditional teaching tools, such as the chalkboard.

Whenever possible, use a variety of approaches, taking into account that students use a diverse range of learning preferences.

Plan to use teaching methods that will require and measure active student learning.

Determine how you will evaluate student learning: Plan assignments and exams. The evaluation must go hand-in-hand with course goals. For example, if one course goal is to improve problem-solving skills, the exam should not contain only questions that ask students to recall facts; it should contain questions that ask students to solve specific and well-chosen problems. By the same token, homework and class activities leading up to the exam must include some questions that require problem-solving skills. Consider the following questions:


Do assignments reflect and help achieve course goals? For example, are the papers required for the course an appropriate genre and length? How much time will you give students to complete these papers?

Do exams and quizzes reflect course goals? Do they measure the extent to which students are achieving the learning objectives you have set out for the course?

Will the students have an opportunity to acquire and practice the skills that are required for exams and major assignments?

Select text(s) and other materials. If you are using texts, decide whether the course goals will be best met by using a published text or a course reader that compiles material published elsewhere (and unpublished material, if applicable). Take into account the cost of all materials. Consider placing some of the material on reserve at the library so that students can borrow, photocopy, or download the material themselves. Order texts early and call the bookstore about a month before the course starts to ask if the texts have arrived.


If you are compiling a course reader, consider copyright issues (see the University’s guidelines on copyright and fair use). If you need to obtain permission to reprint or otherwise use published material, allow at least 3 months to complete the process. Keep in mind that some publishers now offer faculty the option of creating custom readers, for which the publisher has already obtained the necessary permissions. You can also use commercial copyright clearance services.

Before the semester begins, order text(s) and other materials, including films, videos, or software; contact guest speakers; and arrange field trips. If you plan to use instructional technology or multimedia equipment, ensure that you will have the necessary equipment, software, and training. Reserve a classroom that has all the necessary components. Classroom reservations are handled by the Office of the University Registrar (OUR), formerly the Office of Student Records. Typically, requests to register classrooms for a course are forwarded to OUR by departmental administrative assistants. To learn about the process in your department, ask the department chair or administrative assistant. Contact The Teaching Center at 935-6810 to schedule training on how to use the classroom multimedia or to arrange for additional, licensed software to be installed on the classroom PC. If you would like to reserve a classroom to practice using the multimedia before the semester starts, or when classes are not in session, please contact Jeanine Gibson in the Office of Student Records by email, or by phone at 935-4145.

Define course policies. Determine how you will grade all required work, including all assignments, papers, exams, and, if applicable, class participation. Decide ahead of time how you will deal with such issues as tardiness, attendance problems, work turned in late, and requests for extensions or the rescheduling of exams. Learn the Policy on Academic Integrity and develop strategies for preventing and responding to plagiarism and cheating. Include all course policies on the syllabus and plan to review them with students on the first day of class.


Develop the course schedule. The tendency is nearly always to try to accomplish too much during each class period. Allow time for active learning to occur during class and for students to complete major assignments and prepare for exams. When preparing the schedule, consult the relevant academic calendars, and keep in mind major religious holidays and significant campus events (for example, Homecoming and Thurtene Carnival).


Write the course syllabus. At a minimum, the syllabus should contain the following: course title, time, and location; prerequisites; required texts and other materials; course topics; major assignments and exams; course policies on grading, academic integrity, attendance, and late work; and contact information for instructor and assistants to instruction (if applicable).

Refine the Course Design. Course planning is a continual process, as illustrated by the diagram below. Each of the steps is necessarily undertaken with the others in mind, and each will necessarily undergo revision each time you teach a particular course.

As you plan and revise courses, remember the importance of teaching core concepts and critical-thinking skills. Focusing only on content can quickly lead you to over-emphasize knowledge-based skills and to ignore the teaching of the higher-level thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy.



  1. 3 What strategies a teacher can use in the classroom to motivate students? (20)



Children, those with and without special needs, often suffer from a lack of motivation when it comes to learning. This lack of motivation can impact the students in the classroom in many ways. Developing strategies to address the student’s lack of motivation is vital to school success.  Motivation comes in two forms: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.  Intrinsically motivated students are naturally motivated to do their work.  Extrinsically motivated students are motivated by external rewards.



The following are some ideas for motivating students:

Build relationships with your students. You will be able to better understand their learning needs and, therefore, tailor your instruction when you know more about your students. Showing a personal interest in your students will also inspire their trust in you and make it more likely that they will be open to learning new material without the fear of failure.

Use examples as often as possible. Many students want to see a finished product so that they fully understand what is expected of them. This will help them to be more confident as they learn new concepts thus increasing their motivation to learn.

When possible, hand over control to the student. If students have control they are much more likely to be committed to the lesson.  Offer students choices of how the material will be presented and what type of activities they would like to engage in for reinforcement of the lessons.  Ask the students for input regarding the methods by which they learn best. This will help you to offer differentiated instruction to the students that require different methodologies.  It also helps the students to know that you care about them and are willing to do your part in their success.

  • Use all types of technology available to you. We are living in the age of technology and students are learning to use it at very early ages. Lessons presented to students via computers, Smartboards, Ipads etc will help even the most distractible student attend because they view these devices as something fun and “cool” as opposed to learning from books alone.
  • Provide specific praise to students for little things and big things. Display their work around the classroom and mention it to classroom visitors. Tell the students how proud you are of them when they learn a new concept that you know they had difficulty understanding. Recognize when one student does something kind for another student. Recognize the class when they have followed the classroom rules for a day or week.  Send POSITIVE notes home to the parents and make sure that the student knows that you are doing so.
  • Set up a token or points system. Many students require external rewards for motivation. There are those that may think of this as “bribery” and thus, undesirable. The reality of it is that we all work for external rewards; we just call it a paycheck. Also, rewards give students something tangible to remind them of an accomplishment.
  • Show your creativity. The use of games as a reinforcer for learned material is fun for the students, especially if there is a prize at the end for the winners. Using visual aids such as colorful charts, diagrams and videos can be motivating. Create a classroom that is exciting by using posters, seasonal themes and displays of student work.
  • Establish Routines. Many students need to know what to expect when they walk into a classroom. This provides them comfort and a sense of control. When students feel comfortable and in control, they are much more motivated and open to learning.
  • Be Expressive and Smile. Greet the students with a smile everyday and tell them that you are glad to see them. When you appear happy and motivated then your students will respond in kind.




  1. 4 What is meant by inductive reasoning? Provide examples regarding application of this method in classroom setting. (20

Inductive reasoning is a method of drawing conclusions by going from the specific to the general. It’s usually contrasted with deductive reasoning, where you go from general information to specific conclusions.

Inductive reasoning is also called inductive logic or bottom-up reasoning.

Note: Inductive reasoning is often confused with deductive reasoning. However, in deductive reasoning, you make inferences by going from general premises to specific conclusions.

What is inductive reasoning?

Inductive reasoning is a logical approach to making inferences, or conclusions. People often use inductive reasoning informally in everyday situations.

Inductive Reasoning

You may have come across inductive logic examples that come in a set of three statements. These start with one specific observation, add a general pattern, and end with a conclusion.

Inductive reasoning in research

In inductive research, you start by making observations or gathering data. Then, you take a broad view of your data and search for patterns. Finally, you make general conclusions that you might incorporate into theories.

Example: Inductive reasoning in research

You conduct exploratory research on whether pet behaviors have changed due to work-from-home measures for their owners.

You distribute a survey to pet owners. You ask about the type of animal they have and any behavioral changes they’ve noticed in their pets since they started working from home. These data make up your observations.

To analyze your data, you create a procedure to categorize the survey responses so you can pick up on repeated themes. You notice a pattern: most pets became more needy and clingy or agitated and aggressive.

Based on your findings, you conclude that almost all pets went through some behavioral changes due to changes in their owners’ work locations. This is a generalization that you can build on to test further research questions.

Inductive reasoning is commonly linked to qualitative research, but both quantitative and qualitative research use a mix of different types of reasoning.


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Types of inductive reasoning

There are many different types of inductive reasoning that people use formally or informally, so we’ll cover just a few in this article:

Inductive generalization

Statistical generalization

Causal reasoning

Sign reasoning

Analogical reasoning

Inductive reasoning generalizations can vary from weak to strong, depending on the number and quality of observations and arguments used.

Inductive generalization

Inductive generalizations use observations about a sample to come to a conclusion about the population it came from.


Inductive generalizations are also called induction by enumeration.

Example: Inductive generalization

The flamingos here are all pink.

All flamingos I’ve ever seen are pink.

All flamingos must be pink.

Inductive generalizations are evaluated using several criteria:

Large sample: Your sample should be large for a solid set of observations.

Random sampling: Probability sampling methods let you generalize your findings.

Variety: Your observations should be externally valid.

Counterevidence: Any observations that refute yours falsify your generalization.

Statistical generalization

Statistical generalizations use specific numbers to make statements about populations, while non-statistical generalizations aren’t as specific.

These generalizations are a subtype of inductive generalizations, and they’re also called statistical syllogisms.

Here’s an example of a statistical generalization contrasted with a non-statistical generalization.

Example: Statistical vs. non-statistical generalization

Statistical Non-statistical

Specific observation 73% of students from a sample in a local university prefer hybrid learning environments. Most students from a sample in a local university prefer hybrid learning environments.

Inductive generalization 73% of all students in the university prefer hybrid learning environments.   Most students in the university prefer hybrid learning environments.

Causal reasoning

Causal reasoning means making cause-and-effect links between different things.

A causal reasoning statement often follows a standard setup:

You start with a premise about a correlation (two events that co-occur).

You put forward the specific direction of causality or refute any other direction.

You conclude with a causal statement about the relationship between two things.

Example: Causal reasoning

All of my white clothes turn pink when I put a red cloth in the washing machine with them.

My white clothes don’t turn pink when I wash them on their own.

Putting colorful clothes with light colors causes the colors to run and stain the light-colored clothes.

Good causal inferences meet a couple of criteria:


Direction: The direction of causality should be clear and unambiguous based on your observations.

Strength: There’s ideally a strong relationship between the cause and the effect.

Sign reasoning

Sign reasoning involves making correlational connections between different things.

Using inductive reasoning, you infer a purely correlational relationship where nothing causes the other thing to occur. Instead, one event may act as a “sign” that another event will occur or is currently occurring.


Example: Sign reasoning

Every time Punxsutawney Phil casts a shadow on Groundhog Day, winter lasts six more weeks.

Punxsutawney Phil doesn’t cause winter to be extended six more weeks.

His shadow is a sign that we’ll have six more weeks of wintery weather.

It’s best to be careful when making correlational links between variables. Build your argument on strong evidence, and eliminate any confounding variables, or you may be on shaky ground.


Analogical reasoning

Analogical reasoning means drawing conclusions about something based on its similarities to another thing. You first link two things together and then conclude that some attribute of one thing must

also hold true for the other thing.

Analogical reasoning can be literal (closely similar) or figurative (abstract), but you’ll have a much stronger case when you use a literal comparison.

Analogical reasoning is also called comparison reasoning.

Example: Analogical reasoning

Humans and laboratory rats are extremely similar biologically, sharing over 90% of their DNA.

Lab rats show promising results when treated with a new drug for managing Parkinson’s disease.

Therefore, humans will also show promising results when treated with the drug.

Inductive vs. deductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning is a bottom-up approach, while deductive reasoning is top-down.

In deductive reasoning, you make inferences by going from general premises to specific conclusions. You start with a theory, and you might develop a hypothesis that you test empirically. You collect data from many observations and use a statistical test to come to a conclusion about your hypothesis.

Inductive research is usually exploratory in nature, because your generalizations help you develop theories. In contrast, deductive research is generally confirmatory.

Sometimes, both inductive and deductive approaches are combined within a single research study.

Example: Combining inductive and deductive reasoning

You start a research project on ways to improve office environments.

Inductive reasoning approach

You begin by using qualitative methods to explore the research topic, taking an inductive reasoning approach. You collect observations by interviewing workers on the subject and analyze the data to spot any patterns. Then, you develop a theory to test in a follow-up study.


Deductive reasoning approach

You start with the general idea that office lighting can affect quality of life for workers. You believe that significant natural lighting can improve office environments for workers. In a follow-up experiment, you test the hypothesis using a deductive research approach.


  1. 5 (a) What is an activity? Discuss the importance of activity method. (10)

Activity based teaching and learning method is a technique adopted by teachers to emphasize their method of teaching through activity in which the students participate willingly and get efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered approach. It is a method in which the child is actively involved in participating mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the main focus in this method. Learning by doing is important in successful learning since it is well proved that more the senses are stimulated, more a person learns and longer he/she retains.


Pine G (1989) mentions that in an activity based teaching, learners willingly with enthusiasm internalize and implement concepts relevant to their needs.


So our understanding on the activity based method by now should mean any learning that is carried out with a purpose in a social environment, involving physical and mental action, stimulating for creative action or expression


Activity based learning method

The information processing theory in psychology views learners as active investigators of their environment. This theory is grounded in the premise that people innately strive to make sense of the world around them.

In the process of learning, they experience, memorize and understand. Students need to be provided with data and materials necessary to focus their thinking and interaction in the lesson for the process of analyzing the information. Teachers need to be actively involved in directing and guiding the



         (b)   Summarize the main points bearing on the role of research project. (10)


A research summary is a type of paper designed to provide a brief overview of a given study – typically, an article from a peer-reviewed academic journal. It is a frequent type of task encountered in US colleges and universities, both in humanitarian and exact sciences, which is due to how important it is to teach students to properly interact with and interpret scientific literature and in particular, academic papers, which are the key way through which new ideas, theories, and evidence are presented to experts in many fields of knowledge. A research summary typically preserves the structure/sections of the article it focuses on.




Follow these clear steps to help avoid typical mistakes and productivity bottlenecks, allowing for a more efficient through your writing process:

Skim the article in order to get a rough idea of the content covered in each section and to understand the relative importance of content, for instance, how important different lines of evidence are (this helps you understand which sections you should focus on more when reading in detail). Make sure you understand the task and your professor’s requirements before reading the article. In this step, you can also decide whether to write a summary by yourself or ask for a cheap research paper writing service instead.

Analyze and understand the topic and article. Writing a summary of a research paper involves becoming very familiar with the topic – sometimes, it is impossible to understand the content without learning about the current state of knowledge, as well as key definitions, concepts, models. This is often performed while reading the literature review. As for the paper itself, understanding it means understanding analysis questions, hypotheses, listed evidence, how strongly this evidence supports the hypotheses, as well as analysis implications. Keep in mind that only a deep understanding allows one to efficiently and accurately summarize the content.

Make notes as you read. You could highlight or summarize each paragraph with a brief sentence that would record the key idea delivered in it (obviously, some paragraphs deserve more attention than others). However, be careful not to engage in extensive writing while still reading. This is important because, while reading, you might realize that some sections you initially considered important might actually be less important compared to information that follows. As for underlining or highlighting – do these only with the most important evidence, otherwise, there is little use in “coloring” everything without distinction.

Assemble a draft by bringing together key evidence and notes from each paragraph/ section. Make sure that all elements characteristic of a research summary are covered (as detailed below).

Find additional literature for forming or supporting your critical view (this is if your critical view/position is required), for instance, judgments about limitations of the study or contradictory evidence.

Research Summary Structure

The research summary format resembles that found in the original paper (just a concise version of it). Content from all sections should be covered and reflected upon, regardless of whether corresponding headings are present or not. Key structural elements of any research summary are as follows:


Title – it announces the exact topic/area of analysis and can even be formulated to briefly announce key finding(s) or argument(s) delivered.

Abstract – this is a very concise and comprehensive description of the study, present virtually in any academic article (the length varies greatly, typically within 100-500 words). Unlike an academic article, your research summary is expected to have a much shorter abstract.

Introduction – this is an essential part of any research summary which provides necessary context (the literature review) that helps introduce readers to the subject by presenting the current state of the investigation, an important concept or definition, etc. This section might also describe the subject’s importance (or might not, for instance, when it is self-evident). Finally, an introduction typically lists investigation questions and hypotheses advanced by authors, which are normally mentioned in detail in any research summary (obviously, doing this is only possible after identifying these elements in the original paper).

Methodology – regardless of its location, this section details experimental methods or data analysis methods used (e.g. types of experiments, surveys, sampling, or statistical analysis). In a research summary, many of these details would have to be omitted; hence, it is important to understand what is most important to mention.

Results section – this section lists in detail evidence obtained from all experiments with some primary data analysis, conclusions, observations, and primary interpretations being made. It is typically the largest section of any analysis paper, so, it has to be concisely rewritten, which implies understanding which content is worth omitting and worth keeping.

Discussion – this is where results are being discussed in the context of current knowledge among experts. This section contains interpretations of results, theoretical models explaining the observed results, study strengths and especially limitations, complementary future exploration to be undertaken, conclusions, etc. All these are important elements that need to be conveyed in a summary.

Conclusion – in the original article, this section could be absent or merged with “Discussion”. Specific research summary instructions might require this to be a standalone section. In a conclusion, hypotheses are revisited and validated or denied, based on how convincing the evidence is (key lines of evidence could be highlighted).

References – this section is for mentioning those cited works directly in your summary – obviously, one has to provide appropriate citations at least for the original article (this often suffices). Mentioning other works might be relevant when your critical opinion is also required (supported with new unrelated evidence).

Note that if you need some model research summary papers done before you start writing yourself (this will help familiarize you with essay structure and various sections), you could simply recruit our company by following the link provided below.



Make sure you are always aware of the bigger picture/ direction. You need to keep in mind a complete and coherent picture of the story delivered by the original article. It might be helpful to reread or scan it quickly to remind yourself of the declared goals, hypotheses, key evidence, and conclusions – this awareness offers a constant sense of direction, which ensures that no written sentence is out of context. It is useful doing this even after you have written a fourth, a third, or half of the paper (to make sure no deviation occurs).

Consider writing a detailed research outline before writing the draft – it might be of great use when structuring your paper. A research summary template is also very likely to help you structure your paper.

Sketch the main elements of the conclusion before writing it. Do this for a number of reasons: validate/invalidate hypotheses; enumerate key evidence supporting or invalidating them, list potential implications; mention the subject’s importance; mention study limitations and future directions for research. In order to include them all, it is useful having them written down and handy.

Consider writing the introduction and discussion last. It makes sense to first list hypotheses, goals, questions, and key results. Latter, information contained in the introduction and discussion can be adapted as needed (for instance, to match a preset word count limit). Also, on the basis of already written paragraphs, you can easily generate your discussion with the help of a conclusion tool; it works online and is absolutely free of charge. Apart from this, follow a natural order.

Include visuals – you could summarize a lot of text using graphs or charts while simultaneously improving readability.

Be very careful not to plagiarize. It is very tempting to “borrow” or quote entire phrases from an article, provided how well-written these are, but you need to summarize your paper without plagiarizing at all (forget entirely about copy-paste – it is only allowed to paraphrase and even this should be done carefully). The best way to stay safe is by formulating your own thoughts from scratch.

Keep your word count in check. You don’t want your summary to be as long as the original paper (just reformulated). In addition, you might need to respect an imposed word count limit, which requires being careful about how much you write for each section.

Proofread your work for grammar, spelling, wordiness, and formatting issues (feel free to use our convert case tool for titles, headings, subheadings, etc.).

Watch your writing style – when summarizing content, it should be impersonal, precise, and purely evidence-based. A personal view/attitude should be provided only in the critical section (if required).

Ask a colleague to read your summary and test whether he/she could understand everything without reading the article – this will help ensure that you haven’t skipped some important content, explanations, concepts, etc.

For additional information on formatting, structure, and for more writing tips, check out these research paper guidelines on our website. Remember that we cover most research papers writing services you can imagine and can offer help at various stages of your writing project, including proofreading, editing, rewriting for plagiarism elimination, and style adjustment.


Research Summary Example 1

Below are some defining elements of a sample research summary written from an imaginary article.


Title – “The probability of an unexpected volcanic eruption in Yellowstone”


Introduction – this section would list those catastrophic consequences hitting our country in  case of a massive eruption and the importance of analyzing this matter.


Hypothesis –  An eruption of the Yellowstone supervolcano would be preceded by intense precursory activity manifesting a few weeks up to a few years in advance.


Results – these could contain a report of statistical data from multiple volcanic eruptions happening worldwide looking specifically at activity that preceded these events (in particular, how early each type of activity was detected).


Discussion and conclusion – Given that Yellowstone is continuously monitored by scientists and that signs of an eruption are normally detected much in advance and at least a few days in advance, the hypothesis is confirmed. This could find application in creating emergency plans detailing an organized evacuation campaign and other response measures.


Research Summary Example 2

Below is another sample sketch, also from an imaginary article.


Title – “The frequency of extreme weather events in US in 2000-2008 as compared to the ‘50s”


Introduction – Weather events bring immense material damage and cause human victims.


Hypothesis – Extreme weather events are significantly more frequent nowadays than in the ‘50s


Results – these could list the frequency of several categories of extreme events now and then: droughts and associated fires, massive rainfall/snowfall and associated floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, arctic cold waves, etc.


Discussion and conclusion – Several types of extreme events indeed became significantly more frequent recently, confirming this hypothesis. This increasing frequency correlates reliably with rising CO2 levels in atmosphere and growing temperatures worldwide and in the absence of another recent major global change that could explain a higher frequency of disasters but also knowing how growing temperature disturbs weather patterns, it is natural to assume that global warming (CO2) causes this increase in frequency. This, in turn, suggests that this increased frequency of disasters is not a short-term phenomenon but is here to stay until we address CO2 levels.


Let Professionals Help With Your Research Summary

Writing a research summary has its challenges, but becoming familiar with its structure (i.e. the structure of an article), understanding well the article that needs to be summarized, and adhering to recommended guidelines will help the process go smoothly. Still, suppose you happen to be severely out of time and feel like “I need help writing a research paper” (overloaded at work/college/university). In that case, you can order research papers online from our writing service.


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