Course: Population Education-I (6573) Semester: Autumn, 2022
Q.1 What are the areas of focus in population polices and strategies suggested implementing them.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 1997, 50 years after the partitioning of United India from the British Raj. For Pakistan (fig 1), this was also a time to evaluate the health and population status of its people. In Pakistan, during the 1940s, population growth rates begin to accelerate as health improvements lengthened life expectancy and birth rates remained high. In 1947, at the time of independence, Pakistan’s population was 31 million. By 1995 it had escalated to 140 million1
Map of Pakistan
Family planning programmes were started in the 1950s and 1960s by private and government institutions. Donors such as World Bank and the UN along with the government of Pakistan funded the programmes for family planning (FP). For years these institutions focused only on women as it was thought that FP was the preserve of women, therefore the audience was 100% female.
In 1947, the fertility rate was 7.5 per women and the population growth rate 4.5% per year. In the 1990s these were reduced to 5.1 and 2.9, respectively, but this reduction is negligible. Presently, 41% of the total population in Pakistan is under the age of 15 years. A large number of young people are about to enter their reproductive years, virtually guaranteeing continued rapid population growth for the foreseeable future By the year 2035, Pakistan’s population is projected at 260 million (UNFPA, Pakistan).
More than 50 years have passed, millions of dollars have been spent, multiple resources have been exhausted and Pakistan still adds four million people to its population each year. Contraceptive use went up from 6% in 1969 to just 18% in 19952. Pakistan’s average of six children per family has barely fallen since 1960s2 and the population density is 169/km2(In comparison, the USA population density is 28/km2.
Pakistan faces a daunting challenge. With 140 million people, it is currently the world’s seventh largest country and will become the third biggest contributor to world population growth. According to United Nations projections, the Pakistan population will grow to over 380 million by the year 2050, surpassing the United States, Indonesia, Brazil, and Russia to become the world’s third largest country behind India and China. With the highest population growth rate for any large Asian nation, Pakistan will certainly experience dramatic declines in per capita availability of arable land, water, and forest resources. Already rapid population growth at three percent per year is eroding economic gain. The question arises – what went wrong and why?
The profile above reflects the lack of success to date of Pakistan family planning programme, which is also one of the world’s oldest programmes. Inconstant political support has been a prime reason for programme failure. Frequent changes in leadership have contributed to constantly shifting strategies coupled by weak implementation. Population programmes lack adequate geographical coverage and community outreach3. In addition, the following factors explain poor performance and make the picture of reproductive health in Pakistan grim:
- Each year, about 30,000 women die from complications of pregnancy, childbirth or unsafe abortion reflecting high maternal mortality ratio of 600 deaths/100,000 live births and frequent pregnancies, which increase the risk to maternal death. During her life time, a Pakistani woman has a 1 in 23 chance of dying from maternal causes compared to 1 in 5,000 in the industrialised world.
- Religious controversies about women’s role in society have spilled over into the family planning debate. The organised religious political parties officially oppose the population programmes and many people still believe that family planning is un-Islamic thus undermining political support for family planning issues.
- The practice of purdah (public view through veiling) makes it more difficult for women to obtain social services, including family planning. In 1991, only a quarter of women could go unaccompanied to a clinic. Poor programme outreach exacerbates the problems facing women who observe purdah3.
- A preference for sons over daughters for labour and old age security leads to higher fertility rates4.
- Poor communication between spouses aggravates differences in family size desires. In a survey in 1991, one third of both husbands and wives did not know their spouse’s attitude towards family planning. Among those women who believed their spouses disapproved, one third were mistaken – their spouses actually favoured family planning.
- Literacy rates in Pakistan of 21 percent for women and 47 percent for men are among the lowest in the world. The positive relation between education and contraceptive use holds in Pakistan as almost everywhere. Women with secondary education are more than three times as likely to use family planning as those who never attended the school as education confers women higher status with marriage and greater voice within household and reproductive decisions5.
- In many developing countries and even in the developed world, most family planning services are still geared towards the female population. Population development and medical institutions have often neglected men’s influence on decisions related to family planning.
- Uncertainty regarding government and international donor’s willingness to continue to provide adequate financial support also remains. Budget deficits and economic pressures pose a constant threat to social spending especially population programmes.
- The federal and provincial population programmes with the government system has not enjoyed the same standing as most other government agencies and departments. Staff working in these agencies usually do not receive full civil service status leading to poor workers’ morale and productivity because of the programmes ambiguous position within government.
- Besides the huge problem and relatively low priority of programme issues such as weak supervision, overextended training capacity, problems with contraceptive supply systems, tension in the relationship between the government and private sector family planning NGOs, and weak involvement of private physicians, all compound the problem.
Q.2 What is the basic concept of Formal education system and its components.
Education is a gradual process which brings positive changes in human life and behavior. We can also define education as “a process of acquiring knowledge through study or imparting the knowledge by way of instructions or some other practical procedure”.
What is education?
Education brings a natural and lasting change in an individual’s reasoning and ability to achieve the targeted goal. It facilitates us to investigate our own considerations and thoughts and makes it ready to express it in various shapes.
Education is the main thing that encourages us to distinguish between right and wrong because in the absence of education, we can’t do what we need or we can’t achieve our goal.
Straightforwardly, we can say, “education is the passage to progress”. It is additionally the way to our fate as achievements can only be accomplished when individuals have information, aptitudes, and frame of mind. In this way, education resembles a medium through which we can associate with various individuals and offer our thoughts.
To tackle issues and do inventiveness we first need to gain proficiency with some essential abilities. We require learning and abilities to wind up increasingly imaginative. So education is fundamentally learning of abilities and ideas that can make us increasingly innovative and issue solver. Education is to pick up the capacity to develop and take care of issues in order to achieve their lawful motives.
Types of Education
Education also means helping people to learn how to do things and encouraging them to think about what they learn.
It is also important for educators to teach ways to find and use information. Through education, the knowledge of society, country, and of the world is passed on from generation to generation.
In democracies, through education, children and adults are supposed to learn how to be active and effective citizens.
More specific, education helps and guide individuals to transform from one class to another. Empowered individuals, societies, countries by education are taking an edge over individuals stand on the bottom pyramid of growth.
Types of Education
Education goes beyond what takes places within the four walls of the classroom. A child gets the education from his experiences outside the school as well as from those within on the basis of these factors. There are three main types of education, namely, Formal, Informal and Non-formal. Each of these types is discussed below.
Formal education or formal learning usually takes place in the premises of the school, where a person may learn basic, academic, or trade skills. Small children often attend a nursery or kindergarten but often formal education begins in elementary school and continues with secondary school.
Post-secondary education (or higher education) is usually at a college or university which may grant an academic degree. It is associated with a specific or stage and is provided under a certain set of rules and regulations.
The formal education is given by specially qualified teachers they are supposed to be efficient in the art of instruction. It also observes strict discipline. The student and the teacher both are aware of the facts and engage themselves in the process of education.
Examples of Formal Education
- Learning in a classroom
- School grading/certification, college, and university degrees
- Planned education of different subjects having a proper syllabus acquired by attending the institution.
Characteristics of formal education
- Formal education is structured hierarchically.
- It is planned and deliberate.
- Scheduled fees are paid regularly.
- It has a chronological grading system.
- It has a syllabus and subject-oriented. The syllabus has to be covered within a specific time period.
- The child is taught by the teachers
Advantages of Formal education:
- An organized educational model and up to date course contents.
- Students acquire knowledge from trained and professional teachers.
- Structured and systematic learning process.
- Intermediate and final assessments are ensured to advance students to the next learning phase.
- Institutions are managerially and physically organized.
- Leads to a formally recognized certificate.
- Easy access to jobs.
Disadvantages of Formal education:
- Sometimes, brilliant students are bored due to the long wait for the expiry of the academic session to promote to the next stage
- Chance of bad habits’ adoption may be alarming due to the presence of both good and bad students in the classroom
- Wastage of time as some lazy students may fail to learn properly in spite of motivation by the professional trainers.
- Some unprofessional and non-standard education system may cause the wastage of time and money of the students which leads to the disappointment from formal education and argue them to go for non-formal education.
- Costly and rigid education as compare to other forms of learning
Informal education may be a parent teaching a child how to prepare a meal or ride a bicycle.
People can also get an informal education by reading many books from a library or educational websites.
Informal education is when you are not studying in a school and do not use any particular learning method. In this type of education, conscious efforts are not involved. It is neither pre-planned nor deliberate. It may be learned at some marketplace, hotel or at home.
Unlike formal education, informal education is not imparted by an institution such as school or college. Informal education is not given according to any fixed timetable. There is no set curriculum required. Informal education consists of experiences and actually living in the family or community.
Examples of Informal Education
- Teaching the child some basics such as numeric characters.
- Someone learning his/her mother tongue
- A spontaneous type of learning, “if a person standing in a bank learns about opening and maintaining the account at the bank from someone.”
Characteristics of Informal Education
- It is independent of boundary walls.
- It has no definite syllabus.
- It is not pre-planned and has no timetable.
- No fees are required as we get informal education through daily experience and by learning new things.
- It is a lifelong process in a natural way.
- The certificates/degrees are not involved and one has no stress for learning the new things.
- You can get from any source such as media, life experiences, friends, family etc.
Advantages of Informal Education
- More naturally learning process as you can learn at anywhere and at any time from your daily experience.
- It involves activities like individual and personal research on a topic of interest for themselves by utilizing books, libraries, social media, internet or getting assistance from informal trainers.
- Utilizes a variety of techniques.
- No specific time span.
- Less costly and time-efficient learning process.
- No need to hire experts as most of the professionals may be willing to share their precious knowledge with students/public through social media and the internet.
- Learners can be picked up the requisite information from books, TV, radio or conversations with their friends/family members.
Disadvantages of Informal Education
- Information acquired from the internet, social media, TV, radio or conversations with friends/family members may lead to the disinformation.
- Utilized techniques may not be appropriate.
- No proper schedule/time span.
- Unpredictable results which simply the wastage of time.
- Lack of confidence in the learner.
- Absence of discipline, attitude and good habits.
Non-formal education includes adult basic education, adult literacy education or school equivalency preparation.
In nonformal education, someone (who is not in school) can learn literacy, other basic skills or job skills.
Home education, individualized instruction (such as programmed learning), distance learning and computer-assisted instruction are other possibilities.
Non-formal education is imparted consciously and deliberately and systematically implemented. It should be organized for a homogeneous group. Non-formal, education should be programmed to serve the needs of the identified group. This will necessitate flexibility in the design of the curriculum and the scheme of evaluation.
Examples of Non-formal Education
- Boy Scouts and Girls Guides develop some sports program such as swimming comes under nonformal education.
- Fitness programs.
- Community-based adult education courses.
- Free courses for adult education developed by some organization.
Characteristics of Non-formal Education
- The nonformal education is planned and takes place apart from the school system.
- The timetable and syllabus can be adjustable.
- Unlike theoretical formal education, it is practical and vocational education.
- Nonformal education has no age limit.
- Fees or certificates may or may not be necessary.
- It may be full time or part-time learning and one can earn and learn together.
- It involves learning of professional skills.
Advantages of Non-formal Education
- Practiced and vocational training.
- Naturally growing minds that do not wait for the system to amend.
- Literacy with skillfulness growth in which self-learning is appreciated.
- Flexibility in age, curriculum and time.
- Open-ended educational system in which both the public and private sector are involved in the process.
- No need to conduct regular exams.
- Diploma, certificates, and award are not essential to be awarded.
Disadvantages of Non-formal Education
- Attendance of participants is unsteady.
- Sometimes, it’s just wastage of time as there is no need to conduct the exam on regular basis and no degree/diploma is awarded at the end of the training session.
- Basic reading and writing skills are crucial to learn.
- No professional and trained teachers.
- Students may not enjoy full confidence as the regular students enjoy.
- Some institutes provide fake certification through online courses just for the sake of earning.
Q.3 Identify the major problems in population education and what major content areas of population would you suggest for the out-of- school population?
major problems of population education. The problems are: 1. Confusion of the Concepts 2. Lack of Variety of Languages 3. Inadequate Curriculum 4. Lack of Proper Planning 5. Lack of Communication 6. Social and Religious Taboos 7. Lack of Trained Teachers 8. Lack of Resources 9. Lack of Research.
Problem # 1. Confusion of the Concepts:
The concepts of population education does not have a satisfactory definition for which it becomes very difficult on the part of the teachers, teacher educators and the educationists to have a clear cut idea about its aims, curriculum, methods of teaching, when to teach etc.
Problem # 2. Lack of Variety of Languages:
Language plays a vital role for propagating the new ideas among the people. As India is a multi-lingual country having 15 official languages and 1652 dialects, it is very difficult to propagate and implement and new programme through different languages.
Problem # 3. Inadequate Curriculum:
Though population education is a new concept, we have not so far developed suitable curriculum and teaching materials for implementation of this programme in different levels of education.
Problem # 4. Lack of Proper Planning:
As population education is comparatively a new area in the field of education it needs proper planning and co-ordination at each level. But lack of proper planning and coordination this programme is too difficult to implement.
Problem # 5. Lack of Communication:
The slow progress of population education in India is lack of transport and communication facilities as the large portion of our country is covered with hills and rivers.
Problem # 6. Social and Religious Taboos:
Our traditional society and religion are responsible for the slow progress of population education for which many people do not appreciate the population education programme.
Problem # 7. Lack of Trained Teachers:
To impart instructions on population education some advanced knowledge, skill and training is required for the teachers. It is very difficult on the part of untrained teachers to impart instructions on population education.
Problem # 8. Lack of Resources:
We lack both human and material resources for implementing the new programme of population education.
Problem # 9. Lack of Research:
Population education needs adequate research work for its progress what we lack in India
Q.4 Identify the different approaches for incorporation of population education with woman education programs in the developing countries?
Patriarchal values heavily govern the social structure in Pakistani society in the rural areas. In comparison, urban centers of the country as well as semi-peripheral regions are slowly moving towards shifting gender roles that are more inclusive. Around 70% of working women in Pakistan work outdoors according to the Asian Development Bank policy brief on female workforce participation in Pakistan 2016. The general perception of culturally traditional gender roles that, specifically, a woman is expected to take care of the home as wife and mother, whereas the male dominates outside the home as a breadwinner, are questionable in certain sectors. In agricultural work, within rural areas, both men and women work in the fields and are expected to contribute equally to household work. In a survey by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics 2013–2014, it was reported that 26% of women are in the labor force ( approximately 15 million). There is a traditionally conceptual idea of segregation of men and women into two distinct worlds. However, this materializes differently in different parts of the country. Only in the most of rural-isolated regions in the country is this idea of gender roles strictly followed. Poverty is one of the major factors in unequal household resources allocation in the favor of sons due to their role in society outside the home. Therefore, education for boys is prioritized over that for girls, because it is perceived that boys must be equipped with educational skills to compete for resources in the public arena; while girls have to specialize in domestic skills to be good mothers and wives. Hence, education is not perceived as being important for girls.
This gender division of labor has been internalized by the society, and girls do not have many choices for themselves that could change these patriarchal realities of their lives. Society does not allow girls to develop their human capabilities by precluding them from acquiring education. Lack of emphasis on the importance of women’s education is one of the cardinal features of gender inequality in Pakistan. The Human Development Report (HDR) listed Pakistan in the category of “low human development” countries with a female literacy rate of thirty percent, and Pakistan has ranked 145 in the world in terms of human development.
Importance of women’s education
Education has been of central significance to the development of human society. It can be the beginning, not only of individual knowledge, information and awareness, but also a holistic strategy for development and change. Education is very much connected to women’s ability to form social relationships on the basis of equality with others and to achieve the important social good of self-respect. It is important, as well, to mobility (through access to jobs and the political process) and to health and life (through the connection to bodily integrity).Education serves as a protection to domestic violence. Domestic violence is a major factor that negatively affects the advancement of women. One of the significant goals of education in Pakistani women is its contribution to the labor market. Education empowers women to have a voice in the decision-making process in a male-dominated household, limiting men to influence the women’s involvement in paid jobs that contribute to the country’s economy, thus improving Pakistan’s status of women. Education can allow women to participate in politics so they can ensure that their voices and concerns are heard and addressed in the public policy. It is also crucial for women’s access to the legal system. Although it must be considered that religion and traditions of the Pakistani affect women’s education. Some women may choose to keep the traditional roles because that is what they have always known and are used to. It would be a great opportunity if women were able to make their choice on their own, though. They should at least have the knowledge of both sides to be educated or to stay with the traditional ways.
Education is a critical input in human resource development and essential for the country’s economic growth. It increases the productivity and efficiency of individuals, and it produces a skilled labor force that is capable of leading the economy towards sustainable growth and prosperity. The progress and wellbeing of a country largely depends on the education choices made available to its people. It can be one of the most powerful instruments of change. It can help a country to achieve its national goals via producing minds imbued with knowledge, skills, and competencies to shape its future destiny.
The widespread recognition of this fact has created awareness on the need to focus upon literacy and elementary education, not simply as a matter of social justice but more to foster economic growth, social well-being, and social stability. Women’s education is so inextricably linked with the other facets of human development that to make it a priority is to also make change on a range of other fronts; from the health and status of women to early childhood care; from nutrition, water and sanitation to community empowerment; from the reduction of child labor and other forms of exploitation to the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
Economic benefits of women’s education
See also: Women’s education and development
A large number of empirical studies have revealed that increase in women’s education boosts their wages and that returns to education for women are frequently larger than that of men. Increase in the level of female education improves human development outcomes such as child survival, health and schooling. Lower female education has a negative impact on economic growth as it lowers the average level of human capital. Developmental Economists argue that in developing countries female education reduces fertility, infant mortality and increases children’s education. Gender inequality in education directly and significantly affects economic growth.
Gender disparity in education in Pakistan
According to UNDP 2010 report, Pakistan ranked 120 in 146 countries in terms of Gender-related Development Index (GDI), and in terms of Gender Empowerment Measurement (GEM) ranking, it ranked 92 in 94 countries. Gender inequality in education can be measured in different ways. Gross and net enrollment rates and completion and drop-out rates are the ways to identify the gender inequality in education. Pakistan aims to achieve Millennium Development Goals and also aims to eliminate gender disparity at all levels of education by the year 2015. Elimination of gender disparity at all levels of education requires higher allocation of resources on women’s education. Strong gender disparities exist in literacy and educational attainment between rural and urban areas of Pakistan.
Patriarchal values are deeply embedded in the society of Pakistan, and its different manifestations are observed in different aspects of the society. As mentioned above, gender division of labour enforces women to primarily specialize in unpaid care work as mothers and wives at home, whereas men perform paid work, and come out as breadwinners. This has led to a low level of resource investment in girls’ education not only by their families but also by the state. This low investment in women’s human capital, compounded by negative social biases and cultural practices, restrictions on women’s mobility and the internalization of patriarchy by women themselves, becomes the basis for gender discrimination and disparities in most spheres of life. Some of the ramifications are that women are unable to develop job-market skills, hence, they have limited opportunities available to them in the wage-labour market. Moreover, social and cultural restrictions limit women’s chances to compete for resources in a world outside the four walls of their homes. It translates into social and economic dependency of women on men. The nature and degree of women’s oppression and subordination vary across classes, regions and the rural and urban divide in Pakistan. It has been observed that male dominant structures are relatively more marked in the rural and tribal setting where local customs and indigenous laws establish stronger male authority and power over women.
Destruction of schools and killings have harmed women’s education in Pakistan. 16-year-old education activist and blogger Malala Yousafzai was shot in the head and neck by Taliban insurgents 9 October 2012 after she had blogged about the destruction of schools and closing of all-girls schools in her town of Mingora in the Swat District. Later, the Taliban denied that it opposes education and claimed “Malala was targeted because of her pioneer role in preaching secularism and so-called enlightened moderation.”
In September 2012 the Pakistani newspaper Dawn reported that 710 schools have been destroyed or damaged by militants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 401 schools have been destroyed or damaged in Swat. While the Taliban’s campaign extends beyond girls to secular education in general, at least one source reports the damage was related to Taliban opposition to girls’ education. Another source includes the bombing of girls’ schools as among the Taliban policies.
Barriers to a Higher Education
Although education for women in Pakistan is a right since 1976 there is still a sizable gender gap, specifically in higher education for women. From data collected in 2003-2004 enrollment of women in bachelor’s degree programs was 43.5% as compared to their male counterparts who had an enrollment of 56.49%. Furthermore, in a study by Monazza Aslam it was concluded that an investment in women’s education has a higher economic return than that of male education, and yet there is little importance put on women’s education. This is due to the societal expectations and the value of women in Pakistan.
The path to a higher education for women is rigorous and doesn’t yield the same results as that of a man. Firstly, women are viewed as housewives and mothers, they are set aside for one purpose – making their education the least important concern for their families. Additionally, the decision to obtain an education is not up to women in Pakistan, their families whether it be their parents or their spouse get to decide the fate of their women. Since women are groomed for marriage their families are often concerned with teaching them household chores so that they can please their spouses and new families. If a daughter is given the opportunity to a higher education her family is often using it as a ‘golden bracelet.’ A higher education can be seen as high status and often showcases a families wealth, specifically to incentivize potential suitors. Furthermore, a man’s education is valued above a woman’s due to the gender norms in Pakistan as well as the non-existent social security. Parents will invest in their sons education and future because they will rely on him in their old age because they will eventually move in with him. Another issue for higher education for women is the financial aspect, already since the ultimate goal for a family is to get their daughter married they are focusing on obtaining money for a dowry, then before a woman’s education the education of their son is more important, and lastly higher education in general is very expensive which is a major barrier for some families.[ Lastly, another major issue for women are the lack of all women and coed schools, this limits many women in obtaining a higher education.
Obtaining a higher education is not an easy path. If a woman is married she is still expected to take care of her family and many women in Pakistan are not allowed to work outside of their homes, making it very difficult to get a job. Furthermore, even after jumping over all the obstacles once a woman obtains a higher education she has to deal with the gender discrimination in the workplace, and many women will find that it is not easy to find well paid or managerial jobs even with a college degree.
Rural vs. urban
In year 2006, the literacy rate in urban areas was recorded as 58.3% while in rural areas it was 28.3%, and only 12% among rural women. An interesting factor in this context is that female enrollment was recorded highest at the primary level, but it progressively decreases at the secondary, college and tertiary levels. It was estimated that less than 3% of the 17–23 age group of girls have access to higher education.
The number of women who attend school in urban areas vs. rural areas differs drastically. In urban areas, women’s education is increasing every day. The parents of girls who live in urban areas are a lot more accepting of their enrolling in school and even encourage girls to pursue a career as they are also a lot more knowledgeable of their rights. This makes them a lot more motivated to stand up for their education. Parent in urban areas are a lot more modernized or westernized. These urban parents acknowledge the importance of an education. Women who live in urban areas are often enrolled in private schools getting a better education there as they have a lot more educational accessibility. Women in urban areas are also surrounded by people who are educated and are not put down or beaten for going to school. Unlike in urban areas, women in rural areas are discouraged to attend school. Most of them are brought up in conservative families with little to no education. They have to work harder than women in urban areas because they have little support system. If their parents are accepting of education they still cannot go since most of them are very poor and cannot afford the expense. The women also do not attend school in rural areas of Pakistan because it is not culturally accepted. The perspective of rural Pakistani parents about education continues to change. Many parents acknowledge the real benefits of obtaining a higher education: women’s control and empowerment. In contrast, some parents still view education as a way to attract a better marriage. These conservative families tend to be more traditional expecting women to stay at home and attend the house while men go out to work. They’re also restricted in rural areas because their town may not even have a school, therefore having to travel a long distance to attend one
Q.5 Write nots on the following: –
- a) Teacher Trainer
- b) Migration
- c) Zero Population
- d) Population Growth
- a) Teacher Trainer
Teacher trainers can be found in schools and universities where they help improve teachers’ skills. They typically make assessments and provide coaching and advice. Teacher trainers also sit in on classes, provide curriculum guidance, and set goals for teaching staff.
Teacher Trainer Job Description Template
We are searching for a self-motivated teacher trainer to work with teachers at our school. The teacher trainer’s responsibilities include monitoring teacher performance, observing classes, making assessments, and scheduling workshops as well as one-on-one training. You should be able to engage with teachers from a range of different backgrounds and provide helpful feedback.
To be successful as a teacher trainer, you should have strong analytical and observational skills. Outstanding candidates are diplomatic, have excellent interpersonal skills, and are able to quickly identify problems.
Teacher Trainer Responsibilities:
- Observing lessons and identifying teachers’ strengths and weaknesses.
- Providing feedback, advice, and individual training sessions for teachers.
- Organizing workshops, training sessions, and events where guest speakers inspire teachers.
- Collaborating with teachers and other staff to develop improved curricula, lesson plans, assessments, and classroom management techniques.
- Setting weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly goals for teachers as well as students, and providing advice and guidance to ensure these goals are met.
- Returning to classrooms to reassess progress once teachers have completed their training.
- Supervising classroom activities, taking notes, and writing up reports to share with school administrators and relevant stakeholders.
- Developing new strategies and plans for an improved learning experience.
- Keeping abreast of developments in teaching as well as your relevant subject area.
- Building teacher networks and encouraging teachers to share their resources and knowledge.
Teacher Trainer Requirements:
- Master’s degree in education or the subject discipline.
- Extensive teaching experience in the subject area or a related discipline.
- Experience teaching adults might be advantageous.
- Strong planning and organizational skills.
- Excellent analytical and problem-solving abilities.
- Patience and resilience.
- A high degree of diplomacy.
- Great conflict resolution skills.
- A valid driver’s license.
- Build background about human migration and types of migration.
Explain to students that human migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another. Ask: What are some different types of human movements? Then tell students that people move for many reasons, and that types of human migration include:
- internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent
- external migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent
- emigration: leaving one country to move to another
- immigration: moving into a new country
- return migration: moving back to where you came from
- seasonal migration: moving with each season or in response to labor or climate conditions
- Discuss people who migrate.
Tell students that people who migrate fall into several categories:
- An emigrant is a person who is leaving one country to live in another.
- An immigrant is a person who is entering a country from another to make a new home.
- A refugee is a person who has moved to a new country because of a problem in their former home.
Have students provide specific examples of each to demonstrate understanding of the differences between the three terms.
3. Brainstorm reasons for migrating.
Ask: Why do people move? What forces do you think drive human migration? Then explain to students that people move for many reasons and that those reasons are called push factors and pull factors. Tell students that push factors include leaving a place because of a problem, such as a food shortage, war, or flood. Tell students that pull factors include moving to a place because of something good, such as a nicer climate, more job opportunities, or a better food supply. Ask: What effect does a region’s economy, climate, politics, and culture have on migration to and from the area? Have students brainstorm additional reasons for migrating, such as displacement by a natural disaster, lack of natural resources, the state of an economy, and more.
Check students’ comprehension. Make sure they understand the difference between emigrants, immigrants, and refugees
Zero population growth, sometimes abbreviated ZPG, is a condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines; that is, the number of births plus in-migrants equals the number of deaths plus out-migrants. ZPG has been a prominent political movement since the 1960s.
As part of the concept of optimum population, the movement considers zero population growth to be an objective towards which countries and the whole world should strive in the interests of accomplishing long-term optimal standards and conditions of living.
The growth rate of a population in a given year equals the number of births minus the number of deaths plus immigration minus emigration expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the given year.
For example, suppose a country begins a year with one million people and during the year experiences one hundred thousand births, eighty thousand deaths, one thousand immigrants and two hundred emigrants.
Change in population = 100,000 – 80,000 +1,000 – 200 = 20,800
Population growth rate = (20,800 ÷ 1,000,000) x 100% = 2.1%
Zero population growth for a country occurs when the sum of these four numbers – births minus deaths plus immigration minus emigration – is zero.
To illustrate, suppose a country begins the year with one million people and during the year experiences 85,000 births, 86,000 deaths, 1,500 immigrants and 500 emigrants.
Change in population = 85,000 – 86,000 + 1,500 – 500 = 0
Population growth rate = (0 ÷ 1,000,000) x 100% = 0%
For the planet Earth as a whole, zero population growth occurs when the number of births equals the number of deaths.
The American sociologist and demographer Kingsley Davis is credited with coining the term. However, it was used earlier by George J. Stolnitz, who stated that the concept of a stationary population dated back to 1693. A mathematical description was given by James Mirrlees.
In the late 1960s, ZPG became a prominent political movement in the U.S. and parts of Europe, with strong links to environmentalism and feminism. Yale University was a stronghold of the ZPG activists who believed “that a constantly increasing population is responsible for many of our problems: pollution, violence, loss of values and of individual privacy.” Prominent advocates of the movement were Paul Ehrlich, author of The Population Bomb, Richard Bowers, a Connecticut lawyer, and Professor Charles Lee Remington.[unreliable source?]
In the long term, zero population growth can be achieved when the birth rate of a population equals the death rate. That is, the total fertility rate is at replacement level and birth and death rates are stable, a condition also called demographic equilibrium. Unstable rates can lead to drastic changes in population levels. This analysis is valid for the planet as a whole (assuming that interplanetary travel remains at zero or negligible levels), but not necessarily for a region or country as it ignores migration.
Even though the total fertility rate of a population reaches replacement level, that population will continue to change because of population momentum. A population that has been growing in the past will have a higher proportion of young people. As it is younger people who have children, there is large time lag between the point at which the fertility rate (mean total number of children each woman has during her childbearing years) falls to the replacement level (the fertility rate which would result in equal birth and death rates for a population at equilibrium) and the point at which the population stops rising. The reason for this is that even though the fertility rate has dropped to replacement level, people already continue to live for some time within a population. Therefore, equilibrium, with a static population, will not be reached until the first “replacement level” birth cohorts reach old age and die. The related calculations are complex because the population’s overall death rate can vary over time, and mortality also varies with age (being highest among the old).
Conversely, with fertility below replacement, a large elderly generation eventually results (as in an aging “baby boom“); but since that generation failed to replace itself during its fertile years, a subsequent “population bust”, or decrease in population, will occur when the older generation dies off. This effect has been termed birth dearth. In addition, if a country’s fertility is at replacement level, and has been that way for at least several decades (to stabilize its age distribution), then that country’s population could still experience coincident growth due to continuously increasing life expectancy, even though the population growth is likely to be smaller than it would be from natural population increase.
Zero population growth is often a goal of demographic planners and environmentalists who believe that reducing population growth is essential for the health of the ecosystem. Preserving cultural traditions and ethnic diversity is a factor for not allowing human populations levels or rates to fall too low. Achieving ZPG is difficult because a country’s population growth is often determined by economic factors, incidence of poverty, natural disasters, disease, etc.
Reaching zero population growth
- Voluntarily limit births and immigration to achieve zero population growth;
- Continue on the present path until the population is so large that draconian measures become necessary to stop the growth of population;
- Do nothing and let nature stop the growth through disease, starvation, war, and pestilence. If humans do not solve the problem, nature will.
Similarly, Jason Brent argues that there are three ways to achieve zero population growth. His argument is as follows:
- By war, with or without weapons of mass destruction, starvation, disease, rape, murder, ethnic cleansing, concentration camps, and other horrors beyond the imagination, when humanity has exceeded the carrying capacityof the Earth.
- By the voluntary action of all of humanity prior to the human population exceeding the carrying capacity of the Earth. If any group or even if a single-family failed to control its population the entire program would fail.
- By coercive population control prior to the human population exceeding the carrying capacity of the Earth.
A loosely defined goal of ZPG is to match the replacement fertility rate, which is the average number of children per woman which would hold the population constant. This replacement fertility will depend on mortality rates and the sex ratio at birth, and varies from around 2.1 in developed countries to over 3.0 in some developing countries.
China is the largest country by population in the world, having some 1.4 billion people (as of 2021) China is expected to have a zero population growth rate by 2031.
China’s population growth has slowed since the beginning of this century. This has been mostly the result of China’s economic growth and increasing living standards. However, many demographers also credit China’s family planning policy, formulated in the early 1970s, that encouraged late marriages, late childbearing, and the use of contraceptives, and after 1980 limited most urban couples to one child and most rural couples to two children.
According to government projections, the long-term effect of these policies will be a reduction of the working-age population to 700 million by 2050 vs 925 million in 2011, a decline of 24%. In November 2013, a relaxation of the one-child policy was announced amid unpopularity and the forecast of a reduced labor pool and support for an aging population
- d) Population Growth
Population growth is the increase in the number of people in a population or dispersed group. Actual global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.9 billion in 2020. The UN projected population to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. However, some academics outside the UN have increasingly developed human population models that account for additional downward pressures on population growth; in such a scenario population would peak before 2100.
World human population has been growing since the end of the Black Death, around the year 1350. A mix of technological advancement that improved agricultural productivity and sanitation and medical advancement that reduced mortality increased population growth. In some geographies, this has slowed through the process called the demographic transition, where many nations with high standards of living have seen a significant slowing of population growth. This is in direct contrast with less developed contexts, where population growth is still happening. Globally, the rate of population growth has declined from a peak of 2.2% per year in 1963. The global human population is projected to peak during the mid-21st century and decline by 2100.
Population growth alongside increased consumption is a driver of environmental concerns, such as biodiversity loss and climate change, due to resources utilised in human development. International policy focused on mitigating the impact of human population growth is concentrated in the Sustainable Development Goals which seek to improve the standard of living globally while reducing the impact of society on the environment.