aiou course code 5631-1solved autumn assignment

aiou course code 5631-1solved autumn assignment

Course: Mass Communication Part-I (5631)                  Semester: Autumn, 2022


  1. 1 Elaborate with examples the kinds of Communication and its effects in various situations.


Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior. In communication process, a sender(encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel.


There are five types of communication

  1. Interpersonal Communication

Communication that takes place within himself or herself is called intrapersonal communication. Conversation with self and planning or thinking about the schedule of your study for an examination etc. are the examples of intrapersonal communication.

  1. Interpersonal Communication

It is the process in which communication takes place between two or a small group of persons. Interpersonal communication always takes place into a face to face situation and the communicator and destination are known to each other.

  1. Macro Group Communication

This is most effective form of communication, mainly because the feedback is instant in this situation. Speech of a political leader in a big stadium is the best example of macro group communication. It usually takes place through microphone and the element of feedback is workable in this type of communication. For example the receiver (public) cans instantly feedback in the shape of applauding to the politician or by hooting his speech.

  1. Mass Communication

Mass communication is the one in which the message is sent simultaneously to a greater number of people through a mass medium like radio, T.V or newspaper. The receivers of the Mass Communication are separated, heterogeneous and unknown to each other as well as to the communicator. The process of feedback in this type of communication is mostly slow and delayed.

  1. Media Communication

It is the one which has some characteristics of interpersonal communication, and some of mass communication. In Media communication, the message is transmitted through television, telephone etc.

Human Communication

People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are variety of types of communication.

Types of communication based on the communication channels used are:

  1. Verbal Communication
  2. Nonverbal Communication
  3. Verbal Communication

Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS(keep it short and simple).

When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning.

So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on the other side of the table and think from your receiver’s point of view. Would he understand the message? how it would sound on the other side of the table?

Verbal Communication is further divided into:

  • Oral Communication
  • Written Communication

Oral Communication

In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking.

Advantages of Oral communication are:
It brings quick feedback.
In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he/she should trust what’s being said or not.

Disadvantage of oral communication
In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering, so this can be counted as a

Written Communication

In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used.

Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills.

Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used.

Advantages of written communication includes:
Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent.
Written communication provides record for every message sent and can be saved for later study.
A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback.

Disadvantages of written communication includes:
Unlike oral communication, Written communication doesn’t bring instant feedback.
It takes more time in composing a written message as compared to word-of-mouth. and number of people struggles for writing ability.

  1. Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesturebody language, posturetone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker.

Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflect the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affects the effectiveness of message.

Nonverbal communication has the following three elements:

Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics
Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings

Body Language
facial expressions, gestures, postures

Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate

Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style

Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are:

  1. Formal Communication
  2. Informal Communication
  3. Formal Communication

In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern.

In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication.

  1. Informal Communication

Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal communication channels. It’s just a casual talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually. informal communication is done orally and using gestures.

Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesn’t follow authority lines. In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships.


Communication generally and mass communication in particular has a great deal to serve a diversity of purposes human beings have always wished to achieve. The strong effects of striving to achieve purposes of human communication are visible and helped bring harmony of living in a number of ways. Here we will see how the process of communication at different scales has helped people of different societies to benefit from exchanging views (messages) on subjects of their interest. First we will see to what effect the communication stands for.


Communication experts have figured out some techniques for effective communication:

Effective Message

The message needs to be designed in such a way that the receiver receives the same what the sender wants to communicate. It is only possible when:

  1. The message is written in the easiest language.
  2. Sentence of the message is short and simple.
  3. Avoid jaw breaking and tongue twisting words.
  4. The message is designed according to the mental level of targeted receiver or audiences.
  5. Select only those words or signs which are common to the field of experience of both the communicator and receiver.

Selection of suitable medium

Medium plays a vital role in making the communication effective. Following are the key points:

  1. Select the medium for which the receivers can have an easy access.
  2. They can buy it easily.
  3. It can communicate in the language of the target destination.

Receiver Attention

Communication should be made at such time that it can gain the attention of the receiver.

Example: – It would be an effective communication when the intended receiver is quite relaxed or waiting for such communication.

Social Value

The message of the communication will be effective if it is composed according to the social values of the given society. For example :- If there is an advertisement about the publicity of vine in a society like Pakistan, people will react to it and thus the communication would be useless. But if the same communication is designed for the British society it will then be an effective communication. So, for an effective communication it is necessary to consider the norms, customs, traditions and religious philosophy of the society.

Communication and Mental Harmony :

The success and failure of communication greatly depends upon the fact that whether it has harmony with the mental level of the receiver or not. For example

You intend to produce a T.V programme for the children of 8 years on a religious topic. The format of the programme Is table discussion. According to my assessment it will be a failure programme and boring for the children because it is difficult for an 8 years child to get meaning from the discussion.


  1. 2 What are the essential elements for the process of communication? Explain it with the help of a model.

Effective communication skills are critical for success in nearly any profession. Successful professionals know the importance of communication. They understand the process and how, if correctly used, it will help them be more successful on and off the job.

Here are 7 elements that are essential to successful communication.

  1. Sender
  • The senderis the person who is trying to communicate a message.
  • The sender wants the other person to receive and understand his/her message. The intent of the message is usually to get the other person(s) to do or understand something.

Unfortunately, in the transference of information, the other person(s) may not understand the message the way the sender intended. In fact, it is not uncommon for the other person(s) to respond in some affirmative manner communicating the message was received. This does not mean the message was understood the way the sender intended.

  1. Receiver
  • The receiver is the recipient of the message and must translate the words into thoughts, process the thoughts, and determine how to respond to the sender.
  • The challenge is that since the receiver’s education and experience may be very different from the sender, words often have different meanings.
  1. Message

While you may carefully choose the words to speak, words alone represent a small percentage of what is received by the other person. In fact, according to the literature, words carry the least value in the message.

  • Hence, what is said is not nearly as communicative as body language and voice inflection. Even when no words are spoken, communication is taking place. If a person frowns, does not make eye contact, or looks at his/her watch a message is being sent…and it may not be the intended message.
  • Consequently, it makes sense to pay attention to body language and voice inflection. This takes more than casual watching and listening. It takes our full attention to be most effective.
  • An effective message is one where there is congruency, or agreement, between the words, meaning, and emotion. Body language and voice inflection are essential in achieving congruency.
  1. Channel
  • Channel is the medium used by the sender to send the message to the receiver. This may be in-person, via telephone, e-mail, text message, written correspondence or a third-party.
  • An important point to remember is that when communication is only verbal the most important element of communication…body language…is left out. If the communication is written, then both body language and voice inflection are left out.
  • Therefore, depending on the nature of the message to be sent, a sender will want to consider which medium to use. More critical messages may require face-to-face meetings, while less critical messages may be appropriately sent via a verbal or written message.
  1. Noise
  • Noise refers to interference that takes place during the communication process. Both the sender and receiver may be distracted by noise. Noise may come from internal (thoughts, emotions, etc.) or external sources (radios, other conversations, etc.).
  • When encountering a noise, take steps to reduce the distraction. If the noise is internal, take some time to refocus. Taking several deeps breathes can help. Excusing yourself to go get a drink of water may be the mental break needed to clear the mind.
  • If the noise is external, then try to find a quieter location for the meeting. If necessary, consider rescheduling the meeting for a time when there are fewer distractions.
  1. Feedback

Feedback is the process of determining if the message has been properly received. This can be initiated by the sender or receiver. The sender, for example, may ask the receiver to repeat the message to confirm that the message was received as intended. On the other hand, a good listener will provide feedback to confirm that he/she correctly received the message.

Feedback may occur in four ways.

  1. First, and probably most common, is paraphrasing.  Paraphrasing is reciting back what the other person said in your own words.
  2. The second is summarizing. This involves making a brief statement of the key points and feelings expressed by the other person.
  3. The third is to reflect the feelings. The focus is not so much on the message as the emotions behind the message. This is often an effective way to reflect empathy.
  4. The fourth way is to reflect meaning. The focus of this type of feedback is to identify the meaning being expressed by the other person. On occasion, a person says one thing, but it carries a different meaning.

Feedback Examples

Message I came to work today intending to do I/M undercover runs and there are no vehicles available. I will have to go to another lab to obtain a suitable vehicle.
Paraphrasing I heard you say that because there are no vehicles here you will have to pick up a vehicle at another lab before you can start work on your runs.
Summarizing I heard you say you will have to get a vehicle at another lab before you start work. You sound frustrated.
Reflecting Feelings You sound upset.
Reflecting Meaning Are we having problems getting undercover vehicles again?

Each of these different forms of feedback has a place in the communication process. Two things occur when feedback is provided. First, it helps ensure the message was clearly received. Second, it is a way of valuing the sender. When the receiver takes the time to make sure the message was correctly heard and understood it communicates that the sender is important…valuable.

  1. Context

Context is another way of taking into consideration the setting. Examples of context include:

  • What is going through the other person’s mind when you show up? Did they just have a blow-up with an employee or customer?
  • What is the environment like? Is it noisy? Are there customers standing around?
  • What was the nature of the last contact and how did that go?
  • What cultural factors should be considered?
  • Are there notes or helpful information from the person who took the initial call?


  1. 3 What are different psychological hurdles of communication? Suggest the ways to resolve these barriers.

Psychological barriers
 are due to the emotional character and mental limitations of human beings. These barriers result in absent-mindedness, the fear of expressing one’s ideas to others, excitement and emotional instability—all accounting for an overwhelming number of communication problems.

Any psychological state can affect your ability to send and receive a message.

This is due to the way your mind works and the way that this affects your behaviour. For example, when you are upset, you will have a hard time listening effectively to a message.

Psychological needs and feelings are the prime barriers to the organizational communication process where both interactant—the sender and the receiver—could be affected.

Psychological barrier is one of numerous barriers within the subclass of intra-personal barriersOpens in new window.

Some common forms of psychological barriers include:

  1.   False assumptions

Communication failure may occur if a sender fails to communicate instructions well because s/he assumes that the receiver has understood the message, but the fact could be that the receiver only partially understood what was communicated or didn’t understood at all; both situations can cause communication breakdown.

The capacity of senders to understand is often shaped by their personal experience and no two people are alike in this regard.

An assumption of the sender that the receiver knows how to do something or follow instructions is often wrong and can be misleading.

Likewise, the receiver may also wish to be understood in a certain way and encourage false assumptions by the sender.

For example, in order to prevent false assumptions, a quality control manager should first check whether the workers are familiar with Six Sigma standards before pulling them up for its non-adherence.

  1.   Anger

Emotional state can pose damaging barrier to communication. If the sender is angry when he or she sends the message, it will affect the way in which the receiver interprets the message.

The sender may come across as aggressive and unapproachable. The receiver might feel threatened or fearful with the result that the receiver might perceive the message in a different way.

  1.   Attitudes and Values

An attitude is a pre-learned disposition and can be linked closely to a person’s belief and value systems.

Whether your attitude is positive or negative, it can influence the communication process either positively or negatively.

If one of your beliefs is being threatened, you are likely to react emotionally instead of listening attentively to the message.

If the sender of a message has a positive attitude, it may persuade the receiver to actually do what the sender requested.

If the sender has a negative attitude, the receiver may not be inclined to meet the terms of the request.

  1.   Negative Self-mage

Negative self-image can affect both the sender and receiver in the communication process, leading in communication breakdown.

If the sender has a negative self-image, he or she may not be able to relay the message appropriately. Again, the message may be forceless and lacking in conviction.

Likewise, if someone on the receiving end has a poor self-image or lacking self-confidence, he or she might entertain fearful thought—judging oneself as not intelligent enough to understand the message.

  1.   Fear and Defensiveness

When a sender is fearful or defensive about the subject matter that needs to be communicated, the sender may go too far in the attempt to communicate and alienate the receiver(s) with melodramatic gestures and words.

Instead of accepting the mistake, the sender might try to justify the action or refuse to admit the mistake altogether, creating further misunderstanding.

Such defensive behaviour may also ruin the sender’s credibility with receiver(s). Likewise, when a receiver is fearful, he or she may not understand what is being said, leading one to stop listening, which would lead to more mistakes in future.

  1.   Implications and Inferences
  • An implicationis a meaning derived through connotation rather than through specific details.
  • An inferenceis a conclusion drawn from connotation rather than from specific details.

A communicator who implies something can cause a receiver to infer a meaning different from what was intended.

For example, a person who says that his work is undervalued may mean to suggest that he doesn’t get enough positive feedback from his supervisor. Without specific detail, however, the receiver of the message might infer that the speaker believes his salary isn’t huge enough.

We may have good reason to expect that our inferences will be correct, but they may prove incorrect due to some unpredicted situation.

As inferences go beyond the facts in making certain statements, they can give wrong signals.

We interpret symbols on the basis of assumptions, which usually prove correct, but there is a probability that they may sometimes prove incorrect.

This type of inference is also termed premature evaluation where the receiver has the tendency to judge prematurely without understanding the frame of reference. To guard against this communication barrier, senders should always use specific language, and receivers should clarify meaning by asking questions.

  1.   Abstracting

We use language to communicate our experience and feelings, but we are less likely to communicate every detail because of the tendency to focus our attention on only some of the details.

While we prepare a business report on our observations of the various events in the market, we abstract the selected information and present only the information which is relevant.

The observations will not be perfect. Hence, communication would also be imperfect because our experience of the event is also not complete.

When we try to convert our experience and observation into words, we further abstract it by using selected words, which involve leaving out the details.

For example, if we try to describe a simple object like a shoe completely, we would require several volumes for it, which would still be insufficient to describe the object.

  1.   Close-mindedness, Overconfidence and Apathy

People are sometimes not prepared to receive new information on a subject about which they assume to know everything. Thus, their mind is closed to new ideas, facts and suggestions.

When a person is in this state of mind, such a person runs the risk of showing overconfidence. For example, If an employee approaches his closed-minded boss with some suggestions to improve the work of a business unit, the boss might retort by saying ‘I am an expert in this field’, ‘I have been doing this job since 1967; I have all the know-how in my head.

There’s nothing possibly new to learn—at least not from a rookie!’ Thus, he completely rejects the information and recommendations of the communicator even before he knows the real facts.

Close-mindedness may cause a person to be unwilling to learn new ideas. It is best to approach communication with humility and a willingness to learn, for it is almost impossible to know everything about any particular field.

At the other extremes is an apathetic sender or receiver who creates a barrier due to a lack of emotion or interest in what is being sent or received.

Apathy causes communication to break down because it interrupts effective listening. It is for this reason that an apathetic speaker does not relate information well and may leave out key points.

  1.   Distortion, filtering and editing

When a message Opens in new window is transmitted through translations, interpretations, explanations and simplifications, it tends to lose originality and becomes distorted.

The accuracy of the message is lost and the transmission becomes imperfect as the message goes through the filters of translations and simplifications.

This is due to manipulation of information by the sender so that it is seen as more favorable by the receiver because the sender wants some results of his own. This happens mostly in organizations where there is emphasis on status differences and strong career mobility aspirations. It also happens where there are more vertical levels and upward communication gets distorted and filtered.

Grapevine is also a reason for distortion. The message in grapevineOpens in new window receives fresh additions with every repetition until it gets worst. Thus, often, the original information, especially orally communicated through formal and informal channels, gets distorted.

Sometimes only little of it is retained. Adopting written communication for important messages can reduce distortion and imminent misunderstanding.

  1.   Poor listening

Poor listening behaviourOpens in new window can pose major communication problems. Misunderstanding and conflicts can be reduced if people would listen to the message with enough attention.

Most people do not listen very well due to various distractions, emotions, excitement, indifference, aggressiveness and wandering attention.

One of the major reasons for bad listening is an individual’s continual thinking about his own problems and worries. The poor listener always feels that the thought in his mind is more interesting than what the speaker is saying.

  1.   Emotion

Emotions are our feelings about the world around us. Usually, positive emotions such as joy, love or affection do not interfere with communication; it is the negative emotions that create barriers.

  1. 4 Write notes on the following:
  2. i) De Fleur Model of communication
  3. ii) Two Step Flow Model of Mass Media

         iii)    The HUB model of Communication

  1. iv) J-Curve model of news diffusion.                                                 



  1. i) De Fleur Model of communication

De Fleur Model of Communication consists of a two way communication process where the receiver becomes the sender by providing feedback and by receiving the feedback, the sender becomes the receiver.

The model is named after American scholar Melvin Lawrence DeFleur. He was a professor of communications and social psychology with a PhD in Social Psychology.

This model is an expansion of Shannon and Weaver model of communication, which describes a one way communication with feedback mechanism.

It is also based on the Westley and Maclean model of communication which proposed a circular process of communication and feedback. Basically, De Fleur model is the combination of these two models.

So, we suggest you make yourself familiar with the two models first before diving into De Fleur model of communication.

Concept of De Fleur model

De Fleur model of communication describes of a mass media device in the communication process, which is circular in nature and is the first one to constitute a two way feedback process.

As any other model, the communication originates at a source. Then it is sent to a transmitter that operates signal, after which a channel transfers it to a receiver. Once the message reaches its destination, the receiver sends feedback. The feedback allows the sender to determine if proper communication has taken place.

Here, the receiver assumes the role of a sender by sending feedback while the sender becomes receiver by receiving feedback. Noise can occur at any stage in this model.

A feedback device is an important characteristic of this model. The feedback is given by a target audience, which is different from receivers, whether the message has been received or not.

De Fleur model Example

Let’s assume a brand wants to advertise its product to its audience. An advertisement is filmed and transmitted by a mass media device (television, internet etc.).

The message reaches the target audience through a receiver (television set, phone etc.). The target audience then provides the feedback through a different medium like social media or email.

The feedback from the target audience lets the brand know if their product is a success or not.

For instance, in January 2018, Swedish retail giant H&M circulated an online advertisement featuring a black boy wearing a sweatshirt that read, “Coolest monkey in the jungle.” The racial undertones of the ad ignited a widespread backlash on Twitter. After receiving an overwhelming negative feedback, H&M announced that the sweatshirt had been removed from their line of products.

  1. ii) Two Step Flow Model of Mass Media

two-step flow model of communication, theory of communication that proposes that interpersonal interaction has a far stronger effect on shaping public opinion than mass media outlets.

The two-step flow model was formulated in 1948 by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet in the book The People’s Choice, after research into voters’ decision-making processes during the 1940 U.S. presidential election. It stipulates that mass media content first reaches “opinion leaders,” people who are active media users and who collect, interpret, and diffuse the meaning of media messages to less-active media consumers. According to the authors, opinion leaders pick up information from the media, and this information then gets passed on to less-active members of the public. This implies that most people receive information from opinion leaders through interpersonal communication rather than directly from mass media. Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet discovered that most voters in the 1940 election got their information about the candidates from other people who read about the campaign in the newspapers, not directly from the media. Lazarsfeld, Berelson, and Gaudet concluded that word-of-mouth transmission of information plays an important role in the communication process and that mass media have only a limited influence on most individuals.

The theory of the two-step flow of communication reversed the dominant paradigm in mass communication at the time. Before Lazarsfeld’s study, it was assumed that mass media have a direct influence on a mass audience who consume and absorb media messages. Media were thought to significantly influence people’s decisions and behaviours. However, the research done by Lazarsfeld and others showed that only about 5 percent of people changed their voting preference as a result of media consumption and that interpersonal discussions of political issues were more prevalent than consumption of political news within one typical day. Factors such as interpersonal communication with family members, friends, and members of one’s social and professional circles turned out to be better predictors of a person’s voting behaviour than that person’s media exposure. These findings came to be known as the “limited effects paradigm” of media influence, explicated more fully by Joseph Klapper in The Effects of Mass Communication (1960), which guided mass communication researchers over the next five decades.

The theory of the two-step flow of mass communication was further developed by Lazarsfeld together with Elihu Katz in the book Personal Influence (1955). The book explains that people’s reactions to media messages are mediated by interpersonal communication with members of their social environment. A person’s membership in different social groups (family, friends, professional and religious associations, etc.) has more influence on that person’s decision-making processes and behaviour than does information from mass media. Researchers of mass communication cannot therefore treat the public as a homogenous mass audience that actively processes and responds to media messages uniformly, as had been postulated by initial theories of mass communication, which assumed that audiences respond to media messages directly.

Since its formulation, the theory of the two-step flow of communication has been tested, and validated, on numerous occasions through replicative studies that looked at how innovations were diffused into society through opinion leaders and trendsetters. However, the theory came under some criticism in the 1970s and the 1980s. Some researchers argued that the process of a two-step flow is an oversimplification and that the actual flow of information from mass media to media consumers has more than two steps. For instance, additional research revealed that conversations based on media content are more frequent among opinion leaders themselves rather than among opinion leaders and less-informed individuals. This creates the extra step of opinion sharing among equally informed individuals, compared with only a vertical flow of information from opinion leaders to followers. Another criticism is the fact that the two-step flow model was formulated during a time when television and the Internet did not exist. Both original studies relied on people’s responses to newspapers and radio broadcasts and concluded that interpersonal communication is more frequent than media consumption during an average day. Later studies of everyday behaviour in the era of television dominance seem to indicate the opposite. It was also found that only a small percentage of people discuss information they have learned from mass media with their peers. National surveys regarding people’s main sources of information also indicate that people rely much more on mass media than on personal communication.

iii)    The HUB model of Communication

  • This model of communication was Propose by Hiebert, Ungurait and Bonn.
  • The Hub model of communication showed the process of communicaton as circular, dynamic and ongoing.
  • Thus, the process becomes a series of actions that takes place when one drops a pebble into the pool to create innumerable ripples.
  • These ripples expand outwards till it reaches the shore and bounces backward, as a result, communication is perceived as a set of concentric circles.
  • These circles represent gatekeepers, media filters and audiences through which content pass.
  • Feedback in this model is echo that bounce back whereas, message and feedback effected by noise and other disturbance.

Gate Keeper Model Of Communication

  • This model was design by Bruce Westley and Malcolm Maclean.
  • Gate keeper model is quite frequently use in mass media.
  • Gate keeping means that the information has to flow along certain channels, which contain gatekeeper who filter and permit the information to flow.
  • Therefore, the audiences exposure to an event’s reality is in the gatekeeper’s hands.


  1. iv) J-Curve model of news diffusion.                                                 

The J-curve is useful to demonstrate the effects of an event or action over a set period of time. Put bluntly, it shows that things are going to get worse before they get better.

  • A J-curve depicts a trend that starts with a sharp drop and is followed by a dramatic rise.
  • The trendline ends in an improvement from the starting point.
  • In economics, the J-curve shows how a currency depreciation causes a severe worsening of a trade imbalance followed by a substantial improvement.

In economics, it is often used to observe the effects of a weaker currency on trade balances. The pattern is as follows:

  • Immediately after a nation’s currency is devalued, imports get more expensive and exports get cheaper, creating a worsening trade deficit (or at least a smaller trade surplus).
  • Shortly thereafter, the sales volume of the nation’s exports begins to rise steadily, thanks to their relatively cheap prices.
  • At the same time, consumers at home begin to buy more locally-produced goods because they are relatively affordable compared to imports.
  • Over time, the trade balance between the nation and its partners bounces back and even exceeds pre-devaluation times.

The devaluation of the nation’s currency had an immediate negative effect because of an inevitable lag in satisfying greater demand for the country’s products.

When a country’s currency appreciates, economists note, a reverse J-curve may occur. The country’s exports abruptly become more expensive for importing countries. If other countries can fill the demand for a lower price, the stronger currency will reduce its export competitiveness. Local consumers may switch to imports, too, because they have become more competitive with locally-produced goods.

The J-Curve in Private Equity

The term J-curve is used to describe the typical trajectory of investments made by a private equity firm.


The J-curve is a visual representation of the plain fact that sometimes things will get worse before they get better.

Private equity firms have a different path to profitability than public companies or the funds that invest in them.

Their portfolios, by design, are made up of companies that were performing poorly when they were purchased. The firm then spends substantial amounts of money retooling the company before spinning it off as a renewed company.

That means an initial decline in performance followed, at least theoretically, by a steep improvement in performance.

  1. 5 Do you agree the social responsibility theory uphold the principle of checks and balance in a society? Explain this statement in light of normative theories of press?

Social responsibility is ethics that guide any action, be it in media or other organizations, that put an obligation towards environment, society, culture and economy. The media like any other sector should not harm, but should promote environment and socio-cultural aspects in relation to the economy of the place.

Social Responsibility theory of mass media is relatively a new concept which started in the mid-20th century and is used mostly by developing and least developed countries. The theory started from Europe and took a shape with the Commission on the Freedom of Press that happened in United States in 1949.

The model was designed formally by Siebert, Peterson and Schramm in 1956 in their book. It encourages total freedom to press and no censorship, but it should be regulated according to social responsibilities and external controls. Content is also filtered through public obligation and interference.

The theory replaced libertarian theory with the view that libertarianism was outdated. The theory also incorporates some aspects of authoritarian theory. After the emergence of this theory, professionalism in media started to be taken seriously.

Social Responsibility Theory Concepts

“Freedom of expression under the social responsibility theory is not an absolute right, as under pure libertarian theory. One’s right to free expression must be balanced against the private rights of others and against vital society interest.
– Siebert, Peterson, and Schramm

The social responsibility theory of mass media changed the way press published news from objective reporting to interpretative reporting. Before this theory, facts were presented without any interpretation.

The audience interpreted it the way they wanted to. This caused problems as interpretation was not based on reality and it affected the social order. Interpretative reporting and investigative reporting started to uncover the reality behind every case.

In Social Responsibility Theory, the press is taken to be for the people and society. The tasks of the press is to make a code of conduct and follow it, to develop a standard in journalism, to make journalism better, to protect journalists and to have penalties if any journalist violates the code of conduct.

This way, the facts provided by the press are analyzed and interpreted so that the people get true information and understandable news. This helps maintain social harmony by revealing social evils like corruption and discouraging other bad conducts.

The media is taken as a place for the voiceless to have a voice and develop public opinions where each and every person has the right to speak, express and publish. . It is considered not an end but a tool for social development. Therefore, the objectives of media are stated to inform, document, analyze, interpret, mediate and mobilize by creating and finding solutions.\

Major Features of Social Responsibility Theory

  • Private press ownership
    Press is supposed to be owned privately. The government does not own the press. The private owners should publish within the ethical guidelines and in a responsible way.
  • Helps democracy prosper
    Media helps in maintaining democracy and does not encourage authoritarianism or communism.
  • Media as a democratic institution
    Media is not a part of the government and it must work on its own. It has the freedom to do anything they want, just not work out of the ethical standards.
  • Public participation
    Public must get to participate through comments, response, write and get involved in all aspects of media’s work.
  • Emphasis on social responsibility
    The media must be responsible towards the society.
  • Self-regulation in media
    The media must have some boundaries within itself to be ethical. The regulations are to be followed by all the media professionals involved in the particular institution.
  • Code of ethics
    All the media institutions must have a written or unwritten code of ethics which should be the standard followed by all.
  • Professional standards
    The quality of the publishing should be maintained, false interpretation of any information should be avoided.
  • Media role of criticizing government
    Media is allowed to criticize the government roles, works and policies. It is done to help the government get better.
  • Helping eradicate social problems
    Media must speak against and aware people about social problems as it is media’s responsibility to work for the betterment of the society.
  • Pluralistic media (including ideas and people from different groups)
    Media must write the views of different groups of people and not only about a single group. It must never be biased.
  • Social benefit
    Media must work for the society and only do the things that are beneficial to the society. It should not write about the things that are ambiguous or contradictory as those message might cause conflict in the society.

Examples of Social Responsibility Theory

Reports of health news in the media can be taken as media acting socially responsible. The media gives information and awareness on health problems. It also provides awareness on some basic health problems like diarrhea and how to cure them.

The media gives information about epidemics and health hazards. Here, acting responsibly is by not spreading wrong news and panic.

There have been instances of mass panic among the people because of some misunderstood news on health published by various media. Also, advertisements of harmful substances like cigarettes and alcohol are considered to be wrong according to the social responsibility theory.

Reporting on the performance of government institutions and unveil tyranny and corruption by the media is also an example of socially responsible media as Media acts like a critic of the government.

But, there are times when the media has severely damaged the reputation of some politicians and political parties through irresponsible journalism, leading to major conflicts in the society.


Strengths of Social Responsibility Theory

  • It helps in avoiding conflicts during wars and conflicts.
  • It accepts public opinion and works for the citizens.
  • Press and media houses do not have monopoly as rules and ethics guide them.
  • The media publishes truth due to regulatory activities and their moral obligation to do so .
  • Yellow journalism decreases as media can be questioned by the law and public.
  • There is pluralism and diversification on news and people involved.
  • The voiceless and marginalized people are able to raise their voice.

Weaknesses of Social Responsibility Theory

  • Ethics are always vague, ambiguous and differs from case to case.
  • It is difficult to determine who sets clear principles and standards.
  • Social responsibility and ethics are morally obligatory things. Any form of legal limitations should not be imposed if media is just working in the principle of responsibility. Laws are authoritative and not democratic concepts.


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