PROFESSIONALISM IN TEACHING
Course Code: 8612 Unit 1-9
Department of Early Childhood Education and Elementary Teacher Education
FACULTY OF EDUCATION ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY
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(All Rights are Reserved with the Publisher)
First Printing………………………… 2018
Composed by………………………. Zahid Javed Bajwa
Layout by……………………………. Muhammad Javed
Printer…………………………………. Printing Press Operations Committee
Publisher……………………………… Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
Chairman Course Team: Prof. Dr. Nasir Mahmood Course Development Coordinator: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain Members:
- Fazal ur Rahman Associate Professor
Early Childhood Education and Elementary Teacher Education Department
- Muhammad Athar Hussain Assistant Professor
Early Childhood Education and Elementary Teacher Education Department
- Rehmatullah Bhatti Assistant Professor
Early Childhood Education and Elementary Teacher Education Department
- Zafar Iqbal DNFCE
- Muhammad Samiullah Science Education
- Aftab Ahmed Lecturer, DNFCE
- Miss Mubeshera Tufail Lecturer
Early Childhood Education and Elementary Teacher Education Department
Reviewers: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain Dr. Fazal ur Rahman
Editor: Miss Humera Ejaz
Course Coordinator: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain
Professionalism in Teaching is a board area which aims to examine theoretical and practical ethical roles, issues and challenges in teaching. Professional aspect of teaching has always been prime focus for teacher training and holds a fundamental status in teaching profession. Keeping this in view, the course “Professionalism in Teaching” has been introduced for B.Ed Program. The course will equip the prospective teachers with knowledge and practical applications and implications of professionalism in teaching.
This book reflects the efforts of many people. The Department of Early Childhood Education and Elementary Teacher Education is grateful to all members of the course team for writing units and giving comments and feedback to improve the material.
I am highly grateful to Prof Dr Shahid Siddiqui, Vice-Chancellor, Allama Iqbal Open University for providing facilities and encouragement for writing the book.
Special thanks go to Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain, course development coordinator for efforts and committed work in a short time. Finally I am personally thankful to all, who helped in developing this course “Professionalism in Teaching”.
Prof. Dr. Nasir Mehmood Chairman/Dean, Faculty of Education
Professionalism has become a subject of interest to academics, prospective professional groups and the common man. It has also got attention of policy makers, administrators, teachers, educationists and researchers. Recently drastic changes have occurred in social, political and technological fields which have challenged traditional concepts of professions and professional conduct. Teaching is also questioned to be viewed as profession by some educationists; nevertheless, professionalism is teaching is commonly discussed on ideological, sociological and educational bases. In this respect, professional standards have been developed in different countries in their own perspective and some standards are developed as global/international professional standards for teachers.
The fundamental purpose of the course is to make students fully comprehend professional code of conduct and enhance their ability to practice professional standards effectively inside and outside the classroom.
A number of various aspects of professionalization have been discussed in the book. The course describes changing role of teachers in 21st century scenario and how teachers can utilize technology with pedagogy. It also explains attributes of a professional teacher who should be living exemplars of certain virtues or values or attitude embedded in socio-cultural context of the society.
Moreover, the course examines the ethical issues in teaching. There has been a debate over morality of teacher and moral issues in educational institutions. This debate got tremendous attention of the academic circles because of fast growing phenomenon of multicultural and multiethnic population of the society from where children come to the schools. These trends of 21st century education make teacher education institutions rethink of requirements and expectations about professional development of prospective teachers. The future teachers will have to be well prepared for moral applications and implications of professionalism and tackle the issues and challenges of ethics in all its manifestations. The course professionalism in teaching discusses and examines moral dimensions of teaching profession and will hopefully prove beneficial for making them professionally well prepared.
After successful completion of the course, the students will be able to:
- Explain the concept of profession and
- Discuss teaching as
- Define and discuss the term professionalization and its process and highlight Awareness about the professionalization of teaching profession.
- Demonstrate professional dispositions as
- Comprehend theoretical base of professionalism in
- Adhere to the professional code of conduct and professional
- Identify and practice attributes of professional
- Comment on changing role of
- Discuss teaching profession and
- Explain connection of society and culture with teaching
- Highlight ethical issues in teaching
Unit Title Page No.
|Unit 1||Introduction of Profession and Concept of Teaching ………………………………||01|
|Unit 2||Professionalization process and professionalism …………………………………….||21|
|Unit 3||Professionalism in Teaching: Theory to Practice ……………………………………||33|
|Unit 4||Attributes of Teacher ………………………………………………………………………….||63|
|Unit 5||Changing Role of the Teacher: Beyond Classroom…………………………………||83|
|Unit 6||Ethics, Education and Teacher……………………………………………………………..||117|
|Unit 7||Teaching Profession and Globalization …………………………………………………||141|
|Unit 8||Society, Culture and Teaching Procession……………………………………………..||165|
|Unit 9||Ethical Issues in Teaching Profession……………………………………………………||193|
INTRODUCTION OF PROFESSION AND CONCEPT OF TEACHING
Written by: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain Reviewed By: Dr. Fazal Ur Rahman
Title Page No
- Concept of Profession and Professionals………………………………………….. 04
- Characteristics of a Profession…………………………………………………………. 06
- Restrictions 06
- Regulation Performance……………………………………………………………………………… 08
- Professional Advancement…………………………………………………………………………. 09
- Fiduciary Relationship……………………………………………………………………………….. 09
- Professionalism……………………………………………………………………………… 09
- Teaching as Profession……………………………………………………………………. 10
- Profession and Vocation…………………………………………………………………………….. 12
- Professional Conceptions……………………………………………………………………………. 13
- Assumption about Teaching……………………………………………………………. 15
- Characteristics of Effective Teaching……………………………………………….. 15
- Self-Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………… 17
- Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Nietzsche once said “Your teachers can be nobody but your liberators. And that is the secret of all education; it does not provide artificial limbs, wax noses, or corrective lenses—on the contrary, what might provide such things is merely a parody of education. Education is rather liberation, the clearing away of all weeds, rubble, and vermin that might harm the delicate shoots, a radiance of light and warmth, the kind rustling fall of rain at night; it is imitation and adoration of nature where nature is maternal and mercifully minded; it is perfection of nature when it prevents nature’s fits of cruelty and mercilessness and converts them to good, when it throws a veil over nature’s step motherly disposition and sad incomprehension”.
It is important to locate conceptions of teacher professionalism in relation to changing historical, political and social contexts because multiple meanings have changed and developed over time and in contestation between rival stakeholder groups and their interests (Hilferty, 2008). The concept of professionalism is used in different senses and somewhat difficult to define. For example, in daily language, it is generally used to mean an activity for which one is paid as opposed to doing voluntarily. The term is also used to classify the status of occupation groups in terms of respectability (Kennedy, 2007). Sometimes, professionalism is generally considered as synonymous with “success” or refers to the expected behaviors of individuals in specific occupations (Tichenor ve Tichenor, 2005). This unit explains concepts related to profession and professionals.
After reading this unit you will be able to
- Define profession and professional
- Describe characteristics of profession and professional
- Explain assumptions about teaching
- Discuss characteristics of effective teaching
1. CONCEPT OF PROFESSION AND PROFESSIONALS
We note the heading is about the concept of profession and professional, so it is important to define profession and professional. It is also important to remember that there is no single agree upon definition in this regard. Different definitions highlight different aspects of the concept. You can note similarities and differences in definitions.
Let’s begin with profession:
A profession is a vocation requiring advanced education and Training (Garner, 2004). It may also be defined as a learned activity that involves formal training, but within a broad intellectual context (Bell, 1973). According to Boone (2001), professions are based on:
“Scientific and philosophical facts acquired through scholarly endear your. Individuals who enter a profession do so for reasons that distinguish them from other work or vocations. They understand that their work renders a unique public service with a scientific or philosophical basis and/or body of knowledge that requires an extended period of academic and hands-on preparation. Professions are also based on specialized skills necessary for the professional to perform in the public service.”
A number of characteristics of professions are identified in the excerpt.
- First, professions are based on philosophy acquired through advanced
- Second, professionals render unique public services which require extensive
- Third, professional work needs thorough preparation because of its unique
- Fourth, professions are based on specialized skill,
- Fifth, professional services should be rendered for the benefit of the
The Australian Council of Professions (2004), which defined a profession in the following terms:
“A profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and uphold themselves to, and are accepted by, the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognized body of learning derived from research, education and training at a high level, and who are prepared to exercise this
knowledge and these skills in the interest of others. It is inherent in the definition of a profession that a code of ethics governs the activities of each profession. Such codes require behavior and practice beyond the personal moral obligations of an individual. They define and demand high standards of behavior in respect to the services provided to the public and in dealing with professional colleagues. Further, these codes are enforced by the profession and are acknowledged and accepted by the community.”
This definition identifies a number of important characteristics of professions.
- First, that a profession must be Second, a profession must adhere to certain ethical standards which are accepted as binding on all members of that profession. These standards are prescribed in what is referred to as a code of ethics.
- Third, members of a profession have special knowledge and skills due to their wide and special training in a particular
- Fourth, professions must offer their services for the benefit of the entire public and not for their own personal
- Fifth, professionals are expected to have high standards of behavior at all times because of the sensitive nature of the services they provide to the
- Sixth, the codes of conduct which regulate the professionals are enforced against them and are acknowledged even by the society (Juman & Tom, 2001).
Further, Juma and Tom (2001) explained that when one elects to become a member of the bar, one becomes a member of the legal profession, and as a member of the legal profession, one voluntarily submits to the rules of professional conduct that govern the way in which members of the legal profession are expected to behave and conduct their business. This is a reminder to anyone who would like to join any profession as this rule cuts across all professions in the world.
Rules of professional ethics bind both the members of the profession and prospective members of the same. The rationale for this position is that even those who are not members of the profession but would like to join the profession are not expected to conduct themselves in a manner that is likely to bring the name of the profession into disrepute. However, this does not mean that the unqualified prospective members should deal with clients. It is an offence of severe consequences for an unqualified person to hold himself as a professional and thereby offer professional services where they are not so qualified. Professional
rules are strict because the standards that are expected of a professional are much higher than the standards expected of other people in other occupations not categorized as professions. This emanates from the nature of the relationship between a professional and the users of their services. It is worth noting that whereas other occupations create ordinary relationships such as that of a service provider and a customer, professions create special relationships of a fiduciary nature. That is why the consumers of legal services are not called customers but clients. Again, consumers of medical services are called patients.
Accordingly, the relationships that are created under such circumstances are advocate–client relationships, and doctor–patient relationships respectively.
Fiduciary relationships are sensitive and are based on trust. Such relationships are prone to abuse by the person with a higher bargaining power in the relationship – the professional, and should therefore be protected from such abuse. This is because professionals deal with very sensitive matters which affect the rights, liberties and lives of their clients. This sounds rather discouraging and daunting but as a matter of fact, such restrictions are for the benefit of the public and for effective delivery of the professional services which also benefits the professionals.
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROFESSION
There are a number of corollaries that distinguish a profession from other occupations. Below follows a discussion of each of these corollaries. The first distinguishing factor is the concept of restrictions in terms of entry requirements and operations of the profession. The second factor is the professional focus on the performance of the members of that profession. Third, professions exist to advance themselves, and fourth, professions exist in fiduciary relationship with clients.
Professions impose restrictions in two ways – in terms of entry requirements and in terms of operation of the profession (Bell, 1973).
a) Entry requirements
Professions impose anti–competitive rules and barriers to entry in order to regulate the number of people joining the profession. Accordingly, a person can only become a member of the profession after having been certified by some established body of the profession. Danniel Bell, in his book, The Coming of Post Industrial Society (1973), argues at page 374 that to be
within the profession means to be certified, formally or informally, by one’s peers or by some established body with the profession. Certification comes after either complying with licensing procedures or by passing an entry examination (Chris & Schon, 1974). It is argued that professions impose restrictions on entry in order to have few people joining the profession. The implication for this position is that controlling the number of people joining the profession helps to maintain professional standards as overcrowding is kept at a bay because “if too many people are let into a given profession, then, the public will suffer. (Friedman, 1985).”
It is argued that an overcrowded profession will force professionals to offer inadequate services due to unnecessary competition. In addition, entry restrictions ensure that only the qualified join the profession. This helps to maintain the professional standards as well as enhancing high quality service delivery (Juman & Tom, 2001).
b) Professional Operation
The profession usually controls the conduct of its members in a number of aspects. For instance, no member is allowed to advertise or solicit for clients. The argument for this position is that “professions must maintain dignity (Friedman, 1985), and that, advertising and price competition are not conducive for dignity.” Advertising of legal services and price competition are related because studies have shown that advertising results in lower prices to the consumer (same). When this occurs, the quality of the services provided is likely to diminish thereby having an adverse effect on the name of the profession as well as leading to price wars which are likely to be injurious to the consumers of the professional services. Again, professions prevent unnecessary competition among its members by ensuring that the number of people joining the profession is regulated by having strict entry requirements. The argument for regulating the conduct of professionals is that the standards of the profession is premised on the basis that if too many people are allowed into a profession, then their income will be lowered and the public will suffer (same). Competition is also regulated by having express professional rules that prohibit certain kinds of conduct and practices that are perceived as competition for clients and by setting the minimum amounts that professionals are supposed to charge for their services. Accordingly, it follows that undercutting and other agreements which are contrary to ethical standards and professional conduct are not allowed (the advocates Act). It is normally argued that professionals must be paid well in order for them to be professional. Regulation and paying the professionals well helps to avoid unnecessary competition and to prevent
professionals from engaging in anti-competitive behaviours that may in the end affect the quality of services delivered.
Regarding professional regulation and performance, a number of points are worth noting. First, professions offer peer review for the members of the profession. The aim is to evaluate the performance of their members and to instill the accepted code of behaviour in their members at all times and to ensure that the quality of services offered to the public is not compromised.
Second, professions focus on the duty to serve the good of the community as a whole and not just one’s own good or that of one’s clients. This implies the performance of the members of that profession is regulated to factor in this position. Consequently, professionals are supposed to conduct their affairs with decorum at all times and to avoid engaging or doing anything that may bring the name of the profession into disrespect.
Third, professionals are not allowed to engage in unauthorized practice. This does not merely mean that a person is not qualified to practice as a professional. Even where a person is qualified to practice as a professional, the rules of the profession will still consider him as
Unqualified / not authorized to practice as a professional where that person has failed to fulfill any of the requirements. For instance, in Kenya, only certified members of the bar are allowed to practice law. Certification in this regard means that it is an offence for a lawyer to engage in the practice of law where he does not have a current Practicing Certificate. The argument for this is that it is one thing to qualify as a lawyer and yet, another thing to qualify to practice law (The Advocates Act).
Fourth, professional evaluation is, in most cases, based on the standards of malpractice as opposed to negligence so that a professional will only be held liable where he conducts himself in a manner that is not befitting to that profession. However, in certain instances, a professional may be held liable for negligence (The Advocates Act) where the same is proved against him.
Fifth, professions are self-regulating so that it is other members of that profession who set professional rules and decide on whether a professional is in error. The essence is that a professional must be judged by an expert in that field and not a layperson. It is argued that the review by experts is an advantage to professionals as there are no swift disciplinary actions taken.
The starting point is that professionals do not exist for business purposes; they exist to serve the best interests of the clients and therefore they emphasize on quality. Again, when serving the clients, professionals must always have in mind and avoid engaging in practices that may inflict unnecessary harm to the public because the services the professionals offer aim at benefiting the public as a whole and not mere individuals who pay for those services. This explains why professionals, especially, lawyers have an obligation to always balance the interests of their clients against other competing interests such as the interests of the public and the court. In this regard, where there is a conflict between individual interest and public interest the public interest takes pre-eminence. Again, where there is a conflict between a lawyer’s obligation to the client and a lawyer’s obligation to the court, then the lawyer’s obligation to court will prevail. For this reason, it is argued that professionals should emphasize on the need to serve the public rather than individual professionals so that gaining a livelihood is purely incidental to service to the public. The reasoning is that professionals are more interested in public service rather than individual self-aggrandizement and this explains why courts have forced advocates to continue representing their clients even where the client has not paid the advocate.
Professions emphasize on the fiduciary nature of the relationship the professionals have with their clients. It is argued those professionals are fiduciaries of their clients. For this reason, they are expected to act as trustees for their clients in all circumstances. Accordingly, it behaves a professional to act in utmost good faith and due diligence when dealing with their clients and when handling their clients’ property. Professionals are prohibited from using their client’s information or money or property unfairly. Besides, professionals are prohibited from unreasonably overcharging their clients for their services (Juma & Tom, 2011).
Dear students, now you have got the concept of profession and characteristic of a profession, let’s see what professionalism is and how professionals behave: Professionalism comes with obligations/responsibilities which must at all times be discharged by the professionals for the benefit of the public at large. Members of a profession are bound to deliver a professional standard work. This means that the interests of the clients are paramount and their work is to be handled in a professional manner. It is argued that what drives a client into retaining a professional emanates from the nature of the professional work offered by the professional in question as well as the manner in which the professional provides the services.
The obligation to handle the client’s work in a professional manner carries with it a number of obligations. They include interalia,
- the obligation to work with reasonable care or due diligence,
- the obligation to maintain the client’s information,
- the obligation to
- act without negligence,
- the obligation to act to the satisfaction of the client
- the obligation not to engage in
Consequently, it behaves members of a profession to behave in all cases in the spirit of the rules of the profession in question, which are the guiding principles for the business of the profession, as they advice on what must or must not be done (Rotunda & Dzienkowski, 2007 as quoted in Juma & Tom) in particular circumstances.
The terms “profession” and “professor” have their etymological roots in the Latin for profess. To be a professional or a professor was to profess to be an expert in some skill or field of knowledge (Baggini, 2005). In 1975, Hoyle defined professionalism as ‘those strategies and rhetorics employed by members of an occupation in seeking to improve status, salary and conditions’ (cited in Evans, 2007). In his another work, Hoyle (2001) states that professionalism is related to the improvement in the quality of service rather than the enhancement of status. Boyt, Lusch and Naylor (2001) explains the concept as a multi-dimensional structure consisting of one’s attitudes and behaviors towards his/her job and it refers to the achievement of high level standards. If we synthesize the definitions up to now, it is possible to interpret professionalism as a multi dimensional structure including one’s work behaviors and attitudes to perform the highest standards and improve the service quality ((Nihan, 2010).
4. TEACHING AS PROFESSION
Now let us begin with the question of the nature and occupational status of teaching. What, roughly, is teaching? At the most general level of logical grammar, it seems reasonable enough to regard teaching as a kind of activity in which human beings engage.
Moreover, as already noted, education appears to be a rather larger and broader enterprise to which teaching may or may not contribute. But if teaching is an intentional activity, with what purpose do we engage in it? The answer, none the worse for obviousness, is that the purpose of teaching is to bring about learning; it
is a significant consequence of this, of course, that it is not possible to define teaching other than by reference to learning.
Further it may be argued that a conception of effective teaching as basically a matter of the acquisition of behavioural skills is the dominant political and professional educational paradigm of the present day (Bryan, 2004).All else apart, teaching does not seem to be the sort of technical notion which requires sophisticated scientific enquiry to understand (like ‘quark’ or ‘photon’). Indeed, it is not just that such terms as ‘teaching’ and ‘learning’ are learned at our mother’s knees, but that there is a real enough sense in which anyone, even quite small children, both can and do teach (Ronald & Dzienkowski, 2006).
The degree to which any kind of research-based know-how is actually necessary for effective teaching, then, is at least questionable, although there is no doubt something to be said for systematic attempts to improve our pre-theoretical pedagogical knowledge. Generally, however, it is arguable that hunch and intuition play as great a part in good teaching as technical rule following, and that good or inspired teaching may not be the most technically informed or systematic. Indeed, on extreme versions of this view, it could be suggested that a too technical approach to pedagogy leads only to mechanical, uninspired or lifeless teaching.
From this point of view, it is not uncommon for teaching to be regarded as an art more than a skill or a craft – at least in any technical or applied science senses of these terms – and there can be no doubt that there are significant thespian or dramatic dimensions to teaching which give it more the character of a performance art than a technical skill. In this respect, good teachers need, like artists, to bring qualities of expression, creativity and imaginative flair to their teaching – qualities which are not adequately captured by any idea of grasping causal generalities and observing invariable rules.
Thus, just as a gifted comedian is one who can precisely adjust delivery and subject matter to the mood of the audience, so a good teacher is one who is able to perceive what is pedagogically or interpersonally salient in a specific educational circumstance. This aspect of the teacher’s art brings us to a topic we shall need to revisit: that of the particularity of the craft skills of the teacher and the difficulty of generalizing or codifying the skills of a teacher in a way that would render them applicable across the wide diversity of circumstances in which teachers may find themselves. Indeed, some recent educational philosophers have finely honed this ‘particularistic’ case precisely for the purpose of resisting educational techniques – the view that teaching is a kind of science-based technology which would enable anyone to practice it, irrespective of personal characteristics or particular circumstances. Thus, on the most basic construal of teaching, it is
arguable that there are normative or evaluative constraints on teaching, which are less technical and aesthetic, more moral or ethical (Carr, 1999).
Profession and Vocation
We may begin by recognizing a broad distinction between ideas of vocation and profession, since it is arguable that modern ideas of teaching reflect a certain vacillation between professional and vocational conceptions. These ideas are not, to be sure, entirely distinct, and it is not unusual for an occupation to be referred to in much the same breath as vocation and profession. But although both concepts are proteanly resistant to precise formulation, there are nevertheless significant and illuminating tensions, as well as interesting differences of emphases, between them. First, then, one consequence of regarding a given occupation as a vocation rather than as a profession turns on the idea of significant continuity between occupational role and private values and concerns. At a near opposite extreme to the caring vocation conception of teaching, however, we find a very much more exalted ‘high church’ vocational view, one which seems motivated more by Comparison of teaching with the ministry or priesthood. On this view, probably deepest entrenched in the traditions of public, grant-maintained and grammar schools, teaching are regarded as a very high calling indeed.
The teacher is conceived as the representative or custodian of a specific set of civilized standards and values predicated on a traditionalist idea of education as the transmission of culture – of ‘the best that has been thought and said in the world’ (Danniel,1973) – from one generation to the next. This perspective inclines to conceive the teacher as someone who can in principle be looked up to as an exemplar of the very highest culturally enshrined standards and values and as someone who possesses a range of virtues more than a set of skills. Here, the contrast between vocational and professional views of teaching comes into sharp relief with respect to the ways in which teachers might attract criticism for failing to live up to the standards of their calling. For whereas professional conceptions might regard inadequacies of knowledge and skill as more of a cause for concern than purely personal or private shortcomings – assuming, of course, that such personal shortcomings did not interfere with pedagogical efficiency – shortcomings of personal character and value are liable to be weighted far more heavily on ‘high church’ vocational views. For example, whereas on the professional view it might be considered irrelevant to effective educational practice that a teacher was in private life an adulterer or a card-sharp, just so long as they possessed all the professionally approved teaching competences, the personal probity of a fumbling teacher might well be rated on the vocational view above the pedagogical efficiency of a lascivious bilker (which is not to deny, of
course, that either conception would probably seek a happy mixture of both kinds of quality).
Depending on the educational context, it is possible to say that definitions of teacher professionalism focus on teachers’ professional qualifications such as “being good at his/her job”, “fulfilling the highest standards”, “and “achieving excellence” (Nihan, 2010). For example, Baggini (2005) claims that for today’s teachers, professionalism is interpreted in terms of what extent the teacher’s outcome the difficulties and what extent they are able to use their skills and experiences related to their profession. On the most basic level, ‘professional teacher refers to the status of a person who is paid to teach’; on a higher level, it can refer to teachers who represent the best in the profession and set the highest standards (Tichenor and Tichenor, 2005). Phelps believes professionalism is enhanced when teachers use excellence as a critical criterion for judging their actions and attitudes. In other words, professionalism is measured by the best and the highest standards (Phelps, 2006) as quoted by Nihan.
However, although one need not doubt that most contemporary career teachers would readily identify and sympathies with at least some of these vocational priorities, it is arguable that there has over the years been a marked shift towards conceptions of education and teaching of more professional than vocational temper: conceptions, that is, which are more inclined to observe a fairly clear distinction between the private or personal, and the public or professional, and to define the occupation of teaching in terms of prescribed skills and rules of conduct. There are, moreover, some fairly weighty reasons for this. It may be helpful to examine different conceptions of educational professionalism, via comparisons of teaching with other familiar occupations and services. In this connection, we may first observe an important distinction of modern treatments of this question between restricted and extended professionalism.
Although the distinction is usually observed in the interests of arguing in favour of the latter over the former, both notions of professionalism appear to conceive teaching as at heart a matter of the acquisition and practice of a range of skills of pedagogy and management in a contractually defined framework of professional responsibilities and obligations. The restricted version, however, conceives the skills and contractual obligations of the teacher somewhat more along the lines of trade expertise than professional knowledge – the expertise, one might say, of plumbers and electricians rather than doctors or lawyers. For the most part, restricted teacher expertise is taken to follow from familiarity with national or local policy guidelines and mastery, probably more in the field than the academy,
of technical skills. The responsibilities of restricted professionals are therefore almost exclusively defined in terms of technical competence, and more or less direct accountability or conformity to the requirements of external authority. To this extent, although we may still speak of restricted teachers as more or less professional according to their conformity or otherwise to such requirements, restricted professionalism scores poorly on that criterion of occupational autonomy which is often held to be a key ingredient of the professional lives of doctors and lawyers.
An ‘extended’ view of educational professionalism, on the other hand, aspires precisely to regard teaching alongside such traditional professions as medicine and law. On this perspective, teachers are to be regarded, along with general practitioners or legal advisors, as possessors of a socially valued specialist expertise which requires lengthy education and training – precisely because teaching requires educated capacities for independent judgment, rather than mere training in obedience to authority. Thus, just as we might well regard it as unacceptable for politicians or the general public – anyone other than those properly educated in complex issues of medicine and health care – to direct the decisions of doctors on important matters of medical policy and practice, so it could be considered inappropriate for politicians or employers to dictate to teachers what is or is not worthy of inclusion in the school curriculum, or what kinds of knowledge and skill are crucial for the professional conduct of teaching. On this view, the teacher should be regarded as someone who, by virtue of a sophisticated professional education, is well qualified to exercise a higher understanding of the nature of learning and pedagogy in meeting the particular and local needs of individual children in particular educational circumstances.
Carr (1999) as quoted by Nihan refers to five commonly cited professionalism criteria focused in the literature. They are (a) professions provide an important public service, (b) they involve a theoretically as well as practically grounded expertise, (c) they have a distinct ethical dimension which calls for expression in a code of practice, (d) they require organization and regulation for purposes of recruitment and discipline and, (e) professional practitioners require a high degree of individual autonomy- independence of judgment- for effective practice. Barber (1965) explains four main characteristics of professional behavior as follows: (a) a high degree of generalized and systematic knowledge, (b) orientation primarily to community interest rather than to individual self interest, (c) a high degree of self-control of behavior through codes of ethics in the process of work socialization, (d) a system of rewards seen primarily as symbols of work achievement.
In scholarly debates, two versions of teacher professionalism are portrayed as “old professionalism” and “new professionalism”. These two approaches emerged upon the changing social, political and cultural circumstances. However these two approaches are not completely opposite to each other. Sachs (2003) who developed this classification differentiates these two approaches as those: Old professionalism is concerned with; (a) exclusive membership, (b) conservative practices, (c) self-interest, (d) external regulation, (e) slow to change and, (f) reactive.
The characteristics of new (transformative) professionalism are; (a) inclusive membership, (b) public ethical code of practice, (c) collaborative and collegial,
(d) activist orientation, (e) flexible and progressive, (f) responsive to change, (g) self-regulating, (h) policy-active, (i) enquiry-oriented, (j) knowledge building. New understanding of teacher professionalism provides professional space and conditions for the teachers to take responsibility in their practices. Sachs calls this transition from old to new understanding as “transformative professionalism” (Sachs, 2003) as quoted in Nihan.
5. ASSUMPTION ABOUT TEACHING
Carr (1999) describes that any work on ethics and teaching written for a series on professional ethics would appear committed to certain key claims or assumptions. Basically, these are:
- That teaching is a professional activity
- That any professional enterprise is deeply implicated in ethical concerns and considerations; and
- (Therefore) that teaching is also an enterprise which is deeply and significantly implicated in ethical concerns and considerations.
6. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING
Carr (1999) explains that Good teaching is not just teaching which is causally effective or personally attractive, it is teaching which seeks at best to promote the moral, psychological and physical well-being of learners, and at least to avoid their psychological, physical and moral damage.
There is thus a broad and crude distinction to be drawn here between teaching in the more limited contexts o training, and teaching in the broader context of education – and, traditionally, the former has been deemed subject to weaker moral constraints than the latter.
It is also a matter of concern that although what we have so far said about the inherent moral or ethical character of good teaching goes some way towards showing how all teaching must be bound by professional ties of accountability and responsibility to employers, parents, pupils, and so on, any deeper association of teaching with education must serve to complicate our view of the ethics of pedagogy yet further – precisely in so far as there seems to be widespread disagreement about what exactly education is. Moreover, it may be useful here to pursue an interesting and relatively uncharted insight into the extraordinary extent of this disagreement via the brief examination of different comparisons which appear to have been made, both explicitly and implicitly, between teachers and other occupational groups (Carr, 1999).
Autonomy is one of the main focuses featured in professionalism characteristics. For syth and Danisiewicz (1985) contributes professionalism debates stating that, the tasks of professionals are important, exclusive and complex, so professionals should have the autonomous decision making powers free from external pressures. Another author states that one of the major objectives and attractions of movement to professionalize teachers is to provide professional autonomy (Bull, 1998). Autonomy is a component of teacher professionalism and it provides both an individual decision making area to achieve one’s aims and an effect on controlling the situations related to his/her work. Autonomy not only functions as a buffer against the pressures on teachers but also means of strengthening them in terms of personal and professional sense (Friedman, 1999). Consequently, it has an opposite function of organizational control (1978; Johnson, 1992; Bull, 1988).
It appears that the focuses on defining and conceptualizing the nature of professionalism are, “the respectability status of the occupation (e.g. Hoyle, 1975; Kennedy, 2007)”, improvement of service quality (e.g. Hoyle, 2001), “achievement of the highest standards (e.g. Boyt, Lusch ve Naylor (2001)”, “self- control (e.g. Barber, 1965)” and “professional autonomy (e.g.David, 2000; Leiter, 1978; Johnson, 1992; Bull, 1988)” as quoted by Nihan.
We can also characterize aspects of good teaching from the following excerpts: Maxine Greene: ‘A teacher in search of his/her own freedom may be the only kind of teacher who can arouse young person’s to go in search of their own’ (Greene, 1988, p. 14).
According to William Arrowsmith, “And this freedom, this ripeness of self, is the indispensable element in all true teaching, simply because it speaks so compellingly to those who hunger to be free—that is presumably to all” (Arrowsmith, 1971, p. 12).
The teacher’s achieved self-cultivation is the catalyst in the educative process. But, as these witnesses also testify, educators cannot simply rest on their laurels, producing accomplishments from the past like dusty old trophies. It is the teacher’s present and active search for freedom, Greene says, that communicates to students what freedom might mean. The teacher must be ‘busy being born’ if she is to give students a sense of what living is about. Past insights and growth quickly spoil if self-cultivation is not ongoing.
For, as Maxine Greene nicely puts it:
The problems are inescapable, wherever the teacher is assigned to teach, because he is asked to function as a self-conscious, autonomous, and authentic person in a public space where the pressures multiply. Unlike an artist or a scholar or a research scientist, he cannot withdraw to studio, study, or laboratory and still remain a practitioner. He is involved with students, colleagues, school board members, and parents whenever and wherever he pursues his fundamental project; he cannot work alone. (Greene, 1973, p. 290).
7. SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- Define What are the characteristic of a profession?
- Who are called professionals? Why are they called professionals?
- Discuss teaching as
- Which teaching is called effective teaching? Explain
Australian Council of Professions. ( 2004). About Professions Australia: Definition of a Profession. http://www.professions.com.au/define profession.html
Baggini, J. (2005). What professionalism means for teachers today? Education Review, 18 (2), 5-11.
Barber, B. (1965). Some Problems in the Sociology of the Professions. In K. S. Lynn (Edt.),The Professions in America (pp. 669-688). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Boone, T. (2001). Constructing a Profession’ Professionalization of Exercise Physiology online: An international electronic journal for exercise physiologists, 4(5) May, ISSN 1099-
Boyt, T., Lusch, R. F. ve Naylor, G. (2001). The role of professionalism in determining job satisfaction in professional services: a study of marketing researchers, Journal of Service Research, 3(4), 321-330.
Bryan A Garner. (2004). Black’s Law Dictionary.
Bull, B. L. (1988). The Nature of Teacher Autonomy. Revision of Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research. ERIC.
Chris and Donald A. Schon. (1974). Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. Jossey – Bass Pub.
David, C. (2000). Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching. London: Taylor&Francis Books Ltd.
Englund, T. (1996). Are Professional Teachers a Good Thing. In I. F. Goodson, & A.Hargreaves (Eds.), Teachers’ Professional Lives, London: Falmer Press.
Etzioni, A. (Ed.) (1969) The Semi-Professions and their Organization. New York: Free Press
Evans, L. (2007). Professionalism, professionality and development. British Journal of
Educational Studies, 56,(1), 20-38.
Forsyth, P. B., Danisiewicz, T. J. (1985). Toward a theory of professionalization.
Work and Occupations, 121 (1), 59-76.
Friedman, I. A. (1999). Teacher-perceived work autonomy: the concept and its measurement. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57-76.
Goodson, I, F. (2000). The principled professional. Prospects, 20 (2), 181-188. Hargreaves, A. (2000). Four ages of professionalism and professional learning.
Teachers and Teaching: History and Practice, 6 (2),151-182.
Hilferty, F. (2008). Teacher professionalism and cultural diversity: skills, knowledge and values for a changing Australia. The Australian Educational Researcher, 35 (3), 53-70.
Hoyle, E. (2001). Teaching: prestige, status and esteem. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 29 (2) 139-159.
Johnson, D. N.(1992). Principal vision, environmental robustness and the teacher sense of autonomy at the high school. ERIC.
Kennedy, A. (2007). Continuing professional development (CPD) policy and the discourse of teacher professionalism in Scotland. Research Papers in Education, 22 (1) 95-111.
Krishnaveni, R. ve Anitha, J. (2007). Educators’ professional characteristics.
Quality Assurance in Education, 15 (2), 149-161.
Leiter, J. (1978). The effects of school control structures on teacher perceptions of autonomy. ERIC.
Nihan Demirkasımog˘lu. (2010). Defining “Teacher Professionalism” from different perspectives. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 2047– 2051.
Ojienda, Tom & Katarina Juma. (2011). Professional Ethics : A Kenyan Perspective. Law Africa Publishing Ltd . ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral. proquest.com/
Ozga, J. (1995). Deskilling a profession: professionalism, deprofessionalism and the new managerialism. In H. Busher, & R. Saran (Eds.) Managing Teachers as Professionals in Schools. London: Kogan Page.
Ozga, J., & Lawn, M. (1981). Teachers, professionalism and class: a study of organized teachers. Hampshire:The Falmer Press.
Phelps, P. H. (2006). The Three Rs of Professionalism. Kappa Delta Pi Record. Ronald D. Rotunda & John S. Dzienkowski. (2006). Professional Responsibility;
A Student Guide.
Sachs, J. (2003). The activist teaching profession. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Samuels, J. J. (1970). Impingements on teacher autonomy. Urban Education, 5, 152-171.
Stevenson, H., Carter, B.& Passy, R. (2007). ‘New professionalism,’ workforce remodeling and the restructuring of teachers’ work. International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, 11 (18).
Tichenor, M. S., Tichenor, J. M. (2005). Understanding teachers’ perspectives on professionalism. ERIC.
Webb, R., Vulliamy, G., Sarja, A., Kimonen, E. and Nevalainen, R. (2004) A comparative analysis of primary teacher professionalism in England and Finland, Comparative Education, 40 (1): 83–107.
Whitty, G. (2000). Teacher professionalism in new times. Journal of In-Service Education, 26 (2), 281-295.
PROFESSIONALIZATION PROCESS AND PROFESSIONALISM
Written by: Dr. Sami Ullah Reviewed By:Dr. Fazal Ur Rahman
Title Page No
- Concept and Process of Professionalization………………………………………. 24
- Professions, Professionalism and Professional Ethics…………………………. 24
- Professionalization of Teaching Profession……………………………………….. 26
- Professional Responsibility……………………………………………………………… 27
- Characteristics of Professionalism……………………………………………………. 29
- Importance of Values in Teaching……………………………………………………. 30
- Three Tips for Educating Values While Teaching………………………………. 31
- Self Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………… 31
Bibliography Q.1 Write down significance and procedure of writing reflective Journal.
Like all other professionals, teachers have to show professionalism, that is, they have to attain the highest caliber of teaching quality and standards. Though, for Pakistani educators, it might be difficult to attain but it is not impossible to come up to these standards or benchmarks. They might be acquired with little effort and proper training.
For a long time, sociological analyses have differentiated professionalism as a special means of organizing work and controlling workers in the hierarchical, bureaucratic and managerial controls of industrial and commercial organizations. Presently, professionalization is adopted by all professionals (such as doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers) working in the organizations. Teachers and educators are expected to demonstrate professionalism in international and national institutions and organizations. Academia and the faculty is expected the similar professional attitude. The unit begins with a section on defining the field of professional work, Professionalization Process and Professionalism. The unit continues with relevant details of the above mentioned concepts.
After studying this unit, you will be able to
- Define professionalism and
- Know professional ethics of
- Be familiar with importance of values in
1. CONCEPT AND PROCESS OF ROFESSIONALIZATION
Professionalization is a social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true “profession of the highest integrity and competence.” This process tends to result in ascertaining suitable qualifications, one or more professional associations to suggest best practices and to direct the manner of members of that very profession, and some extent of demarcation of the qualified from unqualified amateurs (that is, professional certification). It is also to be expected for crafting “occupational closure”, closing the occupation to entry from outsiders, amateurs and the unqualified.
This process of professionalization generates “a hierarchical split between the knowledge-authorities in profession and a deferential group of people.” This demarcation is often termed “closure”, as it means that the said profession is closed to entry from amateurs and the under-qualified. The origin of the process is reported to have been with companies during Middle Ages, when people fought for elite privileges to practice their trade as journeymen, and to appoint unpaid trainees. It had, as well, been called credentials, a dependence on strict qualification or certification to decide whether one is permitted to take on a task or to talk as a specialist. It had also been defined as “extreme reliance on testimonials, especially academic degrees, in decision making about hiring or promotion policy.” From the previous discussion, it can be concluded that the social process whereby people come to engage in an activity for pay or as a means of livelihood is termed as Professionalization, after fulfillment of the criteria decided by the institution/organization. It needs some pre-requisites varying from field to field and occupation to occupation. Similarly, in Pakistan, for entry into teaching at various levels, requirements are different. For instance, being a faculty member at any varsity, a research based qualification is compulsory now days; and for being a school educator graduation along with B.Ed is mandatory.
2. PROFESSIONS, PROFESSIONALISM AND ROFESSIONAL ETHICS
Every profession demands some specialized skills; in this connection, teaching profession demand specialized skills related to pedagogy of teaching. The
methods of instruction that climax a student’s interest and make the learning meaningful and memorable are wanted too. Dispositions are also the aspect of teacher preparation that addresses what is sighted as professionalism, i.e. Teacher preparation programs across the country emphasize three vital elements in their programs. Those elements are preparing aspiring educators to possess and demonstrate the knowledge, skills and dispositions. Without a universally accepted definition that is accompanied by the characteristics or qualities valued as indicators of a professional, labeling or stating that our teacher candidates have attained this status is questionable. Within many teacher preparation programs, it is assumed or taken for granted that pre-service teachers will simply become professionals as a result of completing the teacher education program. Or, perhaps teacher educators believe that professional dispositions will be automatically acquired through field experiences. Comprehensively speaking, professionalism and how it is to be acquired should be a focus of every teacher education program.
Professional ethics include a personal, managerial, and community standards of conduct expected by professionals in an institution/organization. The term professionalism originally was functional to undertaking of a religious order. By the end of year 1675, this term was seen to be secular in its application and was applied to the three learned professions: Divinity, Law, and Medicine. The term professionalism was also used for the military profession around this same time.
Any professional and those who work in recognized professions implement expert knowledge and skills. How this knowledge should be applied when providing the service to public, can be well thought-out a moral issue and is termed professional ethics. Experts are able to make decisions, apply the skills, and reach informed conclusion in situations that general public cannot because they are not familiar to necessary knowledge of the particular field, and acquaintance with skills. One of the most primitive examples of professional ethics is Hippocratic Oath with which medical practitioners still adhere up to the day.
Majority of the institutions define ethical approach in terms of discrete components. In general, they are:
- Communication Skills
- Interactive Skills
- Respect for others
- Obedience to law
- Sense of responsibility
- Social Skills
Suppose, you graduated in a teacher education program. You established your own educational institution. You appointed teacher educators and other supporting staff. Being an entrepreneur/owner/principal of a school, after your graduation, what professional ethics will you be expecting of your colleagues in the school. Make a checklist in the light of the above. Can you please add something new in the list cited above? Note it at the bottom of the checklist. Is there any innovative thing from your side? You may correspond to: firstname.lastname@example.org
3. PROFESSIONALIZATION OF TEACHING PROFESSION
Professionalism and how it is to be acquired should be a focus of every teacher education program, as already stated. Despite noteworthy part professionalism plays, there is a lack of it in our teacher educators’ attitude. Teacher preparation programs across Pakistan highlight three vital elements in the said programs. These elements are to prepare aspiring educators to have and show knowledge, skills and attitude desirable to be an effective teacher. Content is surely essential to provide pupils with exact information and capacity to apply in daily life situations later. Skills, in this listing, refer to the pedagogy of teaching. The methods of instruction that peak a student’s interest and make the learning
meaningful and memorable. Dispositions are commonly the aspect of teacher preparation that addresses what is viewed as professionalism. There is a list of qualities and standards ahead as quoted by Creasy in his article entitled Defining Professionalism in Teacher Education Programs:
4. PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY
- Reflecting on Teaching
- articulates an understanding of lessons’ goals and objectives
- states the strengths and weaknesses of lessons based on data
- analyzes students’ participation in terms of content comprehension
- encourages participation from diverse student populations
- writes reflections about lessons and refines subsequent instruction
- accepts feedback and implements recommendations
- develops written plans for improvement
2. Maintaining Accurate Records
- records and updates the results of students’ assignments
- collects information about students’ progress in a systematic manner
- analyzes performance of students with diverse learning styles
- maintains records of non-instructional activities
3. Communicating with Families
- maintains confidentiality in all situations/settings
- communicates positive information and concerns to parents/caregivers
- engages family members/caregivers in the instructional program
4. Working in and Contributing to the School and District
- establishes rapport with members of diverse populations
- seeks assistance from other professionals concerning teaching and learning
- participates in school-related activities
5. Growing and Developing Professionally
- participates in student teaching seminars and other required university events
- attends all required school and district professional development programs
- shows evidence of participation in at least one professional organization
- integrates information from professional publications into daily instruction
- articulates a philosophy of education that includes critical self- reflection
6. Showing Professionalism
- attends promptly and regularly
- dresses professionally in the school setting
- practices personal hygiene and neat grooming
- completes schedules, assignments, and other paperwork on time
- completes work in the manner prescribed by the university and/or the school district
- complies with school and class rules
- uses relevant codes of ethics for the teaching profession
- challenges stereotypical attitudes
- ensures that all students receive an equitable opportunity to succeed
While these indicators/descriptors do not provide a commonly accepted definition of professionalism in teacher education programs, it is also increasingly clear that SPAs will not come to a consensus in their defining of professionalism in teacher preparation. With this realization, it become vital for the faculty of teacher education training programs to agree upon the dispositions/characteristics on which the teacher candidates will be evaluated. From these indicators, teacher candidates will formulate their own definition in striving to meet the standards set for them. Creasy (2015) highlighted the mentioned features of professionalism as stated ahead:
5. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROFESSIONALISM
A professional teacher is neat in look. It should be made sure to meet requirements of your school’s dress code, and special attention should be paid to appearance when meeting individuals at school.
One’s behavior should be polite and well-spoken whether one is interacting with students, superior or co-worker. One needs to keep calm, even in tense situation.
As the professional educator, one will be counted on to find a way to get a job done. Responding to the persons promptly and fulfilling promise on time is also imperative, as this shows reliability.
Professional teachers endeavor to develop into experts of their field, which sets them apart from the rest of the pack. This means continuing education by taking new course, attending seminar and to attain any related academic or professional degree/qualification.
Teachers must adhere to a firm code of ethics. If there is a written code, it should be displayed all the times.
6. Maintaining Your Poise
A professional teacher must continue his good attitude even when facing a hard situation. For instance, if a colleague/teacher at your school treats you in a confrontational manner, you should not route to the same category of deeds.
7. Phone Etiquette
The phone etiquette is, as well, a key element of professionalism. It means to introduce yourself by full name, institution and designation when you dial a phone call. Be sure not to dominate the conversation and listen intently to the other individual.
8. Written Correspondence
In written communication, keep your correspondence brief and precise. Your manner to write should be gracious, polite, civil, courteous, respectful
and formal without being “oppressive.” This should also be applied to an e- mail correspondence.
9. Organizational Skills
A professional teacher can swiftly and easily locate what is wanted. Your workplace should be tidy and ordered, and your materials should contain only what is needed for your presentation.
Professional educators are accountable for their actions at all the times. If there is a mistake, it must be admitted and try to fix it if probable. Don’t attempt to put blame on a coworker. If your school made a mistake, take responsibility and work to resolve the issue.
11. Subject and Pedagogical Knowledge
No doubt, there has been a renewed recognition of the importance of teachers’ subject matter knowledge for teaching effectively and professionally.
6. IMPORTANCE OF VALUES IN TEACHING
“Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make man a cleverer devil.” – (CS Lewis)
One of major observations of educators and parents nowadays is the turn down of good etiquette or values among pupils. The fashion they converse, they act, deal with elders or even their gestures reveal a modern lifestyle which is far dissimilar from behavior of earlier pupils. Many problems in this regard arise in educational institutions/home. This complaint is being voiced by both the teachers and the parents presently.
To solve the issue, elders require to work jointly for a positive change of kids’ behavior. We are expected to act like a model for them in connection with giving and having respect, being honest, for patriotism, for Love of Almighty Allah, for Love to Pakistan, hard work, being kind to others and in other virtues. We ought to be vigilant in all the deeds and sayings if we wish them to develop as conscientious citizens. In home and at school, we should continue examining their attitudes and their talk as well. Educators are also required to teach values and
integrate manners in all the subjects if we desire them to live a better living. Social and electronic media might be effective in this regard.
7. THREE TIPS FOR EDUCATING VALUES WHILE TEACHING
It’s obvious that teacher has a vital role to impart the values to learners. To cope with values related issues, educators should teach tolerance, peace and a lesson of being united and humane in a culture. 3 tips are ahead for AIOU graduates for their help and support in their prospective life:
1. Guide by example
If you wish your pupils to show harmony, be helpful and sympathetic. If you wish your pupils to respect people of diversity, you have to value diversity as well. It’s teacher’s duty to guide by creating an exemplary role to the kids.
2. Absorb hardship
Doing so will allow learners to be familiar with examining different viewpoints, that is very important to develop a greater sense of maturity.
3. External resources use
External resources offer a great alternative to the above in allowing students to explore situations that might otherwise be impossible in the context of a class. These resources may include films, documentaries, news, or numerous other study resources.
8. SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- Differentiate professionalism and process of
- Describe the aspects of your own personality, which you feel, are present in your nature; and how you will improve the personality of your good self?
- Observe any of your colleagues and as per checklist composed by you already mentioned in student’s activity, please compare his personality with
- How will you convey values while teaching at your school?
Brehm, B., Breen, P., Brown, B., Long, L., Smith, R., Wall, A., & Warren, N.S. (2006). Instructional design and assessment. An interdisciplinary approach to introducing professionalism. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(4), 1-5.
Brown, D., & Ferrill, M.J. (2009). The taxonomy of professionalism: Reframing the academic pursuit of professional development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 83(4), 1-10.
Creasy, K. (2015) Defining Professionalism in Teacher Education Programs; Journal of Education & Social Policy Vol. 2, No. 2; June 2015, 23
Danielson, Charlotte (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation. [On-line] Available: www.teachscape.com
Grady, M.P., Helbling, K.C., & Lubeck, D.R. (2008). Teacher professionalism since A Nation at Risk. Phi Delta
Herta A. Murphy .(2004). COMMUNICATION SKILLS. NEW YORK
Kramer, P. A. (2003). The ABC’s of professionalism. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 40, 22-25. Retrieved from Eric database. (EJ787753)
Pratte, R., & Rury, J.L. (1991).Teachers, professionalism, and craft. Teachers College Record, 93 (1), 59-72. http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 255, Date Accessed: 5/9/2017
Sayyed Saadat Ali Shah .(2000). EXPLORING THE WORLD OF ENGLISH, ILMI: LAHORE Slippery Rock University Student Teaching Handbook (2015). [On-line] Available: http://www.sru.edu/academics/colleges/education/Documents/20142015
PROFESSIONALISM IN TEACHING: THEORY TO PRACTICE
Written By: Dr. Zafar Iqbal Reviewed By: Dr. Fazal Ur Rahman
Sr. Title Page No
- Code of Professional Conduct and Values……………………………………….. 36
- Purpose of the Code………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
- Structure of the Code………………………………………………………………………………… 36
- Professional Standards of Teaching profession……………………………………………… 37
- Commitment to professional Renewal………………………………………………. 40
- Teaching as Vocation…………………………………………………………………………………. 40
- Gardner’s Conceptualization of Self-Renewal………………………………………………. 41
- Exemplary Teacher: Teacher Renewal………………………………………………………….. 44
- Professional Dispositions………………………………………………………………… 45
- Importance of Dispositions…………………………………………………………………………. 45
- Need of Professional Dispositions……………………………………………………………….. 46
- Levels of Professional Dispositions……………………………………………………………… 46
- Ways Dispositions May be Assessed……………………………………………………………. 47
- Dispositions of Effective Teachers………………………………………………………………. 47
- Islamic Principles of Professionalism………………………………………………… 49
- Prophets and Excellence…………………………………………………………………………….. 50
- Professionalism in Islam……………………………………………………………………………… 51
- Problems Faced by Beginning Teachers……………………………………………. 53
- Activities………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
- Self-Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………… 58
- Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
A profession should have laid down morals, standards and values which ensure control of entry into the occupation. The code should guide the behavior of individuals. This code include traditions, customs and standards of practice identified as good enough for the profession which practitioners are expected to rigidly adhere to. Teachers’ professionalism is interpreted in terms of what extent the teachers overcome the problems and what extent they can use their skills and experiences related to their occupation/profession in practice. Teaching profession draws on theoretical understanding and knowledge to adapt teaching practices and methods to pupil need. The need to develop and attain several standards and benchmarking criteria for all professions has increased in competitive work conditions of today. The standards or benchmark create a professional environment of “best practice” procedures enabling organizations to create systems, policies and procedures deliberately; they also assure high operational quality.
This phenomenon makes a present issue for enhancing the occupation standards and capabilities of educators to agree to the present-day improvements like other occupation groups in different organizations. New trend and need of profession of teaching gives proficient space and conditions to the educators to assume liability in their practices. The recent many researches in education show that instructor professional skill is related with enhancing the quality and measures of educators’ works and their open mindedness. Different approaches are essential in educators’ professionalism that implies meeting certain norms and standards in education and related to improve the quality of overall teaching practices.
After studying the unit you will be able to
- Describe the code of professional conduct and values particularly in the field of
- Explain the professional dispositions for teachers for effective teaching
- Understand the Islamic principles of professionalism
- Identify the problems faced by beginner teachers
1. CODE OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND VALUES
Professional Code for Teachers repeats and makes explicit the values and standards that have long been experienced by the teachers through their active participation in the field of education.
Purpose of the Code
The Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers should be applied to all teachers. Its purpose is threefold:
- It fills in as a directing compass as teachers look to control a moral and conscious course through their career in instructing and to maintain the respect and pride of the profession of
- It might be utilized by the teaching group and the more extensive open to inform their comprehension and desires of the teaching
- It has a vital legitimate standup and will be utilized by the Council as a source of perspective point in practicing its investigative and under the disciplinary
Part 5 of the Teaching Council Act, 2001, dealing with fitness to teach. Professional misconduct by a registered teacher is defined in the following terms: “(a) participating in lead which is in opposition to a code of professional conduct settled by the Council under section 7(2)(b); (b) taking part in any misbehaving or improper conduct in his or her professional limit or generally by reason of which he or she is unfit to teaching.” It is imagined that the Council will exercise its powers in this regard when the essential lawful impact is given to Part 5 of the Teaching Council Act. In regard of every individual complaint against an registered teacher, the Council, as indicated by its procedures, will consider whether the complaint is sums to a genuine missing the mark with respect to the teacher, of the standards of teaching, information, aptitude, skill and conduct that could sensibly be normal. Existing broadly concurred strategies for managing troubles and protests at school level will keep on operating. The Council trusts that, much of the time, these will offer the best means for settling issues as they emerge in the everyday operation of the education system.
Structure of the Code
While considering the three purposes set out, the Code starts by setting out the moral foundation of the teaching profession. This is embodied in the values of Respect, Care, Trust and Integrity that are reflected all through the Code. All these important values are supported by the teacher in the act of his/her teaching profession. The Code at that point sets out the measures which are fundamental to the act of teaching and expected of registered teachers. The standards distinguish
educators’ professional responsibilities and are defined the assertions under six separate headings: integrity and conduct; righteousness; professional development; collegiality and teamwork. The standards show the unpredictability and different variety of teaching and serve to professional judgment and practice.
Professional Standards of Teaching Profession
On behalf of teaching profession, the Teaching Council sets out the following standards that apply to all teachers regardless of their position (Palmer, 1998).
1. Professional Values and Relationships
The Teachers should:
- Be minding, reasonable and focused on the best advantages of the students/pupil depended to their care, and look for their development, motivation and praise to their achievements.
- Regard and acknowledge the uniqueness, distinction and particular needs of the pupils/students and improve their all-around
- Be focused on fairness and consideration and to regarding and obliging diversity including those distinctions emerging from sex, civil status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race, ethnicity, member of traveler society and financial status, and any further grounds as might be referenced in quality related legislations later
- Seek to create positive relationship with pupil/students, partners, guardians, school administration and others in the school group, that are considered by professional honesty and judgment
- Work to build up and keep up a culture of shared trust and regard in their
2. Professional Integrity
The Teachers should:
- Act with trustworthiness and uprightness in all aspects of their work
- Respect the privacy of others and the secrecy of gained information over the span of professional practice, unless a legal basic requires exposure or there is a legitimate concern for the improvement of a person
- Represent themselves as role model, their professional status, capabilities and experience genuinely
- Use their name as set out in the Register of Teachers, over the span of their expert obligations.
- Avoid creating issues and problems between their professional work and private interests which could sensibly be considered to affect adversely on students.
3. Professional Conduct
The Teachers should:
- Uphold the respect, reputation and requirements of a profession
- Take every single sensible step in connection to the care of students under their watch, to guarantee their security and welfare
- Work under the premises of rules and regulation
- Comply with common national and school strategies, methods and rules which intend to advance students’ training and welfare and their
- Report, where fitting, occurrences or matters which effect on students welfare
- Communicate successfully with students/pupils, fellow colleagues, guardians, school administration and others in the school group in a way that is well mannered, supportive, and in light of trust and regard
- Ensure that any correspondence with students/pupils, partners, guardians, school administration and others is fitting, including correspondence by means of electronic media, for example, email, messaging and social networking
- Ensure that they don’t purposely get to, download or generally possess while occupied with school exercises, improper materials/pictures in electronic or other format.
- Ensure that they don’t intentionally get to, download or generally possess, illicit materials/pictures in electronic or other configuration
- Ensure that they don’t practice while affected by any substance which weakens their performance to teach.
4. Professional Practice
The Teachers should:
- Maintain proper requirements of practice in connection to students/pupils learning, proper planning, observing, evaluating, reporting and giving
- Apply their insight and involvement in encouraging students/pupils all around
- Plan and convey clear, difficult and achievable desires for students/
- create a situation where students/pupils can play role as active agents in the learning procedure and create deep rooted learning abilities
- Develop educating, learning and assessment procedures that help separated learning in a way that regards the dignity of all the students/pupils.
- Inform their professional judgment and practice by connecting with, and pondering on students/pupils improvement, learning theories, teaching method, educational programs, moral practice, teaching strategy and legislation.
- In a setting of shared regard, be open and receptive to valuable input with respect to their practice and look for proper help, encouragement and
- Act to the greatest advantage of students/pupils.
5. Professional Development
The Teachers should:
- take moral obligation regarding managing and enhancing the nature of their professional practice by: currently keeping up their professionally learning and comprehension to ensure it is reflecting and basically assessing their professional practice, in light of their professional knowledge base provide chances for lifelong professional
6. Professional Collegiality and Collaboration
The Teachers should:
- Work with fellow colleagues and student teachers in light of a legitimate concern for sharing, creating and supporting great practice and keeping up the most astounding nature of educational activities and experiences for students/pupils.
- Work in a cooperative way with students/pupils, guardians/ gatekeepers, school administration, different individuals from staff, relevant professionals and the more extensive school group, as fitting, in looking to successfully address the issues of students/pupils.
- Cooperate with the Inspectorate of the Department of Education and Skills and other statutory and open non-statutory educational and appropriate support services.
- Engage with the planning, execution and assessment of educational programs at classroom and school level.
2. COMMITMENT TO PROFESSIONAL RENEWAL
The educating and learning procedure can enhance and teachers can turn out to be more expert when school staffs change themselves into professional learning communities (PLCs), in some cases called groups of continuously inquiry and development. Staffs who make themselves noticeably professional learning communities and every time look for and share learning, and follow up on their learning. They analyze conditions that affect students come about, help each other in assessing the viability of procedures what’s more, procedures, and settle on educated choices to improve students’ learning. Such connections instigate improvement of the teacher-student relationship and in addition give teachers the courage to attempt new strategies and give an approach to them to work through issues related with changes in practice. Analyzing how educators and administrators learn, work, and settle on choices as individuals from an professional learning group to work with co-developers and accomplices at schools all through the nation. Reviewing research writing about schools as organizations, Hord (1997) found that schools working as PLCs share five attributes: supportive and shared administration, collective learning, shared values and vision, strong conditions in human and physical assets, and shared personal practice. In any case, the literature did not uncover how the school’s heads and instructors made or imagined along these lines of working with each other.
Teaching as Vocation
There is a surety that teachers can get many benefits by examination of their important drives and duties regarding their profession. Bolin (1987) underlined the significance of comprehension and sustaining one’s expert and individual objectives expressing, “We can’t [educate] quite a long time without taking care of our own importance making and strengthening” (p. 219). Teachers regularly see their work as having an interesting and a clear set of objectives that identifies the desire profoundly to serve others. They are frequently proceeding with a profession decision of showing grown-ups instead of younger individuals. There are many norms and values shared between teachers of any age, including the inspirations to teach. Some feature the choice to teach as conveying one of kind characteristics of administration to others. Ayers (2001) clarify the world of teaching as a profession which joins beliefs with activity and idealism with practice. He depicts educating as conferring oneself to move past the world as we discover it… in quest for a world and a reality that could be, but isn’t yet. Those backings the human impulses to develop. In this sense, it is to choosing teaching profession not only a job just, and not even as a career or a profession. It is to picking teaching as an undertaking or job, someone is called to do. In a business like educating there is a crucial connection amongst private and public sectors,
between individual satisfaction and social duty. There is additionally a feeling of duty and reason that rejects the deliberate count that overruns such an extensive amount work today. Teaching is the master vocation over the other vocations, in light of the fact that to picking teaching is to empower the choices of others. (pp. 23-24) The idea of vocation and its linking side interest have been got from the Latin vocation or vacate, which means a calling or to call. Teaching has frequently been viewed as a profession that recognizes it from numerous different professions. Westerh off (1987) states: “Instructing is a journey. It is an occupation in the genuine sense of a profession, a call to a lifestyle imparted to others in a typical scan for importance, as opposed to a profession in the modern sense of having information and skills to be advertised in the work environment” (p. 198). This thought of a profession to serve is established in religious lessons and is frequently found in the die-hard faithfulness of clergy and other people who take part in work for religious foundations. The secular world likewise has a longstanding custom of the individuals who see service to others as an essential objective in picking vocations in medicine, instruction, social work, and other purported helping professions. Palmer (2000) talks about the significance for teachers to take after the necessities of one’s authentic self and perspectives job as a profession.
Gardner’s Conceptualization of Self-Renewal
In his book, “Self-Renewal: The Individual and the Innovative Society”, Gardner (1963/1981) defined standards concerning the self-renewing person. His clarification showed a representation of perfect traits of people strongly keen on the procedure of lifelong learning. He sets that self-renewing people will demonstrate confirmation of a framework for continually renewing, inquiry and hard decision making, self-information, the bravery to risk failure, productive relations with other individuals, critical thinking, and a solid inspiration to be engaged with something about which they mind profoundly. These qualities will be examined independently although together, they frame a predictable entire, a complete mindset.
The self-renewing individual has built up a genuine “framework or system inside which continuous development, renewal and rebirth can happen” (p. 5). To explain this structure, Gardner utilizes the representation of a balanced ecological framework where, wihin a similar framework, a few things are being conceived while others are prospering and still others are dying by this (p. 5). A similar representation is utilized as a part of The Ecology of School Renewal (Goodlad,1987). The thought is same like the three elements of teacher education given by Schlechty and Whitford (1983, p. 77):
- The setting up functions (presentation of new projects, technologies, or strategies);
- The upgrade functions (spreading information, improving execution capacities, refining existing abilities);
- The maintenance function (assuring consistence with schedules, supporting mode methods of working, shielding from outside impact).
Firstly, it appears to be then that self-renewal requires the initial two procedures of progress to adjust the third procedure which shows some sort of consistency or stability. It is the adjust within the framework or system that represent to mature development: One isn’t frightfully holding tight to the known and agreeable while refusing to change, however nor is one overpowered by innovation with no protected foundation. Therefore, the metaphor additionally proposes that people are part of considerably bigger, interrelated frameworks and can’t be separated from those unique circumstances. That is, a specific measure of congruity is required for balance even as development is occurring. Gardner goes to considerable debate to clarify that mutual purposes for a society show up at first to be an upkeep capacity or significant component of progression, yet that it is through consistent reappraisal that they stay applicable and fundamental (p. 22).
Secondly, the self-renewing individual has a procedure of bringing the after effects of change into line with long haul purposes and values (Gardner, 1963/1981, p. 6). The procedure is a complex of progression and change, preservation by development, soundness in movement (p. 7). Gardner utilizes the case of a researcher who may effectively dispose of a hypothesis yet who will become angry if a most loved pipe is tossed out. The imperative point is that coherence and change exist next to each other; continuity is just an issue when it interferes with renewal and innovation, when it keeps us from seeing crisp viewpoints. “There is in anybody’s normal condition enough depth and variety of human experience, enough complexity of human cooperation to put unendingly new demands on the brain and soul – if one has inside oneself the present for always looking through one’s little universe” (p. 130).
This is a similar logical opposition that Joyce (1984) depicts in talking about the uneasiness of learning. “The need to develop is incorporated with the fiber of our being Paradoxically, in any case, we have an imbued tendency to save our creatures as they are or were” (p. 33). Genuine development requires disequilibrium rather than comfort; issues and various opinions challenge fixes state of minds (p. 34). Another method for putting this is the self-renewal individual, in continuously searching for different opportunities or better approaches for identifying, anticipating, or taking care of issues and problems, has
built up a disposition for thinking and applying knowledge (Resnick & Klopfer, 1989, p. 7). The attitude of looking for different solutions resists rigidity and a reliance on support of the well-known or existing conditions while enabling change to be deliberate rather than a request of trends. In this way “the self isn’t something instant or ready-made, yet something in consistent development through decision of activity.” (Dewey, 1916/1966, p. 351) It appears to be, at that point, that restricted to adapt to change and accomplish some similarity of adjust is to perceive that neither the person’s nor the association’s imperativeness and improvement can be left to risk; it must be an orderly and continuous development with a system of deliberately analyzed values.
Thirdly, Gardner (1963/1981) places that self-renewal people embrace a deep rooted procedure of self-discovery and self-learning. They systematically build up “the full scope of [their] capacities with regards to sensing, wondering, learning, understanding, adoring and aspiring” (pp. 11-12). Gardner isn’t the only one in connecting self-discovery to learning or development. In a review of the writing, Howey (1985) takes note of that one of the elements of staff development ought to be simply the comprehension and knowledge of oneself.
Fourthly, the self-renewal individual has the strength to chance the failure keeping in mind to learn something. This shows as extraordinary as the need to develop and the want to moderate talked about above. The paradox here is that learning requires people to take risk of failure in spite of the fact that they are educated to consider inability to be an absence of learning. A few different researchers have explored the imperative relationship between learning and the dare to taking risks. Bolin (1987) defined that renewal incorporates “developing anew. Related with freshness and development are change and repair. To change and repair, the teacher must, once more, confront risks. Without the risk of change, one will most likely be unable to find some new fresh thing or have the capacity to renew a battle. Such freshness is conceivable each time the teacher faces another class of students, if the educator perceives that there is high chance to learning and open possibilities in each relationship” (pp. 14-15). Huebner (1987) grows the point of view about risk taking: “Educators must act in an inconsistent world. To delay action until the information and strategy makers set up the educational thousand years is sheer unreliability, in light of fantasies of progress. We must choose the option to chance ourselves. The choice is to think about the risk private or develop a group that acknowledges helplessness and offers dangers. Weakness is bearable in a community of care and support a community in which individuals require some serious energy recounting and tuning in to the stories of each other’s journey” (p. 26).
Fifthly, another attribute is already discussed as is simply the capacity of renewing people to have “commonly productive relations” with other individuals (Gardner, 1963/1981, p. 15). They can acknowledge and give love, have compassion for others, rely upon others and can be relied on. Solid social associations improve their lives. “Love and fellowship disintegrate the rigidities of the isolated, show new points of view, alter judgments and keep in working request the enthusiastic substratum on which all significant perception of human undertakings must rest” (p. 16). Since teaching relies upon human collaboration, one may anticipate that self-renewal educators will show abnormal amounts of productive relations with others.
Sixthly, self-renewal people have created “tendencies for mind that will be valuable in new circumstances – interest, open-mindedness, objectivity, regard for evidence and the ability to think fundamentally” (p. 23). As ahead of schedule as 1963, Gardner was calling for education that would develop understanding, reinforce execution, emphasize analysis, and encourage critical thinking the habits for good thoughts. Dewey (1933/1960) grasped and the sort of education research in cognitive science would bolster (e.g., Gardner, 1991; Resnick & Klopfer, 1989).
The last quality of the self-renewal individual is the inspiration to do “something about which he minds profoundly” (Gardner, 1963/1981, p. 17). Inspiration “is a characteristic of people, to some degree connected to their physical essentialness, to some extent a resultant of social powers examples of child rearing, the tone of the education system, presence and absence of chance and opportunity, the inclination of the society to discharge or cover accessible energy, social states of mind toward devotion or responsibility and the imperativeness of the society’s shared esteems” (p. 19).
Exemplary Teacher: Teacher Renewal
At the point when the nominators of potential members were made a request to describe their role model people, they answered as: imaginative, keeps on growing professionally, inventive, adaptable, mindful, sustaining, child oriented, committed, constructive, motivating, and amazing communicator. If we need self- renewal teachers, we have to comprehend their qualities and after that look for and support conditions that support the quest for those beliefs. Although numerous scientists have attempted from multiple points of view to comprehend the multifaceted nature of model, self-renewal teachers and the situations that sustain the dispositions they display, none has made the relationship as interconnected and express as Gardner (1963/1981). Arguing from numerous points of view, the call for teachers as learners appears to have top need: Self- renewal of people and organizations relies upon learning as a deep rooted
propensity. “The development of habits is a simply mechanical thing unless habits are likewise tastes habitual modes of preference and regard, a powerful feeling of greatness” (Dewey, 1916/1966, p. 102). What also shows up in the literature on excellent teachers is the mind-boggling significance of human interactions in order to happen the learning. Despite the fact that there have been many demands for tutoring, peer coaching, team teaching, and so forth, they have a tendency to be proffered as methods for “professionalizing” educating, not as fundamental means for learning. Our comprehension of dispositions (habits of good thinking) that self-renewal teachers have taken in is likewise a long way from complete. That those qualities are attractive for all educators is obvious in the writing. In any case, Gardner (1963/1981) cautions that “a solid tradition of freedom of thought and inquiry is basic to continuous renewal” (p. 33). Societies or organizations are renewed “by individuals who believe and trust in something, think about something, take action for something” (p. 115). Self-renewing teachers must have a dream of something worth sparing. However, if Gardner is right, there can’t be long haul, persistent renewal without freedom (the disciplining of power and the dispersal of power), respect for the value of the individual, and pluralism (numerous decision focuses rather just on a single, an eagerness to entertain diverse views, access to different ways for knowing and communicating views). It might be that the most productive research will come about because of an investigation of how self-renewal teachers started to build up their dispositions whether the schools that empower them to renew are attached in and try to practice democratic beliefs.
3. PROFESSIONAL DISPOSITIONS
Professional dispositions are characterized as the values, duties, and professional ethics that impact practices toward students, families, partners, and other groups and influence students’ learning, inspiration, development and also the teacher’s own professional development. Dispositions are guided by believes and states of mind identified with qualities, for example, mindful, fairness, trustworthiness, responsible, and social justice. For instance, they may incorporate a belief that all students can learn, a dream of high and challenging standards, or a guarantee to a safe and steady learning condition (NCATE, 2002).
Importance of Dispositions
Research demonstrates that the properties of the classroom teacher altogether influence how well students learn. “According to recent studies, it has turned out to be certain that the nature of the education our children get depends straightforwardly upon the nature of the teachers in our schools. Guardians, teachers, instructors, and researchers agree on that effective educating happens
when the teachers would completely know their subjects, have solid teaching abilities and have the skill to encourage development and learning in students” (Wasicsko, 2002). The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) has commanded that NCATE has accredited colleges of education must check teachers’ professional information, abilities, and important skill to enable all students to learn.
Need of Professional Dispositions
The College of Education and Human Development, in a joint effort with the College of Arts and Sciences and the College of Business and Public Administration, is in charge of planning competitors who have the required information, abilities, and dispositions to become effective teachers. In this manner, your underlying licensure program will set you up to show the knowledge, skills, and dispositions expected of beginning teachers. Faculty and school staff will assess you at different times in the program and furnish you with criticism about your progress. Professional disposition will be evaluated by classroom teacher in each course that has a field experience necessity. Course teachers will evaluate professional disposition in select courses not including a field part.
Levels of Professional Dispositions
“The four levels of professional dispositions assessment include:
Pre-Admission (field experience requirement–classroom teachers report) T&L 310 Introduction to Early Childhood Education (Co-requisite T&L 286) T&L 325 Exploring Teaching in Secondary Schools
T&L 330 Introduction to Teaching and Learning in Elementary Schools
Post-Admission (no field component–university instructors report)
**Possible courses–Need to determine which ones**
T&L 315 Educating the Exceptional Student (ECE, Elementary, Middle Level majors)
T&L 350 Development and Education of Adolescents (Middle Level and Secondary majors)
T&L 432 Classroom Management (ECE, Elementary, Middle Level majors) T&L 433 Multicultural Education (All education majors)
T&L 460 Microteaching (Middle Level and Secondary majors) 9/06 1 9/06 2
Pre-Student Teaching (field experience requirement–classroom teachers report)
T&L 486 Field Experience (Co-requisite with methods courses) Bilingual and ESL Middle Level (also MS Health)
Elementary Physical Education
English–Teaching Literature and Reading or Science English–Teaching Composition Secondary Art Education Foreign Language Social Studies
IT Special Education Math
Student Teaching (classroom teachers and university supervisors report)
T&L 487 (All majors)
T&L 580 Special Education–Practicum in School Problems
All dispositions reports must be completed with a final rating of Acceptable for admission and advancement in Teacher Education. If you receive an “Unacceptable” rating in a field experience, you must complete another field experience successfully before advancing in the program and/or before applying to student teach.”
Ways Dispositions May be Assessed
An educator in one of your training classes may have a concern about a disposition area that need to be improved. He or she will talk about that concerns with you and you two may build up a plan for improvement. A duplicate copy of the improvement plan will be kept in your perpetual record and may influence your progress in the program. Your course teacher will report your progress, showing whether you were or were not ready to move forward. A meeting with the Associate Dean of Teacher Education might be expected to talk about a remediation plan. When you complete go through your improvement plan, the Field Placement Office will screen your progress through your next field experience. Students who do not want to change or improve their states of mind as well as activities won’t be permitted to stay in the teacher training program (Caine & Caine, 1997).
Dispositions of Effective Teachers
Dick Usher reformulated Combs (1999)’ five different areas of conviction of good assistants into five dispositions of effective teachers and has therefore utilized them in his continuing work with teachers. The essential assumption for this
reformulation is that behavior is just a side effect and that the effectiveness of a teacher is resultant from the perceptual “state” of the teacher at the time of his or her activities; that to comprehend the flow of teacher behavior and its effectiveness we should move our attention towards the teachers’ personal traits and dispositions. The expression “disposition” has been revised in recent years and serves well to remove all the more complicated term, “belief”.
Seeing and tolerating the other individual’s perspective. Trusts that a genuine grasp of the student’s perspective, and an accurate communication of that comprehension, is a most vital key to building up a noteworthy teaching/learning relationship. Focuses on affectability and to setting up a positive relationship with every student. Sees that the starting purpose of learning is truly dependent upon an acceptance of the student’s private universe of mindfulness at the time. Regards and acknowledges as genuine every individual’s own interesting perceptions.
2. Positive perspective of others
Putting believe on the value, ability and potential of others. Believe on the trust and confidence in the student’s worth, capacity and ability with respect to change is a vital component to learning. Sees other individuals in basically positive ways. Respects the inward nobility and trustworthiness of every student and holds uplifting desires for her or his conduct. Normally approaches others feeling that they “can” and “will” as opposed to that they “can’t” or “won’t”.
3. Positive perspective of self
Having faith in the worth, capacity and potential of themselves. Having a built up self-idea that is generally positive and gives a general feeling of self-adequacy. Sees himself/herself as basically dependent and true ability and then accepting all the inadequacies. Sees herself/himself for the most part but not only in positive ways with a positive, standing and reliable feeling of real and potential worth, capacity and ability with regards to development. Respects the inside pride and respectability of self and holds inspirational desires for his/her own particular activities.
Feeling a sense of opportunity and openness that empowers her or him to be an interesting individual in trustworthiness and pureness. Looks for different ways for teaching (strategies, techniques, procedures, curricular methodologies) that are honest, self-uncovering and permit individual expert
consistency. Sees the significance of transparency, self-exposure and being “genuine” as a man and educator. Builds up an individual “idiom” as an educator and merges identity uniqueness with curricular activities. Does not feel that one must “assume a part” to be effective.
5. Meaningful purpose and vision
Identifying to purposes that are essentially individual focused, wide, deep, freeing and long range in nature. Feels a convincing and standing feeling of devotion to democratic values, the dignity of being human, and the sacredness of freedom. Sees the significance of being visionary and intelligent as a teacher. Focuses on development for all students in mental, physical and profound domains through a feeling of “mission” in teaching. Looks to recognize, clarify and extending information and individual beliefs about what is really most important.
4. ISLAMIC PRINCIPLES OF PROFESSIONALISM
Islam not just urges us to be proactive and to go for hard work. It additionally puts more emphasize on doing our work in the best possible way. In a universe of rivalry and consistent struggle to get progress and flourishing, Muslims need to help themselves to remember Islamic hard work ethics and professionalism. They ought to go back to the Islamic ways for getting things done, not really the Muslim way for getting things done. They have to go back to the sunnah (custom) of all Prophets to excel in their work and to build up for them a respectable position in the twenty-first century world. In this day and age, when we consider demonstrable skill or excellence in work, the typical situation that strikes to our minds, for instance, how the Japanese fulfill their work or how individuals in America and in west European nations play out their professional obligations. While we can take in imperative lessons from the general population of these nations, we should welcome the significance of professionalism in our religion. We ought not overlook that “good work” and “perfection in work” are two of the most critical standards of Islam. A Religion of Action Islam is a religion of activity, not of inertness. In the Quran, nearly in all places they say of “faith” is constantly trailed by that of “great deeds “. Every one of us know about the oft- repeated articulation aamanu wa amelus salihat (the individuals who believe and do good deeds) in the Quran. Regardless of how truly Muslims may trust, it is futile for them to carry on with an existence without putting their faith into reactions and practice. In the Quran, the word ‘amal (work) seems 360 times, and a synonymous term fill (likewise deciphered as work) is specified in another 109 spots. So altogether the idea of work seems 469 times in the Quran.
This repetitive use of the idea of work in the Quran and in countless habits stresses the requirement for the adherents to be proactive. Islam does not support any thought of sitting tight for God’s blessing in idleness. Nor is God is happy with those Muslims who perform just some fundamental activities of day by day and occasional customs and waste a large portion of their energy in slothfulness and inaction, for instance, in watching at the TV or gossiping with family and friends. As such, the lessons of Islam don’t recommend that it is sufficient for Muslims to purport faith and play out a few ceremonies, however do nothing for the advantage of themselves or the more extensive society. Or maybe, in Islam true faith and good deeds are indivisible. Islam advances the idea of earning with consistent effort what God has allocated for a man.
“That man can have nothing but what he strives for; that (the fruit of) his striving will soon come in sight. Then he will be rewarded with a complete reward.” (53: 39-41)
Prophets and Excellence
“The extraordinary classical Muslim researcher Imam Al-Ghazali specifies in the eleventh-century momentous work Ihyaa Ulum Ad-Deen (Revival of the Religious Sciences) that the Prophet Jesus (peace arrive) once experienced a man who totally devoted himself to worshiping God. Jesus asked the man what he did to win his living. The man answered that his sibling worked and furnished him with food. Jesus then told him: “That brother of yours is more religious than you are.” (The Book of Provision, Chapter 1). Al-Ghazali also mentions a precept of Umar ibn Al-Khattab who used to stress this point further by telling people:
“Never should anyone of you think that du`a for sustenance without work will avail him, for heaven never rains gold nor silver”
(The Book of Provision, Chapter 1)
After all, with regards to diligent work, Prophet Muhammad (peace arrive is the best good example for us to copy. It is specified in prominent hadiths that he used to appeal to God to look for seeking refuge from sluggishness or inaction. We as a whole realize that even before he was picked as an ambassador of God, he was notable as a hardworking and reliable individual. This earned him the regard of his employer, Khadijah, who later proposed marriage to him due to every one of the benefits and ethics she found in him. Islam not just urges us to be proactive and to working hard. It additionally puts an accentuation on doing our work in the most possible way; at the end of the day, it promotes complete excellence.
The Quranic expression for greatness is ihsan and two of its derivation are muhsin and its plural muhsinun. The word ihsan and its different derivations happen countless times in the Quran. What’s more, this enlightens us concerning the tremendous significance of “excellence in work” in Islam. Islam does not stop basically by encouraging us to do great deeds. It teaches us to do great deeds and to exceed in doing great deed. The Quran states:
“If Allah had wished He would surely have made you one community (professing one faith). But He wished to try and test you by that which He gave you. So try to excel in good deeds. To Him you will all return in the end, when He will inform you concerning that over which you used to differ.” (Al-Ma’idah 5: 48)
Prophet Muhammad also did not stop by guiding us to do good deeds; he also made it a Point to tell us to perform our good deeds in the best possible manner. He said: when it comes to hard work, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the best role model for us to emulate “Do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately. . . Always adopt a middle, moderate, regular course, whereby you will reach your target (of paradise).” (Al-Bukhari)
Professionalism in Islam
Professionalism as comprehended by many of us includes the fundamental components of education and qualification, standards and experience, norms and directions, morals and respectability, duty and responsibility, sensibility and reasonableness, and the reciprocal yet important scale of fee. Off late another component has turned out to be pivotal to be specific CPD – continues professional development. In the corporate world, rather than professionalism, ‘corporate governance’ is the jargon broadly used. In the administration field, professionalism is caught by the expression ‘culture of brilliance.’ Despite the distinctive terms being used, the topic being dove upon does not vary generally. It is tied in with completing an occupation well. It is tied in with persuading human asset to accomplish authoritative execution goals. It is tied in with accomplishing the best from accessible assets. It is tied in with making an organization aggressive and in front of contenders. Professionalism from the viewpoint of Islam can be clarified by a mix of the importance of two Quranic articulations, in particular al-quwwah and al-amanah. Verse 26 in Chapter 28 of the Quran says these two qualities in the descriptive word shape: “Verily the best individual whom you can utilize is the person who is alqawwiy (solid) and al-amin (reliable).” This verse has recorded the expressions of one of the two little girls of Prophet Syuaib, who had found Prophet Moses to have these two fantastic qualities while helping them to draw well water for their herds. In fact the Prophet
of Islam Muhammad himself was known as al-amin or the trusted one, from his initial adulthood; qualifying him to be a man deserving of trust, with whom the tenants of Makkah energetically saved their assets for protection, without the store box offered by banks today. The thing type of al-qawwiy is alquwwah which can be deciphered as ‘quality’ and that of al-amin is alamanah which can be best interpreted as reliability. Quality as being enveloped by al-quwwah incorporates all the ingredients and sources that would make a man educated, qualified, able and skilled to play out a specific assignment. Capability, information, training, expertise, skill, ability, capacity, aptitude, self-restraint, judiciousness, practicality, straightforwardness and experience are components of al-quwwah. Good physical wellbeing no uncertainty can be added to this rundown as it plainly constitutes a vital segment of al-quwwah. These components of alquwwah can be all around saw as the intelligent person, mental, and physical qualities of a man. These components of al-quwwah are requirements for an expert to have the capacity to maintain and promote professionalism. The quality al-amanah is more than reliability as it is the perfection of various related qualities which make an expert deserving of being called one. This articulation suggests the otherworldly disguise of good values that could discover the commonness of moral lead and conduct throughout being an expert. It along these lines includes dependability, honesty, trustworthiness, duty, responsibility, responsibility, demeanor, equity and reasonableness, proactiveness, kaizen, and other comparable positive esteems. Profession to a Muslim through which he or she tries for halal way of earning is the most part considered as inside the domain of fardhu kifayah. The engineering profession is an unavoidable piece of society in that it contributes towards its progress. It has likewise contributed towards civilisation and without a doubt has profited humanity. This is undoubtedly that Islam considers it as a fardhu kifayah or collective commitment. Also, such a commitment requests professional skill or al-itqan and al-ihsan. Professional skill is a compulsory condition of fardhu kifayah. All together for a profession or occupation to qualify as fardhu kifayah there are three different concurrent conditions that should be satisfied –First one is, consciousness, that one is working for Allah, gaining a halal money to live on and to help the family; secondly, the nature of work embraced is good and not in contradiction with the Islamic principles, to such an extent that gambling or cheating to other is not allowed in Islam; and thirdly, the need of fardhu ‘ain isn’t compromised while in business, to such an extent that the day by day compulsory prayers are observed or having fasting in Ramadhan isn’t always sacrificed. . Under these conditions of fardhu kifayah, a feeling of spiritual sense is adopted while undertaking a profession and holding strictly to the requisites of professionalism. To consistently act professionally in accordance with the requirements of professionalism in any profession is along the acts of worship or ibadah and ought to be completely realized and performed according the Islam
perspective. This spiritual perspective of professionalism is to some degree missing from the prevailing comprehension of professionalism in the profession of engineering.
5. Problems Faced by Beginning Teachers
Beginning educators enter classrooms today with exclusive expectations for themselves and for their students. However, we know very well that the primary year of teaching is a calming experience for new educators, and that, through the span of one year, teachers encounter a diminished quality of confidence in their own particular efficacy and in the learning capability of their students (Harris & Associates, Inc., 1991). About each research study of retention in the teaching profession distinguishes the initial three years as the least secure at work, the years in which teachers are well on the way to leave out the job. The dropout rate is most high among teachers in difficult to-staff, urban schools, which have the most trouble both attracting in and after that retaining fully expert and certified teachers (Ingersoll, 2001; Urban Teacher Collaborative, 2000). The early years of teaching are regularly described by a “sink-or-swim” or “survival” attitude since we have frequently failed to provide careful help and positive development of teaching expertise over the time. Beginning teachers are customarily expected to have all the expertise and skill like a senor and experienced teachers would have in the class rooms. Moreover, they are assigned most problematic and challenging students because experienced teachers don’t want to teach them by their own. There is no proper structure of defined duties and responsibilities as there is found in many other professions. It ought not to be an unexpected that new teachers regularly talk about simply attempting to survive their initial years in the classroom. Many support programs for new teachers concentrate on the teachers who enter the classroom having experienced a comprehensive preparation program. Indeed, even the most very much arranged instructors require help with applying what they have taken in and in moving from an understudy instructing circumstance to their own classroom where they are currently completely in control. For the expanding quantities of teachers who enter classrooms without solid academic and professional planning, the difficulties are amplified.
a) Academic Problems
There has been one of the major problems is the inability develop creativity, respectfully and with knowledge, since they don’t be able to teach and apply what they know—nor do they have the experience to know the difference between teaching and studying (Wilson & Ball, 1996). This focuses the importance of academic issues including everything identified with being accountable for a group of students. It has been explored that beginning
Teachers experience issues in such areas, for example, controlling the class and looking after discipline (Boreen & Niday, 2000; Zepeda and Mayers, 2001), and that they need sufficient teaching strategies (Frieberg, 2002). In reference to this, Reynolds (1995) assures us that Beginning Teachers do not have the capacity to make open doors for all students to learn. Actually, Wilson and Ireton (1997) found in their investigation of beginning teachers’ feelings of fears, that one of these apprehensions includes not knowing how to manage students who have learning inabilities. Likewise, numerous Beginning Teachers need adequate knowledge about how to design the academic program (Phelps, 1990; Eilerman and Stanley, 1994), and even about the substance of the subjects they teach.
b) Organizational Problems
Stansbury (2001) recommends that it is imperative to secure Beginning Teachers, because of their own commitment they are supersaturated with duties, for example, cooperation in extracurricular activities, clubs and committees. Johnson (2001), Carter and Francis (2001) concur that it is very common for Beginner Teachers to be given the classes that senior teachers don’t want to teach; the most challenging and problematic students in the school; the most troublesome duties and activities outside the classroom classes; the assessments nobody would like to make; and in addition, no one helping them or check their progress. In connection to this issue, and especially in Spain, Acevedo and Hornos Castillo (refered to via Carmen, 2003) examined the workload of teachers in state funded schools. The author identified the issues of an organizational nature, in respect to the help the school does or does not provide for beginning teachers. Regrading to this area of concern, the beginning teachers showed the absence of adequate induction courses by the school (Johnson and Kardos, 2002). Vennman (refered to in Bullough, 1989) includes that the beginning teachers expect that at the school where they work there will be rules everybody knows and regards; yet regularly they don’t discover this data; they portray this as “the trauma of reality.” On the other hand, the principal’s assistance, so imperative during the main year (Brock and Grady, 1998),
c) Issues of material and technology
An issue that is lived step by step and may not appear to be essential is the development of teaching materials and the decoration of the room, and also the absence of suitable materials for teaching. Eilerman and Stanley (1994) found that definitely this is an issue confronting the beginning teachers in his first year of teaching. Likewise, Brock and Grady (1998) found an absence of information among beginner educators with respect to readiness
and improvement of teaching materials. d) Social Problems Merseth assures us that the school culture is portrayed by a high estimation of independence and protection. The BT rapidly end up noticeably mindful of this perspective, and are reluctant to look for help for expect that they can be listed contrarily (refered to by Babinski, Jones and DeWert, 2001). This infers an issue of connection amongst partners, and leads some BT to encounter a feeling of isolation (Williams and Williamson, 1996, Wilson and Ball, 1996), and others to feel demoralized (National Education Association, 2000). Moreover, issues in relating with colleagues, new teachers additionally encounter issues in relating with their superior: they believe they are hardly heard by these, and do not have their help, as Weasmer and Woods (2000) recommend. This circumstance, combined with organizational issues, drives coherently to emotionally exhaustion and stress (Futrell, 1988). In Spain, the last has created a few programs; for instance, Calvete and Villa (1997) worked on the Deusto project, which depends on the anxiety vaccination paradigm, and means to develop viable effective coping skills in secondary teachers. On the other hand, social issues are likewise identified with the changing trends of the present society is experiencing, and which influence teaching. In this sense, Wilson and Ireton (1997) held that changes in the society, for example, movement and immigration (which result in a more heterogeneous school population), the change and focus on the issue of values, together with the present violence, absolutely should be engaged with the problems experienced by teachers. Besides, these researchers found that starting educators communicated fear about their relationships with [students’] guardians. In such manner, Love (1996) and Johnson (2001) defined that the relationship with guardians causes anxiety and tension for the beginning teachers, since they don’t know how to deal with circumstances that emerge.
d) Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
While we need to ensure that new teachers feel supported as people that isn’t the whole picture of coaching responsibilities. Our major focus of concentration must be on students learning and mentoring work around educational programs, teaching, and evaluation must be at the majors concerns of mentoring efforts. In many areas, the days have been gone when new educators did not recognize what to teach and struggled in decisions that brought about “hobby teaching.” That situation has been replaced by lengthy documents which distinguish the standards of learning to be delivered, pacing guides, reliable assessment, and rubrics as well as information on standardized testing. The most of our tutoring time and effort ought to be centered on helping our protégées plan and execute instructions
process and assessment that tends to the deliver curriculum and promote students learning as well as understanding. This work ensures that there is a completely qualified teacher in each classroom.
e) Relationships with Students and Focus on Student Learning
Building strong relationships with learners is a hard task for all teachers and particularly for the teachers who adopt newly this profession. The most essential suggestion we can give new hired teacher is that the best management program is a solid instructional program. Given that our objective isn’t very much well managed students but instead educated students we have to mentor new teachers in the creating of a learning- focused environment where all learners feel a piece of the learning group. Numerous beginning teachers invest their maximum energy on making and observing deficit model of behaviour program in which learners find their names on the board or their marker moved from green to yellow when they don’t meet teachers behavioral desires. We have to help our protégées comprehend that, instead of concentrating on control and consistence, their time and energy is best spent planning active, connecting with, and interesting lessons.
f) Organizational Systems for Teacher, Classroom, and Students
A major mentor duty is helping new teachers distinguish what methodology is required, which ones are working, which ones are not working and for what reason not, and after that help them plan alternative system for improvement. In the recent past, new teachers were emphasized around arranging their own particular adapting; now they need to compose space, materials, and time for five to fifty others. This is an overwhelming assignment. It is simple for them to get debilitated and even accuse the understudies for the bedlam that may happen. One weakness of the understudy showing process is that understudy instructors are typically appointed to educators and classrooms where every one of the frameworks are working easily with no clear exertion; overseeing instructors may not think to clarify what work had been done to set up these frameworks. Tutors might need to take protégées who are battling with association on a “learning stroll” through easily working classrooms and have an instructing session about what the new instructor could attempt.
g) School and School District Policies and Procedures
Strategies with respect to reviewing and detailing, fire drills, stopping grants, leave approaches, and so forth can be mind-boggling to even the most experienced veteran. The expert new to the locale can suffocate in the points
of interest and not have the capacity to perceive which are basic and which are pleasant to know, yet not works of art. Coaches can give “in the nick of time” direction and support as specific occasions and due dates approach.
h) Collegial Interactions
New teachers can either be overpowered by excessively numerous offers of assistance or by a sentiment disconnection and disregard. Coaches assume an essential part in helping educators new to the area distinguish and get to all the care staff accessible at the building and region level. Furthermore, we should make sure that new staff individuals know who the “untitled” yet extraordinarily educated specialists are on different parts of instructing and learning and who among their associates is more than willing to loan some assistance. Another obligation of tutors is to keep the key and the various individuals from the staff educated in the matter of what is going on in the coaching system and how they can and should assume an imperative part in the enlistment of new staff individuals.
i) Parents and Community
This can be a greatly difficult territory of worry for some beginner instructors. A standout amongst the most difficult occasions of the year is Back-to-School Night when amateur educators need to clarify what the kids will realize during the time when they, truth be told, don’t know what they are doing the following day. Tutors can assume an imperative part in helping these new educators get ready for that occasion and parent gatherings by pretending and notwithstanding sitting in on troublesome meetings. Extra issues can surface when a few guardians give off an impression of being either finished engaged with their tyke’s instructive program or apparently uninterested or unfit to be strong of the learning of their kids. Coaches can help their protégées be sure, proactive, and if issues surface, issue understand with them. It is most vital that coaches enable new educators to see guardians not as the adversary but rather as accomplices in their youngsters’ training.
- Start with brainstorming by asking the question “What are the standards and values in the teaching profession?”
- Facilitate a debate on different standards of the teaching profession. Each student should write the teaching standards with their
- Enlist major teaching dispositions in below table and rank them from 1-10 according to your priority in teaching profession. You can rank more than one disposition with same ranking of
- Ask students to work in small groups and come up with a list of problems beginner teachers may face during Then each group is given a particular problem and ask them to find out the maximum solutions to overcome the problem of novice teacher in teaching profession. For example
|Problem||Solutions to overcome the problem|
7. SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- Define the code of conduct and its implementation in the field of
- Illustrate the different kinds of standards in teaching
- Write the concept of teacher disposition. What are major dispositions a teacher has to adopt during teaching profession?
- Explain the importance of teaching profession in the light of Islamic How can a teacher adopt the Islamic principles in teaching profession?
- Identify the different problems that beginner teachers have to face in the profession of
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ATTRIBUTES OF TEACHER
Written By: Dr. Aftab Ahmed Reviewed By: Dr. Fazal Ur Rahman
Sr. Title Page No
- Teacher…………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
- Professional Teacher………………………………………………………………………. 67
- Reflective Practitioner……………………………………………………………………. 69
- Inquiring Teacher…………………………………………………………………………… 71
- Committed Teacher……………………………………………………………………….. 72
- Principles of Commitment………………………………………………………………. 72
- Moral Agent………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
- Role of A Teacher as a moral Educator………………………………………………………… 74
- Teacher a role Model who sets good Example………………………………………………. 74
- Teacher as a Counselor Who Offers Advise………………………………………………….. 74
- Forming a caring Environment…………………………………………………………………….. 75
- Development Social and Emotional Skills…………………………………………………….. 76
- Teaching for Expertise and Perfection………………………………………………………….. 76
- Teaching Self-Regulation and Development…………………………………………………. 77
- Role Model……………………………………………………………………………………. 79
- Honest 79
- Affectionate 79
- Good Learner 80
- Understanding 80
- Self-Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………… 81
- Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
Pakistan is an Islamic republic having strong foundations in Islam which attaches great importance to the education and the educators as well. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) always felt pride on his status of being a teacher. Indeed, the Prophet himself emphasized that his primary duty as a Prophet was to teach by saying, “I have been sent only as a teacher to you.” To explain his duty, he also said, “I have been sent only to complete moral virtues.”
This standing is not confined to Islam only; the other religions also attach great importance to the teaching and undoubtedly term it a noble and sacred profession. Teaching is the largest profession in the world. It is also the most respected profession across the globe. Teachers occupy prestigious status in all the civilized countries. Much of the progress in civilization is due to education and the education is responsibility of the teachers. Though it is not highly paid job in our society yet it has a noble position in our society.
The developed societies like Japan, Australia, Germany, Singapore, UK, and USA are very keen about education and the educators as well. Their development and progress is basically resulting of their advancement in this particular field of life. According to the American Commission on Teacher Education,
“The Development of a nation depends upon the development of its citizens. The development of its citizens depends upon the development of their education; the development of their education depends upon the development of their teachers.”1Teacher is the nucleus of the whole educational system and the most considerable element to bring basic and fruitful changes in the teaching-learning process.
It further says that, “The quality of education is directly related to the quality of instruction in the classroom. The teacher is considered the most crucial factor in implementing all education reforms at the grassroots level. It is a fact that the academic qualifications, knowledge of the subject matter, competence and skills of teaching and the commitment of the teacher have effective impact on the teaching-learning process. Recognizing the deteriorating quality of education at various levels, efforts need to be intensified to accord adequate priority to the effectiveness of teacher education programs and professional development of the in-service teachers in the country”.2
In this unit we shall try to figure out the key attributes of a professional teacher in order to comprehend the role of a teacher in the education system.
After studying this unit, you (prospective teachers) will be able to
- Gain an insight on the traits of a professional teacher,
- Contribute to improving the quality of teaching and learning,
- Actively promote teacher professionalism,
- Maintain and improve teachers’ professional standards
- Reflect on how to put yourself once you are already in the field of
A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to perform a specific task). In some countries, teaching young people of
school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, (homeschooling) rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college. Some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching (e.g. youth worker, pastor).In most countries, formal teaching is usually carried out by paid professional teachers. We are focusing on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training.
2. PROFESSIONAL TEACHER
“Is the licensed professional who possess dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional comptence. S/he adheres to, observes, and practices a set of ethical and moral principles, standards and values.”A professionalteacher perceives himself/herself as someone who can effect change, (sense of efficancy) because s/he is an expert in what s/he teaches (subject matter knowledge, and in how he/she teaches (pedagogical knowledge.)
A professional teacher is a person who cares enough about his/her students irrespective of their color, creed and caste; to whom the students can approach with any problem or concern. S/he abides by professional code of conduct and earns great respect. In dictionary, the word teacher has various meanings as detailed below:
Teacher (tee-cher) is a noun and it implies for; 1) Provider of knowledge and insight. 2) Mentor. 3) One who inspires motivates and opens up minds to the endless possibilities of which one canachieve. 4) One who makes a positive difference in the lives of many 5) one who is admired, appreciated and held in the highest esteem.
The competences required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models:
- The teacher as manager of instruction;
- The teacher as caring person;
- The teacher as expert learner; and
- The teacher as cultural and civic
The OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers’ career- long education and professional development. Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require:
Working with others, working with knowledge, technology and information, and Working in and with society.
Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge (such as: the subject matter itself and knowledge about how to teach it, curricular knowledge, knowledge about the educational sciences, psychology, assessment etc.)craft skills (such as lesson planning, using teaching technologies, managing students and groups, monitoring and assessing learning etc.) and dispositions (such as essential values and attitudes, beliefs and commitment).
Teachers are eager about their topic and contentment in sharing what they have learned. Sometimes it appears that they can go on forever about their subject while negating the idea that they are an “expert.” Good teachers will tell you they are students, not teachers. These two qualities are the primary and distinctive features of a teacher. Love of knowledge and a love of contributing to the development of others. At times the primary characteristics become contaminated by other drives and needs such as the need for status, authority, exhibitionism and any other of many human needs that make us less than who we want to be. Admirable teachers learn to control these needs and to keep them out of the teaching arena as much as possible. Some teachers are better at this than others and they are better or worse teachers because of their abilities to control the extraneous (non-teaching) factors.
- Reflective Practitioner
- Enquiring Teacher
- Committed teacher
- Role model
3. REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER
Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on one’s actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves “paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively.
A ‘reflective practitioner‘ is someone who, at regular intervals, looks back at the work they do, and the work process, and considers how they can improve. They ‘reflect’ on the work they have done. Thus, Reflective teaching is a process where teachers think over their teaching practices, analyzing how something was taught and how the practice might be improved or changed for better learning outcomes. Teachers who promote reflective classrooms ensure that students are fully engaged in the process of making meaning. Unfortunately, educators don’t often ask students to reflect on their learning.
Reflective practice is widely considered to be an important activity for professional development. There is a huge amount of literature exploring and debating reflection and reflective practice in education. There are some key features of reflection that are widely accepted:
- Reflection results in learning – through changing ideas and your understanding of the situation
- Reflection is an active process of learning and is more than thinking or thoughtful action
- Reflection involves problematizing teaching by recognizing that practice is not without dilemmas and issues
- Reflection is not a linear process, but a cyclical one where reflection leads to the development of new ideas which are then used to plan the next stages of learning
- Reflection encourages looking at issues from different perspectives, which helps you to understand the issue and scrutinize your own values, assumptions and perspective.
Teachers can be deceived by what is appealing, habitual and popular with students. Effective teaching is an acquired talent. Professional retreats offer teachers the opportunity to dedicate time to those qualitative steps that result in ongoing development. The six steps to becoming a master teacher include:
- Realize Your Motives for Teaching: An important exercise in continuous excellence of teaching is identifying persons who influenced you to become a Almost everybody can name two or three teachers who changed
the path of his or her life. Some found primary school teachers who discovered their aptitude and ability. Others discovered their confidence through recognition of their potential in a specific subject. By discussing and defining the qualities of those exemplary teachers when they were students, professionals begin to define the roots of their own teaching.
- Promote Moral Behavior in Your Students and Yourself: Although many schools of discipline exist, a teacher can achieve harmony in the classroom, but the real focus of student management lies in inculcating moral Reliable responses to classroom interactions as well as rational consequences for disobediences can be improved through friendly mutual discussion. These cannot be found in a handbook; but rather, can be cultivated in seminars and observance of other leading teachers.
- Combine both Tolerance and Determination: Stamina and patience are needed for the long drag of teaching. This means finding ways to remain healthy and able-minded through the stressful days. By connecting with others who have discovered methods of physical and mental revitalization, teachers have a better chance of staying motivated about teaching regardless of the many unavoidable obstacles during the school
- Plan Lessons That Works: All good teaching needs outstanding plan and reform, beginning with a strong course that outlines the most important Without a forum for the continuous re-tailoring of their courses, teachers are often left to work from a textbook or on-the-fly lesson plans. Spending time in retreat with other professionals allows teachers to lay a strong foundation for each course they teach.
- Perfect Instructional Practices and Assessment Skills: The continuing progress of instructional approaches and feedback skills are critical to quality in teaching. Only through the careful examination of activities and assessment can a teacher guide all students to succeed. Teachers need time with their colleagues outside the classroom; the temporary success of “fun” activities can be a hindrance to the development of a master teacher. By crafting performance tasks and assessing them with their peers and mentors, teachers can refine their teaching.
- Connect Positively to the Whole-School Culture: Over time, the master teacher has the capacity to improve the whole-school culture through excellence in teaching. Because master teaching has as its foundation the generous impulse to assist students and colleagues, the teacher is able to fundamentally influence others without generating resentment. The master teacher is consistently working to benefit the school, so he or she is not in competition with colleagues or
In the end, only way to stay the course throughout one’s teaching career is by discussion with great teachers who motivate, inspire and remain connected to the classroom. In the company of others, teachers can uncover the best work being done in our schools. Dedicated to their own professional development, they are capable of improving teaching and learning despite the many other mandates. This is critical to their continued enthusiasm.
Through the retreats and professional learning communities, colleagues enhance their own teaching and further the practice of others. In this way, they sustain and improve instructional practices, passing the torch of inspired teaching to others.
4. INQUIRING TEACHER
Teachers have the potential to transform and have a profound impact on the learning experiences and life chances of our young people and have a critical role in helping them achieve positive outcomes, to thrive and flourish in life.
Developing an enquiring mindset and culture is fundamental to teacher professionalism. This enquiry stance keeps a central focus on us always questioning and “knowing why, knowing what, knowing how”. This emphasizes a professional identity of the teacher as learner who questions self, students, school and system, being both reflective and reflexive. There are three different approaches of effective teaching.
The ‘style’ approach: A common view of teaching effectiveness which focuses on how teachers teach.
The ‘outcomes’ approach: A common view of teaching effectiveness which focuses on student results.
The ‘inquiry’ approach: An alternative view of teaching effectiveness that incorporates style and outcomes within an inquiry-based framework.
Effective teachers inquire into the relationship between what they do (style) and what happens for students (outcomes). But effective teachers do more than simply inquire (or reflect) – they take action (in relation to what they are doing in the classroom) to improve the outcomes for students and continue to inquire into the value of these interventions.
Thus effective teaching is more than style and it is more than outcomes – it is the continual interrogation of the relationship between these two dimensions with the aim of enhancing student achievement.
Such an approach implies particular attitudes or dispositions (open-mindedness, fallibility) and particular actions (questioning students about what they are understanding) but it does not prescribe or checklist such qualities. It simply prescribes inquiry, action and the search for improvement.
5. COMMITTED TEACHER
The strength of any profession depends upon the degree of commitment of its members and the teaching has no exception. Teacher commitment has been identified as a key factor as to why teachers make strenuous efforts to stimulate their students’ learning, care about their pupils’ well-being and become more ‘effective’ in a general sense (Day & Gu, 2007 ). In many countries the issue of teacher commitment is regarded as crucial, and efforts to support teachers’ sustainment of high levels of commitment are common (OECD-2011). However, commitment is a nested phenomenon and is often described as depending on and embedded in the interaction between a teacher’s beliefs, professional competencies, agency and the surrounding context .(cf. Day & Gu, 2014)
A committed physician is one whose behavior is determined by his philosophy of what is meant by his practice of medicine. A committed lawyer is one whose modus operandi is based upon his philosophy of law. Consequently, a committed teacher is one whose behavior is consistent with his philosophy of education. (Raymond B, fox)
6. PRINCIPLES OF COMMITMENT
1. Commitment to the Students
The teacher struggles to help each student recognize his or her potential as a valuable and effective member of society. The teacher therefore works to stimulate the spirit of inquiry, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, and the thoughtful formulation of precious goals. In accomplishment of the responsibility to the student, the teacher:
- Shall not unreasonably restrain the student from independent action in the pursuit of
- Shall not unreasonably deny the student’s access to varying points of
- Shall not deliberately suppress or distort subject matter relevant to the student’s
- Shall make reasonable effort to protect the student from conditions harmful to learning or to health and
- Shall not intentionally expose the student to
- Shall not on the basis of race, color, creed, sex, national origin, marital status, political or religious beliefs, family, social or cultural background, or sexual orientation, unfairly
- Exclude any student from participation in any program
- Deny benefits to any student
- Grant any advantage to any student
- Shall not use professional relationships with students for private
- Shall not disclose information about students obtained in the course of professional service unless disclosure serves a compelling professional purpose or is required by
2. Commitment to the Profession
- The education profession is vested by the public with a trust and responsibility requiring the highest ideals of professional service. In the belief that the quality of the services of the education profession directly influences the nation and its citizens, the educator shall exert every effort to raise professional standards, to promote a climate that encourages the exercise of professional judgment, to achieve conditions that attract persons worthy of the trust to careers in education, and to assist in preventing the practice of the profession by unqualified
In fulfillment of the obligation to the profession, the teacher–
- Shall not in an application for a professional position deliberately make a false statement or fail to disclose a material fact related to competency and qualifications.
- Shall not misrepresent his/her professional
- Shall not assist any entry into the profession of a person known to be unqualified in respect to character, education, or other relevant
- Shall not knowingly make a false statement concerning the qualifications of a candidate for a professional position.
- Shall not assist a non-educator in the unauthorized practice of
- Shall not disclose information about colleagues obtained in the course of professional service unless disclosure serves a compelling professional purpose or is required by
- Shall not knowingly make false or malicious statements about a
- Shall not accept any gratuity, gift, or favor that might impair or appear to influence professional decisions or
7. MORAL AGENT
From Aristotle to nowadays, most of thinkers, believe that ethics can be taught. The research demonstrates that the students’ moral profile is strongly shaped during the academic years teachers has an important influence on students’ moral development. The communication of the two actors must fulfill certain criteria in order to teaching and changing on both sides. (Mag. Iogra)
Role of A Teacher as a moral Educator
Teaching is not more of a profession but a calling, where one is given power to pass not only knowledge but skills and right attitudes. This section closely examines different roles of a teacher as a moral educator.
Teacher a Role Model who sets good Example
Teachers must educate their students on the importance of selecting the appropriate company. They must also show excellent example to the learners. It is often said that morality is fostered by good example. It is also said that evil is fostered by bad example. There is an intuition here that children are strongly influenced by the company they keep. There is also interjected into this discourse the idea that children can rise above their surroundings. This is usually said to children who cannot avoid bad company, as it were. What is implicit in all of this is the belief that a moral point of view, or lack thereof, is mediated through social influences. There is nothing astounding here, except that teachers tend to forget the effects of normative influence.
Teacher as a Counselor Who Offers Advise
In some working-class families, one of the influences on moral education is the television which interacts with the children more even than do their parents or teachers (Sullivan, 1980). Though parenting plays a significant role in the legitimating of culture, it now has a contender in television. For example, before a child reaches the age of 20 in this country, he or she will have seen 350,000 television commercials. The average child, it is estimated, will have seen 20,000
commercial messages each year or more than three hours of television advertising a week (Sullivan, 1980). One might say that children keep a good deal of company with the ethos of consumption, for television is a mirror of commodity culture (Sullivan, 1980).
When compared with parents and schools, the mass media–that is, newsprint, comics, radio, and television are, at the same time, more anonymous and democratic. As opposed to parents, who concentrate their efforts on their own children and possibly their neighbors’, the mass media are directed to a wider range of people, but with patently more utilitarian motives. In essence, the media are supported by modern advertising, whose main message is to sell products as commodities to people on a large scale as the correlate of mass production. It can be seen in some of the early advertising journals that the media were to conflict with the family.
The socially constructed nature of television makes it more of a private event, even though the viewer-listener is receiving communications. A morally responsible actor is not a private actor. As I have already said, a human act is an expression which has as one of its distinguishing characteristics, significance. Significance implies that moral action has a public nature. Besides this, television and other media perpetuate pornography and teachers must be on the look out to warn their children against learning immoral acts from them.
Forming a caring Environment
Character formation begins with a caring relationship, first in the home and then at school. Teachers create a basis for children through encouraging caring relationships in schools that bridge from adult to child through which mutual influence can occur (Chein, 1972). Any child who is being cared for, will likely care for others and will engage as a citizen in the moral life of the community. The quality of early teacher-student relationships can have a strong influence on academic and social outcomes that persist through eighth grade (Chein, 1972). Teaching styles that conform to dimensions of effective parenting were a significant predictor of students’ academic goals, interest in school, and mastery learning orientation. In particular, teachers who have high expectations tend to have students who get better grades but who also pursue prosaically goals, take responsibility, and show a commitment to mastery learning. Conversely, teachers who are harshly critical and are perceived to be unfair have students who do not act responsibly with respect to classroom rules and academic goals.
Caring schools and classrooms provide multiple benefits for students. Caring school climates encourage social and emotional bonding and promote positive
interpersonal experiences, providing the minimum grounding necessary for the formation of character (Gramsci, 1971). Moreover, in schools with a strong indication of communal organization, less student misconduct is noted (Gramsci, 1971) and rates of drug use and delinquency are lower (Gramsci, 1971). Student attachment or bonding to school improves school motivation (Gramsci, 1971) and discourages delinquency (Welsh, Greene, &Jenkins, 1999) and victimization of teachers and students (Gramsci, 1971). Schools characterized by a strong sense of community report decreased discipline problems and less drug use, delinquency, and bullying; conversely, they also report higher attendance and improvements in academic performance (see Lapsley & Narvaez, 2006, for a review).
Development Social and Emotional Skills
Another best practice among teachers as a way of teaching morals to children is enhancing learners’ social and emotional skill development. Social and emotional skills are crucial to school success. Recent research suggests that emotional intelligence has more bearing on life and school outcomes than does academic intelligence (Kavanaugh, 1983) stated, social and emotional learning programs pave the way for better academic learning. They teach children social and emotional skills that are intimately linked with cognitive development. Social and emotional skills facilitate everyday life, affecting relationships and school achievement-skills in communication, conflict resolution, decision making, and cooperation (Kavanaugh, 1983).
A substantial body of literature indicates that teachers employ programs that address social and emotional competencies and which are effective in preventing problem behaviors (Taylor 1964), including drug use (Kavanaugh, 1983) and violence (Kavanaugh, 1983). Social and emotional learning is also a strong predictor of future children moral outcomes (Taylor 1964). One study demonstrated, for example, that indices of social competence were better predictors of academic achievement.
Teaching for Expertise and Perfection
This is a perfect tool for teaching morals among the children that teachers call to task and should continue to. Teaching for expertise involves direct instruction through role modeling, expert demonstration, and thinking aloud (Sternberg, 1998), focusing attention on ethical aspects of situations and expressing the importance of ethical behavior. It also requires indirect instruction through immersion in environments where skills and procedures can be practiced extensively (Taylor 196).
Immersion in Examples and Opportunities (E & O), the student sees prototypes of the behavior to be learned and begins to attend to the big picture, learning to recognize basic patterns. The teacher plunges students into multiple, engaging activities. Students learn to recognize broad patterns in the domain (identification knowledge). They develop gradual awareness and recognition of elements in the domain.
Attention to Facts and Skills (F & S), the student learns to focus on detail and prototypical examples, building a knowledge base. The teacher focuses the student’s attention on the elemental concepts in the domain in order to build elaboration knowledge. Skills are gradually acquired through motivated, focused attention. In Practice Procedures (P & P), the student learns to set goals, plan steps of problem solving, and practice skills. The teacher coaches the student and allows the student to try out many skills and ideas throughout the domain in order to build an understanding of how these relate and how best to solve problems in the domain (planning knowledge). Skills are developed through practice and exploration.
Integrate Knowledge and Procedures (K & P), the student executes plans and solves problems. The student finds numerous mentors or seeks out information to continue building concepts and skills. A gradual systematic integration and application of skills occurs across many situations. The student learns how to take the steps in solving complex domain problems (execution knowledge). This set of novice-to-expert levels of teaching come in handy in modeling children morally.
Teaching Self-Regulation and Development
Teachers must ensure that their students learn to use their skills independently. Individuals can be coached not only in skills and expertise but also in domain- specific self-efficacy and self-regulation (Chein, 1972).). The most successful students learn to monitor the effectiveness of the strategies they use to solve problems and, when necessary, alter their strategies for success (Taylor, 1964). According to Taylor (1964) self-regulation is acquired in stages; these resemble the processes learning in the zone of proximal development. First, the child vicariously induces the skill by observing a model. Secondly, the child imitates the model with assistance. Thirdly, the child independently displays the skill under structured conditions. Finally, the child is able to use the skill across changing situations and demands.
Teachers should understand their roles as facilitators of student self-development. Able learners have good self-regulatory skills for learning, (Chein, 1972). Teachers have a chance to help students develop the attitudes and skills necessary
for the journey toward their future. This is true for moral character as well. As in any domain, moral character skills must be practiced in order to be developed. Teachers must be oriented to providing good practice opportunities for students. For example, if students do not get practice in helping others, they are less likely to do it independently when the occasion arises (Chein, 1972).
With adult coaching, each student can monitor ethical skill development and hone a particular set of morals. Once developed, virtues must be maintained through the selection of appropriate friends and environments (Aristotle, 1988). Virtuous individuals are autonomous enough to monitor their behavior and choices.
In summary, the discussion above provides a functional view of what direction a teacher can take in deliberately fostering moral character of the children. First, teacher educators point out the importance of establishing a respectful and caring relationship with students, helping teachers understand and practice different ways to do this. This is accompanied by helping teachers learn how to establish a supportive classroom climate, which is important for achievement and ethical character development. Secondly, teachers help their students identify the ethical skills that support academic and social success, guiding them to understand ways to use them during the school day in academic and non-academic lessons. Thirdly, teachers must learn and instill on their children how to cultivate expertise in students not only in their academic discipline, but also for an ethical social life. Fourthly, in subject matter and in social life, teachers assist their learners develop techniques to help them foster self-regulation and self-efficacy.
Student moral development is both implicit and inevitable in standard educational practice. The challenge facing teachers and teacher educators is whether to allow moral formation to occur opportunistically-letting students learn what they will, for good or bad, come what may-or to foster an intentional, transparent, and deliberative approach that seriously considers the moral dimensions of teaching and schooling. Two teacher education strategies are encouraged in schools. The minimalist strategy requires teachers to make explicit the hidden moral education curriculum and to encourage their students to see the moral character outcomes that are immanent to best practice moral instruction. The maximalist strategy requires that teachers learn a toolkit of pedagogical skills that targets moral character education as an explicit curricular goal. It is important to know that when teachers are intentional and wise in praxis, they provide students with a deliberative, positive influence on their individual and group characters.
8. ROLE MODEL
A role model is a person who inspires and encourages us to strive for greatness, live to our fullest potential and see the best in ourselves. A role model is someone we admire and someone we aspire to be like.
A child, as we know, needs models and not critics. These models a child finds, first in his parents, and second in his teachers. It is very correctly said that the influence of the teacher is immense and no one knows when the influence becomes visible and where it stops. Since the teacher is one of the child’s ideal, it is very important for a teacher to have qualities which impress the child and the qualities which he can imitate and thus become good. A role model is, therefore, one who has some sterling qualities of head and heart, which the child gets impressed by. So now, when we look for the essential qualities in a teacher we have to be clear in what we want the children in his/her charge to become, for the influence of a teacher is very deep, far reaching and of course permanent.
We want our children, for instance, to develop the quality of honesty. The teacher must then be very honest in all her behaviour with the children she is handling. In this regard, partiality and favouritism are the two most horrible qualities that a teacher should not have. This attitude of a teacher is noticed by the children and they do not like him/her for it, and they also feel that he/she is not very honest in his/her dealings with them. In the process they also learn to be dishonest in their dealings with his/her, and with their classmates. Thus, an ideal teacher must be very honest and transparent in all his/her dealings with the children and with his/her colleagues. This folly of favouritism plays a double havoc with the children for, on the one hand, a child who is favoured, becomes unnecessarily pampered and the child who is unduly differentiated against, either gets into his shell, and feels unwanted or, if he is bold by nature, he becomes a revolutionary. In either case this favouritism of the teacher plays hell with both, the favoured and the not-so-favoured. This attitude of the child, shown at this stage of his life becomes a permanent feature of the child’s character, and he starts feeling rightly or wrongly that he is punished for the wrongs that he has not done, and as an adult he becomes a confirmed revolutionary. Thus, in a nutshell we can derive that, in her partiality the teacher damages both the child who is favoured and the child who is not.
The next quality that we would like to find in an ideal teacher is that, he/she should be very affectionate to all the children in his/her charge. The love they get
at this stage of life is what makes them lovable and affectionate adults. Love has got to be inculcated in the children as; it is love only that makes life worth living. So it is very necessary for an ideal teacher to be loving and caring, and then only he/she in turn infuses the greater quality of begetting love in the children in his/her charge. A loving teacher is forever remembered and loved by students.
The students believe that their teacher is a fountain-head of all knowledge. This belief of the children must be kept alive by the teacher which is possible, only if he continues to learn together with his teaching assignments. A good teacher is the one who is also a good learner. Besides, if a teacher does not happen to know a particular thing, he should never pose as if he knows it. This is because, if, at any stage, the children come to know that their teacher does not know, he only shows that he knows, they lose all respect for him. The teacher must know that, the children do not take much time to assess the stuff or the capacity of a teacher. It is not that the teacher must know everything on the face of this earth but, the moot point is that, he should not bluff the children into believing that his knowledge is absolutely complete. For an ideal teacher it is advisable to tell the children that he will find out the answer to their query, instead of giving them any wrong information. If he does this, the children will admire him for his honesty, and will not be disappointed in his lack of knowledge, for, they also, know that a teacher is also, besides being a teacher for them, a human being with limitations. This will unwittingly inculcate in the children a habit of accepting their own drawbacks and not nearly justifying whatever they do or say.
An ideal teacher needs to be very perceptive in respect of the behaviour of the children. Though the teacher and the children are a generation apart, it would be great quality in a teacher if he/she could understand the miseries of the children, and to help them out of their seemingly little problems, and also feel for them. With this attitude of familiarity with the children, the teacher will win the confidence and they will always discuss their problems with him/her and they will also take him as their confidante. For this, the teacher has to put himself in the shoes of the children, understand their feelings, and he/she will be loved for this. In turn, his/her wards will also learn the art of helping their younger siblings or friends in solving their problems.
With all the above mentioned qualities in a teacher, the teacher will be an ideal teacher; he will be one who will leave an indelible mark on the minds of the young children in his charge. They will turn out to be exact replicas of their teacher. Thus, it is very important for the teacher to be a picture of what he would
like the children to be. The impact of a teacher can be easily felt when we see the present deterioration in the younger generation. This is because our teachers are lacking in almost all the qualities required for an ideal teacher, and so, their wards are also lacking in all good qualities of head and heart. A good teacher helps the students to develop all the great qualities of civilized human beings. An ideal teacher is thus one who leaves a permanent impact on the children he grooms, and they remember him for his great qualities at different times of their lives. A student is a mirror which reflects the learning and knowledge of a teacher; this must be kept in mind by a teacher.
Teacher is a role model
9. SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- What are the key characteristics of an educator?
- What do you mean by reflective teaching?
- How can a teacher be more effective?
- Enlist the key features of
- What are the different approaches of effective teaching?
‘Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers’, 2005, Paris: OECD publications 
F Caena (2011) ‘Literature review: Teachers’ core competences: requirements and development’ accessed January 2017
at http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/policy/stra tegic-framework/doc/teacher-competences_en.pdf
Williamson McDiarmid, G. & Clevenger-Bright M. (2008) ‘Rethinking Teacher Capacity’, in Cochran-Smith, M., Feiman-Nemser, S. & Mc Intyre, D. (Eds.). ‘Handbook of Research on Teacher Education. Enduring questions in changing contexts’. New York/Abingdon: Routledge/Taylor & Francis cited in F Caena (2011)
K.M. Ibrahim, Tarbiat-e-Asateze (Islamabad: Pakistan Education Foundation, 1997), 127 National Education Policy 1998-2010 K.M. Ibrahim, Tarbiat-e- Asateze, op.cit., 326
Chein, I. (1972). The Science of Behaviour and the Image of Man. New York: Basic Books. Cover, J. (1983) Theological Reflections: Societal Effects of Television. Religious Education, 78(1), pp. 38-49.
Golsen, R. (1975). The Show and Tell Machine. New York: Delta (paperback). Gramsci, A. (1971). Selection from Prison Notebooks. New York: International
Kavanaugh, J. (1983). Capitalist Culture as a Religious and Educational Formation System. Journal of Religious Education, 78(1), pp. 50-60.
CHANGING ROLE OF THE TEACHER: BEYOND CLASSROOM
Written By: Miss Mubeshera Tufail Reviewed By: Dr. Fazal Ur Rahman
Sr. Title Page No
- Teacher’s Professional Identity……………………………………………………….. 87
- Meaning of Professional Identity………………………………………………………………… 87
- Importance of Professional Identity…………………………………………………………….. 87
- Development of Professional Identity………………………………………………………….. 87
- Relationship Between Professionalism and Professional Identity 88 …. Career Development 89
- Importance of Career Development……………………………………………………………… 89
- Steps of Successful Career Development……………………………………………………… 89
- Writing Reflective Journals…………………………………………………………….. 91
- What is Reflection?……………………………………………………………………………………. 91
- What is Reflective Journal?………………………………………………………………………… 91
- What to Write About?……………………………………………………………………………….. 92
- Time Duration to Start Up………………………………………………………………………….. 93
- How to Write? 93
- What Matters Most in Journal Writing?………………………………………………………… 93
- Some Practical Suggestions………………………………………………………………………… 94
- Forms of Journal Writing……………………………………………………………………………. 96
- Journals in the Development of Self as a Professional……………………………………. 98
- National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan…………………… 99
- Brief Overview of Professional Standards for Initial Preparation of teachers in Pakistan 99
- Importance of Developing the Professional Standards for professional Development of Teachers in Pakistan 104
- Digital Technologies and Pedagogy……………………………………………….. 104
- Digital Technologies………………………………………………………………………………… 104
- Models for Technology Adoption……………………………………………………………… 108
- ADDLE Model 108
- TPACK Model 108
- Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
- Self-Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………. 114
- Activities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
- Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….. 115
Teacher’s role is continuously changing within and out of classroom. Teacher is a facilitator and guide, instead of sage on the stage. It is very important for a teacher to keep updated with latest trends and technology. This unit discusses some of very important aspects of teaching profession: professional identity, career development.
After reading this unit, you would be able to:
- Realize the importance of professional identity
- Interpret the process of career development
- Practice reflective journal for professional development
- Use National Professional Standards for Teachers as criteria for professional development
- Select suitable digital technology for teaching a particular topic
1. TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY
- Meaning of Professional Identity
- Gecas (1982) defined identities as the various meanings that are attached to a person by themselves and others.
- Professional identity is defined as one’s professional self-concept based on attributes, beliefs, values, motives, and experiences (Ibarra, 1999: as cited in Slay & Smith, 2011).
- A professional identity is an important cognitive mechanism that affects workers’ attitudes, affect and behaviour in work settings and professional life (Caza & Creary, 2016).
- Professional identities can also be seen as a social identity of a person within the group of the professionals who share a common approach to a particular type of work (Van Maanen and Barley, 1984: as cited in Caza &Creary, 2016).
Importance of Professional Identity
- A professional identity affects individual behavior and psychological well-being in the
- Individuals’ professional identities determined their moral decision- making e., decisions related to dos and don’ts, good and bad.
- Professional identification contributes to have positive performance outcomes such as career success.
- Professional identity plays an important role in shaping both psychological processes in the
- A positive self-concept about professional identity can protect a person from depression and anxiety.
Development of Professional Identity
Professional identity development can be used to make sense of experiences, practice and work (Nyström, 2009). Professional identity development shapes and is shaped by work-integrated learning experiences. Campbell and Zegwaard (2011) affirmed that universities/teacher education institutions play a key role in assisting students to navigate through workplace experiences.
Luehmann (2007) described five necessary processes in the development of a professional identity as a reformed educator, including (1) reconciling prior beliefs with teaching, (2) locating identity within a community of practice (3) managing emotional aspects of identity formation (4) integrating experiences and theory of teaching profession (5) developing a sense of self-confidence.
Joanna Gilmore, Melisa Hurst and Michelle Maher (2009) described the work of Fuller and Bown (Fuller, 1969; Fuller & Bown, 1975) about teacher identity development. This view proposes that teachers undergo a series of four developmental stages characterized by unique concerns.
- In the first stage, Fantasy, which occurs prior to actual teaching, prospective teachers romanticize about the experience At this stage, the preservice teacher can better identify with the students’ perspective than the teachers. Thus, students in this stage are often overly critical of their own teachers, or of teachers who they observe during early experiences in classroom/school.
- The Survival stage begins after entering the classroom and encountering a crisis usually related to classroom management or mastery of During this stage, the teacher struggles to achieve a sense of worth and identity. This struggle usually translates into concerns about class control, being liked by students and/or evaluation from other educators and administrators.
- The third stage, Mastery, occurs as teachers begin to develop mastery over their content and pedagogical knowledge adaptable to different situations. The teacher, in this stage, is able to engage in more systematic reflection about their instructional At this stage, teacher focuses on the teacher’s own performance, not on indicators of student learning.
- In the Impact stage, the teacher is better able to focus on individual students and their needs. Instead of being concerned about the evaluation of others, he or she is mostly concerned with self-evaluation.
- Relationship Between Professionalism and Professional Identity Professionalism involves decision making and judgment-based Professionalism comprises more than rules; it is a fluid concept which is highly dependent on context. Professionalism needs to be seen as a responsibility to make judgments and decisions in the context of practice. Contemporary professionalism needs to be underpinned by a professional identity. Professional identity is about knowing what one stands for i.e., it means becoming aware of what matters most in practice, what values and interests shape decision making. Professional identity is closely linked to professionalism which is taking responsibility for one’s action. So, thinking and acting as a professional are underpinned by professionalism and a sense of professional identity.
2. CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Career consists of a period of time spent in a job or profession (Merriam-Webster dictionary). Business dictionary defines career as jobs held and work accomplished over a long period of time. Career is a general pattern of progress of a person as an employee. It may involve one or more than one jobs held and evolving sequence of work sequence (Kapena, 2006).
It is necessary to identify opportunities and constraints within the prevailing environment. This will help you to focus your efforts on relevant areas and avoid irrelevant or out of date aspects in the job market. Some of the questions that should be considered for setting initial career objectives.
Importance of Career Development
Teaching profession is a very challenging and demanding as the teacher is concerned with the minds of the pupils. Teacher, as a professional, encounter a number of challenges in their work life. In order to deal with these challenges effectively and to perform the professional responsibilities in an effective way, teachers must undergo through a pre-planned career development process.
Career development is continuous and systematic process. It is not merely a set of unrelated random activities. It has clear goals and objectives. On the basis of these goals, content and materials are selected for career development. When teachers are trying to meet the professional standards for teachers (see section 5.4 of this chapter), they have to undergo professional development.
Steps of Successful Career Development
- Planning: For successful career development, proper planning is first most important step. Planning involves setting objectives for your career e., what do you want to achieve in next 05 years in terms of personal and/or professional development? Personal development may include your
interpersonal and intrapersonal skills whereas professional development may include further education, subject matter and pedagogical knowledge and skills. For example, if you want to get higher education or some refresher courses for pedagogical strategies or some short courses for updating your subject matter knowledge or some personality development workshop. You can finalize one or more objectives depending on your preferences. Another important part of planning is to think about possible ways to achieve your objectives? A refresher course, further education, reading related books, seeking guidance of a senior colleague as a mentor, conferences, seminars, membership of professional organization body e.g., Asia-Pacific Regional Network for Early Childhood (ARNEC), Kappa Delta Pi (KDP), Online Learning Consortium (OLC), ASCD: Supporting Educators Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.
- Self-awareness: Second important step is to know your strengths and It may be related to individual (intrapersonal i.e., self- management, integrity, emotional intelligence etc.) skills, interpersonal (listening, communication, negotiation, helping, caring, cooperation, collaboration) skills and technical or job-related skills (i.e., command on subject matter and pedagogical skills). National Professional Standards for teachers in Pakistan demands knowledge, skills and attitude related to a variety of areas (discussed in detail in section 5.4 of this chapter). Whenever, a teacher plans for his/her career development, he/she must direct his/her struggles for career development keeping in mind those standards. This step is also called self-awareness (Donnelly, 2002).
- Professional Opportunities: The next step is to improve in your weak areas by adopting suitable strategies/opportunity e.g., if you need to update your pedagogical skills, whether you can go for any of one, some or all of options such as refresher course, or read relevant papers and books, and attend a seminar or training workshop. Another way to become master in certain skills is to volunteer for those tasks e.g., if you think that you are weak in budgeting, take responsibilities related to budgeting for an event. This can help you to learn the areas in which you are lacking. However, overcoming weaknesses in skills and experiences requires time, commitment and
An important point for utilizing a professional opportunity is that you need to be selective about which opportunity you will avail. Not all professional opportunities can be a wise decision to take. You need to think ask three questions from yourself:
- Are you ready for the opportunity? In other words, do your skill set and experience ensure a reasonable chance of success in the position?
- Does the position contribute substantially to additional professional development, particularly in priority areas you have already identified for career development?
- Would the position lead to other opportunities later, either directly or indirectly?
Career development is a continuous process. Further, it is also a long term process comprising of at least three years or more. It is a flexible process in which you continuously assess what your goals are, where you are with respect to your goals, and plotting new strategies and directions for your career.
WRITING REFLECTIVE JOURNALS Q.1 Write down significance and procedure of writing reflective Journal.
- What is Reflection?
- A dialogue of thinking and doing through which one becomes more skilled (Schon, 1987).
- A process that helps teachers think about what happened, why it happened, and what else could have been done to reach their goals (Cruickshank & Applegate, 1981).
- The capacity to think creatively, imaginatively and, eventually, self- critically about classroom practice (Lasley, 1992).
- An ongoing process of examining and refining practice variously focused on the personal, pedagogical, curricular, intellectual, societal, and/or ethical contexts associated with professional work (Cole & Knowles, 2000).
- Reflection is what allows us to learn from our experiences. It is an assessment of where we have been and where we want to go next (Wolf).
What is Reflective Journal?
A journal consists of observations, insights, memories, impressions and feelings. Journaling is a way of having an open dialogue with oneself. It is a mechanism in
understanding the way you think, feel and see. Reflecting on the ‘facts’, and recording your impressions of the ‘facts’ is at the heart of writing creatively in your journal. It may also include plans and analysis. Writing a journal involves externalizing your thoughts, ideas, feelings, impressions, reactions, dreams, ideals, sorrows, yearnings, hopes and experiences. Putting them down ‘on the page’, you shift the way you perceive and think about them. Journal writing is all about process – it is not always about goals or outcome.
Journal writing is also a brilliant way not just to set goals (in all areas of your life) but also to refine and monitor them.
- What’s already working here? Who is this ‘goal’ pleasing?
- Could I look at the goal or the process more constructively or freshly? What would allow that?
- What supports me to keep on track?
- What mini-goals am I setting and achieving?
- Am I enjoying the process – or engaging with it wholeheartedly enough to enjoy it?
- What gems am I discovering as I go?
- What hurdles I am facing while working towards goals?
What to Write About?
Writing a journal allows you to see the patterns of your own thinking, emotions and actions. (Patterns will include habits and routines: ‘ways of seeing’ that are automatic rather than fresh. These will include assumptions and stale or static judgments. And habitual emotional reactions that may not be useful or even appropriate.) These patterns will emerge quite inevitably within a few weeks of journal writing. And the unfolding of these patterns will empower you, not least to see what you are giving time and attention to; where your thoughts are taking you; what emotions accompany your thoughts; what insights are available or needed; where changes may be needed.
We live in a world that is as complex as it is dynamic. Our interdependence with others and with the world beyond ourselves is a fact. Observing which events and experiences actually come into your awareness and find their way into your journal writing will help make you much more actively aware of what underpins your life – and the ceaselessly dynamic relationship between your inner and outer worlds. Whatever feels promising or engages you, choose that, then pick up your pen, open your journal or notebook, and simply let yourself write for at least ten minutes using what’s engaged you as your jumping-off point.
You do this simply by writing down what is in your mind as freely as you can. You engage with your thoughts and feelings from the inside out. This process is
very different from keeping those same thoughts in your mind and turning them over and over by worrying, ruminating or daydreaming.
Time Duration to Start Up
The crucial thing is to keep writing for at least ten minutes, to incorporate your hesitations or obstructions in your actual writing and to let your imagination and your senses off the leash. It can be written daily, weekly or after certain time period such as after every two weeks or monthly. However, it is desirable to write daily.
How to Write?
Writing ‘well’ is irrelevant here. So are concerns about perfect spelling or grammar or even ease with words. Ease with words – and with what those words are expressing – grows as your journal writing experience deepens. Write illegibly. You may have quite reasonable handwriting in everyday life, but in journal it shrinks and becomes far less legible than usual. This happened quite unconsciously. You could easily devise your own. Some sentences in my journal could be read by others, but by no means all. Although, it is good to organize your journal writing in an organized and quality manner. Spelling, grammar, neat handwriting are not very serious issues when it comes to journal writing. Don’t edit or rewrite as you go. If you find yourself ‘judging’, note that and move on. If you are stuck, simply write about that – and out the other side. Write for about 20 minutes – or longer if you have time and interest. Finish by completing this sentence: ‘The most unexpected thing I have discovered about new beginnings today is Don’t re-read immediately. Let your thoughts ‘rest’.
What Matters Most in Journal Writing?
In journal writing, the energizing qualities that count are passion, sensuality, truthfulness, compassion, curiosity, insight, creativity, spontaneity, artistry and delight.
It’s always the details that arise from your own observations that make your writing your own. Journal writing is where you can be flamboyantly, outrageously subjective. This means paying attention to: The physical details of time and place Your emotional and sensual responses Your analysis – if that seems relevant Your impressions and observations (or your ‘hunches’: ‘It seems to me that …’).
Impressions may quite naturally include your emotional responses and are often more important than the events themselves.
The details of a situation will always come into your mind with far greater clarity when you tune into them via your physical senses: seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, feeling, thinking.
How did your body feel as you sat through the meeting? What was it like to be touched (physically or emotionally) at the gathering after the baby’s christening? What was the physical environment like when you went to enquire about the new job? What were your feelings as you went up the stairs to the building? What kind of environment would you name as ‘ideal’? Do you know what you are looking for – or want? How did the place smell? Did it ‘feel’ safe and friendly? What was the person’s quality of voice? How did you react to that? (Do you know how your own voice sounds to others?)
Recording these details does far more than throw life in your journal writing. It trains you to observe even the most unpromising situations with far greater interest and subtlety.
Don’t expect insight, clarity or ‘answers’ immediately. Journal writing is about process – not instant answers! Answers and clarity may come later.
Some Practical Suggestions
Write in your journal regularly.
Even a few minutes’ writing on a busy day makes a difference. It helps keep you centered; it can calm you and even ‘create time’. Writing reasonably regularly also gives invaluable continuity to your discoveries.
Combine the familiar with the unfamiliar.
You may already be used to recording events or writing highly reflective journals. Whatever you are currently doing, there is no reason to stop – but do also try some of the exercises that appear in these pages. They will add to your repertoire of skills, increase your options, and with luck will broaden your vision.
Keep your journal where no one else will read it.
You may want to share some of your insights or discoveries at some point. But don’t do so too eagerly. Journal writing is, above everything, a personal process of self-discovery best done free even from the idea that someone else may be looking over your shoulder or observing the process. Don’t leave your journal around to be read ‘by accident’.
It is possible to be a computer journal writer!
Perhaps you feel that you must write your journal on the computer so that you can get your thoughts down fast enough. But at least experiment with handwriting. For many journal writers this increases the sense of intimacy and makes a clear
differentiation between the writing they do for work or for more public consumption and their creative
Apart from anything else, your handwriting tells its own stories. Handwriting also makes your journal writing more personal. And there is a sensuality to the experience of your hand moving across a page in tune with your thoughts that itself can seem increasingly valuable.
Use a pen that flows smoothly and feels totally comfortable in your hand.
Use several colours if you prefer. Free your creativity. Enjoy the freshness of mind and hand using pen and paper. In this computer age, that is an increasingly rare treat.
Choose your journals lovingly.
Buy a diary or notebook that suits you and your particular needs. Treat yourself. Even your choice of journal tells a story and is worth writing about.
Keep extra pages of high quality paper that you can fold into your more formal journal.
Some of the exercises in this book will become part of your main journal and you may want to do them a number of times. Don’t limit yourself. If you have to write something in your ‘journalthen you certainly don’t want to waste time.
‘Journal writing’ includes and encourages every possible self-expression.
If you want to draw, or respond to an idea or situation by writing a short story or a poem, don’t hesitate. Many literary writers have been committed diary or journal writers. In one of the most famous published journals, that of Katherine Mansfield, there are drafts of letters, fragments of short stories, circling of ideas, inner arguments, sublime insights and the most ordinary noting of events (‘J [her husband] went to town. I worked a little – chased the fowls.’)
Whenever you feel flat or ‘stuck’, describe that state of mind in your journal. Be a scientific observer of your own condition. (‘I kept writing in circles, just commenting on that, and then suddenly I took off against all my own expectations …’)
‘Forget’ what you wrote yesterday.
Practise coming into this day, freshly. Bring to your journal writing your capacity to be present in the present moment – even when you are writing about the past.
Q.1 Write down significance and procedure of writing reflective Journal.
Creative journal writing
As a creative journal writer, you are always free to go beyond the mere recording of facts. (‘Went to Newcastle. Saw Tom.’) Facts can be a useful prompt for later writing or reflecting and on those days when you have barely had the time to comb your hair or floss your teeth then perhaps a few ‘facts’ may be all that you can manage. But more usually, regard the facts as your well-sprung diving board and the world of impressions, ideas and reflections as the bottomless pool into which you can, at any time, fearlessly dive.
Date your journal entries.
Also note the time of day you are writing. You may be surprised how differently you see things mid-week, or maybe late at night. A few lines or even a few words, about where you are, physically, can often get you started and make you more satisfyingly observant.
Look objectively at the obstacles that lie between you and that outcome.
Are they self-made? What differences can you make through a shift in attitude, a bigger perspective, greater insight, or changed behaviours?
Forms of Journal Writing
Forms of journal-writing Journals come in any shape, size or form. They exist as the five-year diary with prescribed space for each day, they could exist as yellow sticky notes stuck on the walls of a room, or they exist not on paper at all. They may be in electronic form on audio or videotape or in a word-processed format and, no doubt, they have been written on stone or the walls of caves. . With the common use of digital photography, particularly on mobile phones, graphic journals are possible, too – or the mixing of written and graphic work. The possibilities are as broad as the imagination of the writer – or of the person who has set journal-writing as a task. However, a more significant factor for the learning result of journal-writing is the internal structure of a journal. Writing, for example, might result from the stimulus of an exercise or a question posed.
Weblogs or Blogs
A web log or blog is an internet site on which the written work and editing work of an individual or group is managed through a web browser. Because it is web- based, it is public and this does distinguish it from most other journal work. Similarly, the ease of editing work on a screen distinguishes it from paper-based work. The blog may be added to at different times or by different people within a pre-determined group, and it is organized by the dates of the additions. There may be other information or links added into the accumulating material. There may be a search facility that can enable material within the blog to be located more easily.
|Some Exercises for starting reflective journal writing|
|Exercise 5.1: The power of your senses
As you start
Describe where you are sitting, the time of day, the atmosphere inside and outside, how your body is today – in greater detail than usual. Go for precision – not broad strokes. Check all your senses.
Describe a situation that happened several years ago. Pick something instinctively. Run it through your mind like a movie. When you begin to write, for the first ten minutes or so, focus on what you think about the situation. As you continue to write, switch your focus to your feelings.
Then after another ten minutes, switch again – emphasizing thought over feelings. You may want to comment on that switch as you write.
As you are writing, look down through the tunnel of time and bring each moment into even greater colour through the power of your senses.
Remind yourself what the place looked like; what the atmosphere was; were there any memorable smells? How did your body feel? Who else was involved? What challenged, pleased or surprised you?
Finish by completing this sentence: ‘The sense I now have about this situation is
…’ And then: ‘The sense memories that seem strongest for me are …’.
Let yourself also notice any differences between observations driven by thought and those driven by feelings.
Don’t re-read immediately. Let your thoughts ‘rest’.
|Exercise 5.2: Reflecting skillfully
As you start
Let yourself choose just one of these options.
You can write a letter to yourself from the perspective of your Wise Being or your Inner Wisdom. (‘From my perspective, it is fairly easy to see that what was being argued about was not whether Paul should have been allowed to go to camp but how you and James both feel about making decisions on the run especially when the pressures seem …’)
You can also write an account of a complex situation to your Wise Being. Finally, you can write out a question to your Wise Being and leave it in the safety of your journal, coming back to it only when you feel ready to write the answer.
Take any situation you have already written about in your usual way, and look at it from this higher (deeper?) perspective.
Keep re-focusing so that your perspective remains broad, positive and compassionate.
You may need to be patient. Sometimes you will need to return to this exercise more than once.
Remember, you may also want to write to your Wise Self, rather than from your Wise Self, setting out in detail what is concerning you.
Keep writing for at least 20 minutes.
Complete just one of these sentences:
‘The insight I most value is …’
‘The action I need to take is …’ (Perhaps you will see that no action is needed.) ‘I am most grateful to see that …’
‘I feel more hopeful now because …’ Don’t re-read immediately.
Let your thoughts ‘rest’.
|Exercise 5.3:Adding details to the facts
As you start
Quite spontaneously choose a single incident that you experienced within the last couple of days. (Keep it to something that is still fresh in your mind.)
Write down a description of that in fewer than ten words.
Now give yourself some minutes of quiet reflection and begin to recall the details of what you experienced.
Start writing again, describing the same experience in at least 300 words. (You choose your goal – with no outer limit!)
As you ‘scan’ the event, review it from ‘afar’ and close up.
Finish this sentence: ‘The detail that brings this day most to life for me is …’
I would suggest that you repeat this exercise often. It is also a great one to come back to when you recognize that your journal writing is falling a little flat.
Journals in the Development of Self as a Professional
To facilitate learning or to nurture educational development involves the whole person cognitively and emotionally. Because most journal-writing draws expression or exploration of emotion and attitude into the ‘open’ in writing, it has the potential to link personal and professional development. As the emotions and attitudes are involved in journal writing, there is a greater chance to recognize, examine and modify them.
Q.2 Describe role of schools for betterment of individual and society.
4. NATIONAL PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS IN PAKISTAN
The ministry of education has developed national professional standards for teachers in 2009. The purpose of formulating this document is to ensure professional excellence and quality output in teaching profession.
Brief Overview of Professional Standards for Initial Preparation of teachers in Pakistan
Professional standards for initial preparation of teachers are comprised of ten standards. Each standard has three parts; knowledge (content), dispositions (behaviour, attitude, and values) and performance (what teachers do and should be able to do). The ten standards are given below:
Figure 5.1: National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan
Figure 2: Composition of Professional Standard Table 5.1: National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan
|S #||Standard||Knowledge and understanding about||Dispositions: value and committed to||Demonstrate skills|
|1.||Subject matter knowledge||a. National curriculum framework
b. Basic concepts, theories, history, structure and process of acquiring knowledge of subject
c. Emerging concepts and latest trend at national & international levels
d. Relationship of subject with other subjects and
e. Usability of subject in practical life
|a. facilitate students for acquiring and constructing knowledge
b. Accommodating individual differences of students to develop subject matter competence
|a. Explaining content through multiple perspective
b. Using teaching tools
c. Examples from practical life for students
|2.||Human growth and development||a. Influence of students ‘ talent, experiences and culture on students’ learning
b. Individual differences among students
c. Learning theories and approaches
d. Motivational strategies for learning
|a. Appreciate multiple ways of learning and thinking
b. Believe in ability of all students to learn
c. Treating all students equitably
d. Helping to boost confidence and subject-matter competence of
|a. Promote critical thinking, creative thinking, problem- solving and decision- making skills
b. Applying learning theories to accommodate individual differences among students
c. Promote cooperation and collaboration among students
|3.||Knowledge of Islamic ethical values/Social life skills||a. Islamic code of conduct (beliefs, prayers, equality, brotherhood, balance, tolerance and peace)
development of students and factors affecting it
c. Importance and factors affecting peace
|a. Quran and Sunnah are only valid source of knowing
b. Respect for religious/cultural differences of students
c. Promoting tolerance
d. Dialogue as a means for conflict resolution
|a. Create a safe learning environment for all students
b. Practice Islamic code of conduct in daily life
c. Use Islamic teachings for dealing issues of human rights, social class, gender ,race, ethnicity, language
|4.||Instructional planning and strategies||a. Knowledge about variety of instructional approaches to promote thinking and learning among students
b. Knowledge about instructional technology in instructional planning
c. Knowledge about instructional strategies and resources to accommodate individual differences of students
|a. Attaining goals and objectives of curriculum
b. Multiple ways for presenting subject matter and solving problems
c. Pedagogy of care, collaboration and cooperation
|d. Use of variety of instructional approaches to promote thinking and learning among students
e. Use of instructional technology for enriching learning experiences of students
f. Use of effective lesson plans to accommodate individual differences of students
g. Creating learning experiences that make subject matter meaningful for students
|5.||Assessment||a. Different types and tools of assessment i.e., norm-/criterion- referenced assessment, traditional and performance based assessment, portfolio, observation
b. Assessment related issue i.e., validity, reliability, bias and scoring concerns
c. Improving teaching through assessment results
|a. Assessment results are means for growth and learning
b. Fair and objective assessment and reporting to students and families
c. Constructive feedback on students’ performance
|a. Continuous and objective assessment and reporting of student performance
b. Constructive feedback on students’ performance
c. Analyzing students’ performance through multiple tools of assessment
d. Using assessment results in instructional planning
|6.||Learning Environment||a. Principles and strategies for effective classroom management
b. Creating learning environment in classroom
c. Democratic learning environment to encourage student participation
|a. Role of students in creating ethical learning environment through peer to peer relationships
b. Exhibiting democratic attitude in the classroom
|a. Develop and practice classroom discipline rules
b. Use instructional time effectively
c. Individual and group work of students to encourage every student’s participation in class
|7.||Effective communication and proficient use of Information Communicatio n Technologies||a. Importance of verbal, nonverbal and written communication in teaching learning process.
b. Computer and diverse technical tools such as artwork, videos, camera, phones etc. for instructional and evaluation
|a. Culturally sensitive communication by and among all students
b. Thoughtful and responsive listener
c. Celebrating diversity among students
|a. Communicate clearly using appropriate oral and written expressions
b. Sensitivity to cultural, social, gender, linguistic and gender differences
c. Using digital technology to manage student portfolios and assessment record
|8.||Collaboration and partnerships||a. Importance effective school- home interaction for high quality learning
b. Role of school community partnership for student learning
c. Different approaches to collaborate effectively with parents, professionals and community
|a. Role of teacher, parents and other community members in student learning
b. Being concerned about student well-being
c. Willing to work with parents and other community members to improve student learning
d. Facilitate holistic development of student through school community
|a. Utilize community resources to create opportunities for student learning
b. Link school with community, business and industry
|9.||Continuous professional development and code of conduct||a. Demands of professional code of conduct
b. Maintaining personal professional portfolio
c. Educational research as means of learning and
|a. Reflection and professional learning as continuous process
b. Collaborate with colleagues
c. Demonstrate professional ethics
|a. Set goals for professional development plans
b. Seek advice of others and draw on action research to improve teaching practice
c. Demonstrate ethical behavior in teaching, learning and
|Teaching of English as Second/Foreign language||a. Aims, status and structure of English language
b. Constraints of teaching English as a second/foreign language
c. Specific learning difficulties i.e., Second Language
|a. Lessen anxiety and biases for learning English as Second Language (ESL)
b. Address needs of students related to ESL
|a. Use of simple English language with supportive use of Urdu
b. Gradually encourage students to communicate in English language
Importance of Developing the Professional Standards for professional Development of Teachers in Pakistan
- Along with the mastery of a body of knowledge, teacher profession requires certain set of skills and attitude. So, there is a need to develop a standardized system of knowledge, skills and performance for entry into teaching
- Professional standards may help to smooth the activities of any profession to get the optimal outcomes within a limited time and cost frame.
- These standards can serve as criteria for professional development of Hence, it can be used for professional learning, self-assessment and coaching of teachers.
Teachers are the main elements of an education system through which the objectives of quality education can be achieved. In Pakistan, the professional standards for teachers can be helpful for attaining and maintaining the quality.
5. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND PEDAGOGY
- Digital Technologies
Digital technology includes all types of electronic tools that use information in the form of numeric binary codes i.e., 0 and 1. Tools that process and use digital information include personal computers, calculators, automobiles, compact disc players, mobile phones, multimedia, internet and World Wide Web (www).
There are continuous developments in digital technology tools. These technological advancements involve computers, laptops, iPad, iPod, mobiles, printers, scanners, internet and World Wide Web (www).Most important advancements in internet and web technology has influenced every field of life. Internet is a network of billions of computers for transferring information; web is the platform where by using internet, information is shared and used. There are different generations of web technologies i.e., web 1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0. Web
2.0 is in use now. And the future trend is progressing towards Web 3.0.
Web 1.0 is an old generation of web that allows people to only read information from the internet e.g., Hotmail, MSN.
Web 2.0 has its emphasis on human collaboration. People access information as well as contribute information through technology tools such as Blogs, Facebook and YouTube.
Web 3.0 involves structuring and linking information for effective discovery, integration and reuse across various applications. It improves data management, customer satisfaction and collaboration among people on web.
The figure 5.1 describes the difference between web 1.0, web 2.0 and web 3.0 from educational perspective.
Figure 3: Difference between Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 (https://i.pinimg.com/originals/9a/a1/fd/9aa1fd4adb3b43b92d99117ffaa35fc4.jpg)
Let us see important web 2.0 technologies which are being used in education (Johnson, 2006: as cited in Delich, Kelly & McIntosh, 2008).
- Digital storytelling: Storytelling is one of the oldest teaching methods. By using digital video cameras and software such as movie, a teacher/student can share a story with wider audience through In education, instructors can ask students to create digital stories to demonstrate knowledge of a topic.
- Online Meetings:Meetings for online classes can be facilitated by the use of web conferencing/virtual classroom tools such as WebEx, Wimba, Elluminate, Skype, Micro-soft Live Meeting, Adobe Breeze, Centra, and These technologies add presentation and group interaction tools. Most of them provide both voice and text chat functionality. Their synchronous naturei.e, persons involved in communication are exchanging messages at the same time, appeals to many people and complements other asynchronous communication tools.In asynchronous communication, there can be a delay between sending information and receiving the response e.g., email, blogs. Huge savings in travel costs can be realized by conducting meetings over the Internet. For a geographically widespread class or working group, occasional online meetings can help to keep people on track and provide a valuable opportunity for synchronous discussions.
- Personal broadcasting: Personal broadcasting tools include: blogs (web logs), moblogs (mobile blogs), vlogs (video blogs), podcasts (episodic series of video and audio files) and vodcasts (video podcasts)with uploaded images from cell Instructors can use these technologies to bring diverse elements into a course to assist in meeting a variety of learning styles. These technologies can also be used for updating students on current activities and projects. Podcasting and videoblogs can assist learners whose learning style is primarily auditory. Some uses include recording lectures for students to review, providing more clarity for difficult concepts, and supplementing lecture information such as guest lectures and interviews. Personal broadcasting technologies give students an opportunity to participate in the creative construction of knowledge and project-related work. People can share their broadcasts on their own websites or through
sites that specialize in specific types of broadcasting, such as wordpress.com for blogs or youtube.com for vlogs.
- Wikis: Wikis are a type of website that allows visitors to easily add, remove, and otherwise edit the content. This ease of interaction makes wikis an effective tool for writing skills of students. Wikis can be useful as a tool for students to build their own knowledge base on specific topics and for sharing, comparing, and merging that knowledge.
- Hybrid or Blended Learning: Hybrid or blended learning, also known as extended learning mixes instructional modalities to provide a learning environment, using e-learning and classroom training where each is most It may also be a mix of synchronous and asynchronous technologies. Using both online and in-person methodologies allows instruction to be designed to address diverse learning styles, as well as meet the course’s learning objectives. For example, learners might use e-learning for the basic content, but meet face-to-face in a laboratory, or in a classroom.
- Intelligent Searching: Many people use Google and other search engines daily to search and find all kinds of Currently these have emerged in specific content areas such as Google Maps, Google Scholar, video and audio using Blinx and Stumble Upon, which uses ratings to form collaborative opinions on website quality.
- Mashups: (integration of multi-sourced ) A mashup is a website or web application that seamlessly combines content from more than one source into an integrated experience”. Top City Books is another example; this site shows the top 10 books in a city for eight subjects.
- Peer-to-peer file sharing: In a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, files are shared directly between computers without going through a P2P applications are usually web-based and use peer-to-peer file sharing. Some examples include online meeting (web conferencing), instant messaging, Skype, Groove and BitTorrent.
- Mobile learning: Also called m-learning, this represents an evolution of e- learning to the almost ubiquitous mobile environment for laptop computers, cell phones, PDAs and Learning will be in smaller chunks and designed as just-in-time (performance support) to accommodate wide variety of users.
With the expansion of latest technologies, there are more opportunities for teachers to teach using new technology tools and teaching strategies. Lecture- based approach often fails to engage students in online courses. Instructors should explore other instructional strategies while conceptualizing how they will design their course using digital technology tools. In this way, the opportunity to design,
develop, and teach in a new medium opens the door to learning new pedagogies. In distance education, the role of an instructor shift from a lecturer to a facilitator. Promoting collaboration among students by using technology tools requires both control and flexibility. Control can be practiced by setting objectives of a learning activity, writing clear instructions for assignment and deadlines for assignment. Flexibility can be provided to students by giving choice to students for selecting assignment from given two or more topics, and technology resources they will use to complete and enrich assignment.
The tools described here, when combined with thoughtful and deliberate pedagogical practice, can create a transformative experience for students and educators. However, it should be kept in mind that technology is not there to replace teachers; the intelligent use of technology can only be made by a teacher and students.
Models for Technology Adoption
There are a number of different models for technology adoption. We will discuss two most widely used models for designing technology integrated pedagogical practices in distance, blended and online learning: ADDIE and TPACK.
ADDIE stands for: analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate. ADDIE model first appeared in 1975. It was created by the Center for Educational Technology at Florida State University for U.S. Army and then quickly adapted by all U.S. Armed forces. There are five phases of ADDIE model, as given below:
- Analyse: Identify all the variables that need to be considered when designing the course, such as learner characteristics, learners’ prior knowledge, resources available, etc.
- Design: This stage focuses on identifying the learning objectives for the course and how materials will be created and designed (for instance, it may include describing what content areas are to be covered and a storyboard outlining what will be covered in text, audio and video and in what order), and deciding on the selection and use of technology, such as an LMS, video or social media.
- Develop: This stage involves the creation of content, including whether to develop in-house or outsource, copyright clearance for third party materials, loading of content into a web site or LMS, and so on;
- Implement: This stage covers the actual delivery of the course, including any prior training or briefing of learner support staff, and student
- Evaluate: In this stage, feedback and data is collected in order to identify areas that require improvement and the results are used to improve the design, development and implementation of the next offering of the
Figure 5.2: ADDIE Model (https://image.slidesharecdn.com/b8c712e4-6292- 433b-88e3-c3c09259c590-160428133611/95/implementation-of-addie-model-2- 638.jpg?cb=1461850696)
TPACK model (TPACK stands for technological pedagogical content knowledge) is developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006). It is a dynamic framework defined by integrating pedagogy, content, and technology. The model TPACK consists of three mains components content, pedagogy and technology and their overlap for planning classroom teaching.
Content: what you teach?
Pedagogy: how you teach?
Technology: Technological resources such as computers, software, mobile, internet.
It emphasizes that content and pedagogy must be basis for using technology tools for classroom teaching. All the decisions related to components of this model must be situated in unique context of classroom i.e., individual teacher, teacher training, experiences and attitude of students, class level, school environment, culture, students’ individual characteristics, available resources and other factors that make a classroom unique (see fig. 5.3).The framework TPACK emphasizes
the need to think about developing good teaching at the overlapping areas of
seven major kinds of knowledge, given below:
- Content Knowledge (CK): “Content knowledge refers to teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter which he/she will teach. It refers to knowledge of one particular discipline such as content knowledge of English is different content knowledge of social studies or Urdu. Shulman (1986) said that content knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge” (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
- Pedagogical Knowledge (PK): “Pedagogical knowledge is teachers’ knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and It also encompasses overall educational purposes, values, and aims. Further, it also includes knowledge about learning theories, lesson planning, classroom management and student assessment (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
- Technology Knowledge (TK): Technology knowledge is knowledge about thinking and working with all types of technology tools and resources. This also includes understanding and using information technology to achieve a goal, and being able to adapt to changes in information technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
- Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK):It involves the subject matter knowledge and knowledge of multiple way to represent subject matter knowledge, adapting the instructional material according to needs and prior knowledge of students. The pedagogical content knowledge is based on Shulman’s concept of PCK i.e., transformation of instructional material into teaching for It promotes students’ learning. It also links the curriculum, pedagogy and assessment (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
- Technological Content Knowledge (TCK): Besides having deep knowledge about subject matter of a discipline, the teacher need to know about various technologies that can be used to aid learning of subject matter. A teacher also need to seek knowledge about how the content and technology affect and support each In addition, teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their discipline and how the content affect or suggest changes in the technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
- Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK): Technological pedagogical knowledge involves understanding of various pedagogical strategies and effect of using various technological tools on classroom teaching. It also includes realizing how the teaching and learning changes when particular technological tools are used for teaching (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
- Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): Technological pedagogical content knowledge refers to teaching instructional material using pedagogical techniques that involves use of technologies in order tomake teaching-learning process easy and It is an attempt to make difficult concepts easy for student learning and supporting students to build their knowledge upon their existing knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
TPACK model goes beyond the knowledge of hardware, software and basic computing skills. This model focuses on (1) the effective use of technology to make teaching-learning process more effective (2) making flexible decisions of what pedagogical strategy is best for a particular lesson and what kind of pedagogical techniques are more appropriate with the technology available and how it can be carried out.
Figure 5.3: TPACK Model
The ADDIE and TPACK model can help us to use technology tools in teaching to promote student learning. It is always a teacher who will decide that which, when and how a technology tool will be used in classroom teaching. Remember, technology cannot replace a teacher; it is just a tool to make student learning more effective.
A lesson plan template by using TAPCK model is given below:
The teacher’s role in today’s age is more complex and multi-dimensional. Professional identity, career development, meeting national professional standards for teachers and teaching through digital technologies are very important and sensitive aspects that a teacher deals with. However, a teacher can effectively perform these tasksby careful planning and strategic decision-making.
7. SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- Define professional
- Explain the professional identity process for abstract
- What steps are involved in career development process?
- What is reflective journal?
- Why reflective journal is in important?
- Explain TPACK model.
- How TPACK model can be helpful in selecting a particular Technology for a lesson?
- Differentiate between Web 0 2.0and 3.0.
- What is ADDIE model? How it is important in e-learning?
Prepare a career development plan for yourself keeping in view your career goals for next three years.
Develop a lesson plan on a topic keeping in view the by using TPACK sample lesson plan
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ETHICS, EDUCATION AND TEACHER
Written By: Dr. Asaf Nawaz
Reviewed By: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain
Sr. Title Page No
- Educations as a Human Right in International Context…………………….. 121
- Right to Education in Pakistan………………………………………………………. 123
- Educational Rights and Professional Wrongs………………………………….. 124
- Schooling……………………………………………………………………………………. 127
- Purpose of Schooling……………………………………………………………………………….. 127
- Teaching……………………………………………………………………………………… 129
- Teachers as a Role Model……………………………………………………………… 134
- 2 Describe role of schools for betterment of individual and society.
7 SAQ…………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
8 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….. 139
Teaching is very complicated task to perform. Teachers who teach students need to know a lot about pros and cons of this profession. This is a noble profession and a profession of all of the messengers of Allah who came to guide the humanity towards the right path. Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) was sent as a teacher. This profession is meant to prepare new generation for future. Teachers need to adopt high level of morality in order to set example for their students to copy. Educational policies and plans are developed after very careful analysis of where we are and where we need to go. Teachers are prepared to implement what was thought of our new generation in terms of knowledge, skills and dispositions. Teachers are the only sources who can make this dream a reality. The preparation of teaching force also needs very careful planning. Teachers need to be prepared in such a way that they perform their duties without any problem e.g. social, financial, emotional, psychological etc. Teachers enjoy very good social status if they perform their duties honestly. Teachers will perform their duties according to set standards only when they know that quality education is a basic right of every child. For the dissemination of knowledge, skills and dispositions they need to know how to ensure quality instructions in the classrooms. They need to know how to treat students in respectful manners and how they can contribute positively in their holistic development. This profession demands a lot from teachers they must know about academic development, intellectual development, physical development, social development, emotional development, psychological development, moral development, and spiritual development of students along with the ways and means which foster these different aspects of overall development. They must know how to develop confidence in students, how to prepare them to face hard and soft realities of life, how to contribute at individual level for betterment of community etc.
Educating individual means to bring positive changes in his thinking and doing. Education does not mean to memorize factual information or to reproduce the content of textbooks in examination and to move towards next grade/level/class. Education enables individuals to think rationally, solve problems logically, examine the information critically, and contribute in the development of society positively. Educating children means to prepare them for successful future life as adult, as parents, as professionals, as members of society, as family members etc. Education helps individuals to adjust themselves according to the environment. Above mentioned objectives of education can only be achieved if we prepare teachers who are strong in their academics, skillful in transmitting knowledge successfully, and display good moral character. A well balance personality can be a teacher. He must know what is meant by education as basic human right and
how to act to fulfill this commitment. How education is being imparted in other regions of the world and how we can ensure quality education within the limits of available resources. He must know the current trends and theories of subject matter knowledge, how to develop links between content of textbooks and the personal lives of children which teaching in classrooms. How to assess students abilities against different levels of cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains of learning, how to use formative assessment as diagnostic tools and how to plan instructional process embedded with assessment, how to manage classroom effectively, how to create conducive learning environment, how to promote moral and ethical values within classroom teaching learning process, how to ensure equity and equality in classroom, how to transform information keeping the individual differences of children etc.
Teachers must understand their roles and responsibilities. If they perform their duties in professional manner they will succeed and if they do not perform professionally they will set bad examples for students. Students affect a lot from their teachers’ roles and teachers must try to prove themselves as role models.
It is hoped that after studying this unit you will be able to;
- Discuss where does Pakistan stand in its commitment to provide free and quality basic education to children?
- Enlist number to organizations or bodies which try to ensure basic education as human right of every child around the
- Give a detail description about right to education constitution in Pakistan
- Explain vision 2020 of education in Pakistan
- What are educational wrongs in Pakistani education system?
- Explain the purpose of schooling in Pakistan
- Suggest what schools are supposed to do for the betterment of individuals and society
- Write in detail how teaching is a complicated task?
- Enlist characteristics of effective teachers
- Describe teachers as role models for students
- Discuss at length Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as role model for the whole humanity in general and for Muslims in particular
1. EDUCATIONS AS A HUMAN RIGHT IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
After the adaptation of the Universal Education of Human Rights in 1948, education has been considered as a basic human right. Many international treaties also affirmed this right e.g. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (1966) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1981). These treaties advocated following recommendation;
- free and compulsory primary education of all children
- a responsible approach towards developing secondary education accessible for all children and equitable access to higher education
- provision of basic education for those who have missed the chance of primary education
According to the Article 13 (1) of the ICESCR:
“The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education. They agree that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They further agree that education shall enable all persons to participate effectively in a free society, promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace”(Lee, n.d.pp;02)
Similarly Article 28 (1) of the Convention on Rights of Children (CRC) stipulates; States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall in particular:
“Make Primary education compulsory and available free to all; Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;
Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;
Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;
Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates” (Lee, n.d.pp; 02).
These treaties further more affirm the objectives of the education as promotion of personal development, strengthening the respect for human rights and freedoms, enabling individuals to actively participate in his/her society and to promote cooperation, friendship and tolerance. The right to education means access to educational services with elimination of discrimination at all levels of education and to set minimum standards of quality education. It was also recognized that for the fulfillment of any social, political, economical and civil right, education is necessary. The UNESCO (1989) also emphasized on the implementation of its core principles as nondiscrimination in the best interest of the child, right of a living as enabling child to survive and develop himself/herself to the maximum extent possible, expression of views regarding each and every matter which affect them and to give due weight/space in accordance with their age and maturity. These underlying principles make clear a strong commitment to ensuring that children are recognized as active agents in their own learning and that education is designed to promote and respect their rights and needs. The Convention elaborates an understanding of the right to education in terms of universality, participation, respect and inclusion. This approach is exemplified both in the text itself and in its interpretation by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, the international body established to monitor governments’ progress in implementing child rights.
Another Article 29 of CRC specifies the need of establishing appropriate educational environments which help in promoting human dignity and basic rights of each child. Diverse and evolving abilities of children need to be focused and educational environment may be established which ensures a balance in child’s ability with his familial, cultural identity and socioeconomic conditions. Article 2 of CRC emphasized the respect and rights of children regardless of their background, ability, sex, or any other distinguishing factor (UNESCO, 1989). Article 3 of CRC is focusing on the interests of children and it advocates for condition where best interests of children are kept on top priority including their involvement in decision making process. Similarly article 5 of CRC emphasized that parents must play their positive role in evolving the capacities of children to which influence their life. According to article 17, easy access to information is the right of children, article 17 (a) highlights the importance of dissemination of
information and material for the social and cultural benefits of children; article 17
(b) reinforces the desire of developing intercultural understanding through national and international cooperation and exchange of information and materials; and article 17 (e), emphasizes that parents and public authorities must ensure the rights of the children through practices and legislation.
2. RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
Development of responsible, capable and conscious individuals and societies is not possible without provision of educational facilities. Education is not only necessary for every child but it is their basic right hence it is the primary responsibility of state to enable its citizens to access education. Many countries has constituted by laws that education is the basic and foremost right of every individual. Article 37 B of the constitution of Pakistan stated: “the state shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimal possible time”. In 2010, government of Pakistan has also included Right to Education (RTE) through Article 25 A of the 18th amendment. Amendment to the constitution is the first step and it is necessary to make law for its proper implementation in the country. The statement of Article 25 A is as follows: “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law”. RTE is recognized since the Universal declaration of Human Rights (1948) in its article 26 and UNESCO has adopted it as free and compulsory basic education for children from 1951. Education for All (EFA) is another international movement and a global commitment for providing basic quality education to all children, youth and adults. Pakistan is one of the signatories of EFA among 164 countries and government of Pakistan pledged to achieve all 6 goals of EFA to be met by 2015. The year 2015 has passed and this dream still yet to come true in Pakistan as we are far behind in achieving the goals of EFA. Pakistan is also committed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of education by the year 2015 but this commitment could not be fulfilled successfully in Pakistan.
According to UNESCO there are many benefits of education: literacy is a human right and it is also a tool of human, social and personal development. Literacy skills are at the heart of basic education for all. Basic literacy skills are essential for reducing the rate of child mortality, achievement of gender equality in education and other fields, eradicating poverty, controlling over population growth, and ensuring sustainable development of the country. Sen (1989) states that quality basic education enables children to have literacy skills of life and for continuous learners or lifelong learners. It is also observed that if parent are
literate they would send their children to school, literate individuals are able to access more educational opportunities.
All of the educational policies emphasized free and compulsory education for children in Pakistan but it could not be achieved in its true spirit. Now primary and secondary education in Pakistan is free but there are serious concerns over its quality. Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) claimed that the quality of basic education in Pakistan is miserable in the light of students’ performance in English, Urdu and Mathematics.
3. EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PROFESSIONAL WRONGS
Quality education is the basic right of children everywhere in the world so in Pakistan as well. Quality education means a type of education where: students learn from qualified teachers; they have opportunities to learn well and play well; they feel comfortable in learning environment; they learn according to their pace of learning; their views are valued; they receive positive feedback from teachers; they have good relation with their teachers; they get proper attention of the teachers; they feel secure; they are treated in respectable manners; their needs and interests are always taken seriously; they have ample opportunities to grow well academically as well as mentally; their confidence is build; they are loved; they are encouraged and motivated to go ahead; they are prepared for future life; they have counseling services; they have more experienced personalities (teachers) for guidance; they develop themselves as individuals who are morally very strong; they have morally strong teachers to copy or to observe as role models; they have opportunities to utilize their potential fully; they have opportunities to interact with other fellows to develop healthy relationships; they have opportunities to develop them physically etc. Children have lot of rights and efforts should be made to fulfill these rights at state level as well as at community level. As an agricultural country, Pakistani population is not homogenous and most of its people reside in rural areas where provision of quality education is a great challenge. Due to absence of quality education and basic health facilities in rural areas urbanization emerges as a serious challenge.
Professional wrongs mean all actions or behaviors of teachers which are not at par with existing demand and need of time to prepare students for 21st century. We can high light professional wrongs through following indicators.
If teachers enter into the class with smiling face; if they do not show enthusiasm with profession; if they are not committed to their duties; if they do not know about national curriculum and use it as guide for teaching learning process; if they
teach students without preparation; if they do not develop links between previous learning of students with new learning; if they do not broaden and deepen knowledge base of students; if they do not prepare students mentally for learning; if they do not involve students in learning process; if they do not encourage students participation; if they do not value students point of views; if they do not encourage and motivate students towards learning; if they do not pay individual attention to the students; if they do not give proper feedback to the students; if they do not build the confidence of students; if they do not develop links between new learning and daily life of students; if they do not share updated knowledge of the subject with students; if they do not share emerging trends and theories of concern subject matter with students; if they do not consult their fellow colleagues and other experts; if they do not ensure mastery of learning of subject matter; if they do not clear the misconception of the students; if they do not quote examples from daily life for ensuring conceptual learning of students; if they do not apply different teaching methods according to the nature of topic; if they do not apply different teaching leaning strategies and tactics for student learning; if they do not apply students centered teaching learning approaches; if they do not apply innovative techniques of classroom management; if they do not develop the skills and dispositions of students apart from knowledge; if they do not develop healthy relationship with students; if they do not meet with parents for well being of their students; if they do not use different learning resources in teaching leaning process; if they do not invite influential from community to improve the overall environment of the school; if they do not teach students according to their pace and capability; if they do not help students to know their potential; if they do not identify hidden capacities of students; if they do not provide guidance and counseling services to the students; if they do not help students in their holistic development; if they do not provide opportunities for students to grow academically, socially, emotionally, psychologically, and physically; if they do not exhibit strong moral character for students to copy etc. There are so many other indicators which must be kept in mind while preparing teachers for preparation of students for healthy and balance future life. Here are some professional wrongs which we can observe in schools. These are reflected by teachers when they:
- Believe teaching is just a job
- Arrive late regularly, have discipline problems, not sensitive to students’ culture or heritage, express biasness and indulge in paper work during class instead of working with students
- Do not address parents concerns properly and lacking in conflict resolution skills
- Use inappropriate language, ridicule students, always defensive, having confrontations with students, and do not own what so ever occur in classrooms
- Inconsistent in approach of teaching, monitoring or other tasks
- Enlist and implement strict rules for classroom and expect nothing from students
- Allow students disengagement from learning, unavailable out of classroom, inappropriate complain, keep class unclean and disorderly, and remain always unpredictable
- Not plan lessons, do not keep record of students’ assessment, use single teaching method, and do not engage students in learning
- Have poor performance of students, give vague instructions for any task, do not keep him/her self updated, use outdated material, do not become innovative, reluctant to change and use poor and improper language.
- Do not monitor students’ progress; do not allow questions during teaching, poor link with students and parents, do not apply variety of assessment strategies and ignore students having special needs
- Give negative feedback on students work, unwilling to contribute positively in overall mission and vision of school and submit reports (results, data, information, minutes etc.) late
Key Points: key points of this topic are as follow;
- Quality basic education as basic right of children
- Pakistan commitment with international community for basic education
- Status of Rite to Education in Pakistan
- Students rights as students and
- Professional wrongs of teachers
- Take weekly magazine and write a brief note on what was written on
- Conduct an interview from your teacher and ask what h/she thinks about the teaching profession
- After studying this topic what would you like to suggest for revivals of quality education in public schools?
Self Assessment Questions:
- When basic education was considered as a right of children?
- When Pakistan constituted Rite to Education in Pakistan?
- Which of the Article of Pakistan constitution support basic education as a right of child in Pakistan?
- What is meant by educational rights and professional wrongs?
Answer to Self Assessment Questions:
- Universal Education of Human Rights in 1948 2. 2010
- Article 25 A 18th amendment
- Quality education is basic right while role of teachers against the basic principles of teaching leaning are professional wrongs
Schools are established to inculcate acceptable habits and behaviors in new generation. It is also thought that individuals possess knowledge, skills for and dispositions in schools where they interact with highly qualified, experienced and knowledgeable personalities. Societies establish schools to preserve and transfer their culture, traditions and customs to new generation. Curriculum which is taught in schools actually reflects the overall national thinking. Every community member needs to ask what are schools for? Like schools families have unique role to reproduce societies of human beings and these families also create conditions where human change themselves. School is not a mere building where teaching learning process takes place but it is hub of all social activities. It is a place where children interact with one another and with teachers, learn how other think, how other behave, how other react and respond, how other do and how other feel. This is a great place of learning for children. They learn how to lead a well disciplined life. How to think positively and move forward? They plan for future there, they gain knowledge, they develop their own community of friendship etc. They develop mentally, socially, emotionally, psychologically, academically and physically under supervision of experienced teachers.
Purpose of Schooling
Purposes of schooling through the lenses of research are highlighted here. According to Good (1999) “academic mastery in subject-matter achievements is an important goal of modern schools”, social development of students is very crucial for successful and productive life. Generally academic and social aims exist within educational system in the world because one element informs the other. Broadening and deepening of knowledge of students across different subjects/fields is generally given as primary reason to attend schools. Inclusion of different subjects in school education is the base of this aim. According to the National curriculum of Great Britain, the students must have essential skills of literacy, numeracy, information and communication technologies. Students should have enquiring mind and capacity of rational thinking. Additionally the national
curriculum also asserts that personal development of children morally, socially, spiritually and culturally plays important role in their capacity to learn and to achieve targets. (http://www.nc.uk.net/nc_resources/html/valuesAimsPurposes.html. In UK, addition to the academic purpose of schooling, character education is known as personal/social education (PSE). PSE is supposed to be the strong justification of schooling in UK. PSE is launched to develop character of the students as good citizens, PSE also helps them to become productive members of their societies and it also enables them to work in the best interest of public in UK. According to Arthur (2003) the major aim of character education in UK is to instill virtues so they become internal principles guiding both the students’ behavior and decision making for operation within the democracy (p.2). It is also the responsibility of family, parents and siblings, social and religious organizations, and schools to play their active role in fostering good character. Such character includes traits but not limited to: self control, respect for others, duty, industry, fair play and loyalty (p.5). Schools and teachers can play significant role in fostering socialization skills in youth for better citizenship (Cornett & Gaudelli, 2003). It is acknowledge that important purpose of schooling is character building of students but there is huge debate on how to improve the character of students (Feldmann, 2005). According to Yang (2005) in eastern culture socialist approach is adopted in schools. Good (1999) claimed that according to Dewey the purpose of schooling is greater than merely address the academic achievement of students in different subjects. DuCharme (1993) stated that according to the theory of Froebelianism, school is a mini-community which reflects the larger and mature community in which it exists. In short if schools are not fulfilling the needs and demands of the society, it means they are not on right direction, and something, somewhere needs to be changed within schooling system. In Pakistan, all National Five Years Plans and National Education Policies reflect the purposes of education by setting education goals and skillful teaching force. Here as a glimpse, we consult our latest National Education Policy (NEP), 2009 according to which The Planning Commission Government of Pakistan as set a Vision for 2020 as:
“Our education system must provide quality education to our children and youth to enable them to realize their individual potential and contribute to development of society and nation, creating a sense of Pakistani nationhood, the concepts of tolerance, social justice, democracy, their regional and local culture and history based on the basic ideology enunciated in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” (NEP, 2009 p. 20)
NEP has set following aims of education in Pakistan which are also guiding principles and reflect the national thinking at state level for schooling. These aims are as follow;
- Revitalization of existing system of education for catering spiritual, social and political needs of individuals and society.
- Sharing of information about our national ideals who led this nation to win a separate homeland and strengthen the basic Islamic
- Inculcation of national unity and nationhood in Pakistan and promotion of desire to make this country a welfare
- To enable the youth to promote cohesion and to display respect for all faiths/religious
- Promotion of social and cultural harmony through education.
- Provision of equal educational opportunities for all without distinction of caste and creed and ensure involvement of all citizens of Pakistan in national
- To enable our children to become self reliant, analytical and original thinkers and productive member of society and a global citizen.
- Develop total personality of children to make them dynamic, creative and capable of facing
- To enable children committed to democratic and moral values, respecting basic human rights, accepting new ideas, responsible towards duties and production member of society for common
- Raise the quality of education for revival of confidence of common people on public education system by setting high standards of inputs, processes and outputs along with institutionalizing effective monitoring and assessment
These are the aims of education which are directly relating to the schooling system. These aims can only be achieved when quality education will be ensured in schools.
Teaching is defined differently by different people in general and teachers in particular. Some say, teaching is an art while there are some others who will say teaching is a science. Some may define teaching is an act of telling or explaining answers to those who don’t know. Psychologists may define teaching in terms of stimuli-response conditions. Teaching means different things to different people according to their nature of experiences. Simply it is way of transmitting information to others through careful planning in order to achieve set objectives. It is also process of interaction through which learners learn. It is a process in
which learners gain knowledge, develop their skills and dispositions. Teaching is a very complicated and complex activity in which teachers have to play different roles according to the nature of situation. In short, it is an activity in which a mature, qualified and experience person share his/her knowledge with immature and inexperience learners to prepare them for healthy, productive, sustainable and self-reliant future life. We can portrait teaching best in the light of indicators of its effectiveness because numbers of tasks teachers have to perform in a single session of teaching learning process. Teaching is a human activity so we have to look at different characteristics of effective teachers in order to comprehend the concept of teaching. As a human activity, positive and negative behavior exhibit by teachers determine its effectiveness and impact on students success. Teachers is representative of content and school, its conduct, habits, behavior, enthusiasm, competence, the way he teaches, personality etc. directly affect the students in and out of the school. Teaching, as an activity would become effective when teachers as a human being;
- Assume ownership of students’ success and what’s going on in the classroom
- Share personal experiences for clarification of concepts
- Understand what students feel in the classroom
- Communicate effectively with students
- Open to accept mistakes and correct these immediately
- Think about and reflect practically
- Have a sense of humor
- Wear proper and appropriate dress
- Maintain secrets of and respect the students
- Plan their activity yet flexible
- Responsive to students needs as per situation
- Expect higher performance of student and make learning a joyful activity
- Guide students to resolve the conflicts in number of ways
- Value students’ comments and listen students’ questions attentively
- Responding students with great respect even in awkward situations
- Give individual attention to students
- Treat students fairly and equally
- Interact with students positively and develop dialogue in and outside of class
- Call students by their names
- Involve students actively in learning and speak to them in an appropriate tune
Teaching is an activity which most of the cases occurred in the classroom and the person who is suppose to teach has to take some important and useful step to manage and organize the activity. Teaching would become very effective when teachers manage and organize in such a way that exhibit:
- Proper seating arrangement in groups and around table to ensure maximum interaction
- Manage behaviors of students effectively through clear expectations
- Effectively use physical space of classroom
- Encourage students to paste their work on the walls of classroom
- Ensure that students interact one another with good manners and respectfully
- Establish ethos of classroom routines concerning students’ needs g., visiting bathroom, sharpening of pencils or throwing trash etc.
- Reinforce students and give them proper feedback
- Maintain discipline of students with respect and dignity
- Adopt appropriate safety measures
- Promote leadership qualities of students
Good teaching requires proper planning but it is not necessary as it depends upon what happened in the classroom. It has been proved that poor planning or no planning will badly affect the students’ performance. Teaching will become very successful when teachers:
- Plan their lesson on daily basis and share with students earlier, aligned with national curriculum
- Assess students for diagnostic purposes and share information with all stakeholders particularly the parents
- Secure the students work to use it as reference and planning
- Plan lesson aligned with objectives clearly mentioned in curriculum
- Plan has variety of learning material to use
- Lesson plans have number of activities and strategies to cater students of different capabilities and calibers
- Plan lesson in such a way that address students of different learning styles and pace of learning
- Plan has space for maximum students interactions and discussions
- Plan has space to accommodate student with special needs
- Post the standards in the classrooms
- Plan flexible activities which could be changed according to the situation
Teaching activity also requires implementing skills of teachers. If teachers plan good lesson but cannot implement it, they would not succeed and teaching would become ineffective in the presence of good plan. Proper implementation of plan is as necessary as the presence of teachers in classrooms. Better teaching would occur when teachers:
- Plan lesson according to the questions raise by the students
- Assess the student before planning the lesson
- Incorporate all important aspect of lesson planning
- Use maximum time for teaching
- Ensure strategies reflecting higher order thinking
- Maximize students participation through number of activities and strategies
- Monitor progress of students continuously
- Adjust teaching in the light of students’ cues of learning
- Move in the whole classroom for guidance and monitoring purposes
- Adopt students centered and collaborative teaching learning approaches
- Assist students in planning for their homework assignments
- Enable students to assess their own performance
- Give constructive feedback and keep the record of students progress and achievement
- Use variety of assessment strategies to identify the hidden potential of students by developing rubrics
- Practicing differentiated instruction in the light of assessment of students
- Hold parent teachers on regular basis and keep record of these
- Produce newsletters of classroom activities as reflective journal
- Invite influential and experts on special occasions or school events from community
- Consult other colleagues for better understanding of students and for better planning of instructions
A number of researches as pointed out by Walker (2008), focusing on students’ perception about quality teaching revealed that teaching becomes effective when teachers possess following qualities.
- When lesson are well prepared, teachers use maximum of instructional time in teaching, the entire time of the class pass away quickly due to students involvement in learning, and generally classes start and end in the prescribed
- When teachers have positive attitude toward learning of students and they see students as capable to learn, remain available for students to facilitate and guide, communicate progress of the students effectively, and give praise and
- When teachers hold very high expectations, challenges students consistently to do their best, develop the confidence of the students and realize them to believe on themselves.
- When teachers are resourceful and innovative in their teaching, participate in literary and sports activities, and use latest technology and enable students to learn the
- When teachers provide equally treat students, provide opportunities for all students, and strongly believe that students are different in terms of their capacity and pace of
- When teachers have personal relations with students, share personal experiences, take personal interest in well being of students and visit students’ world in out of classroom activities like in cafeteria, play ground or any other
- When teachers make students feel welcome and when students feel comfortable in classroom, when students feel their teacher loves his/her profession than any other
- When teachers are concerned with personal problems of students as sensitive, compassion and caring.
- When teachers do not take everything serious and use humor in difficult situations to keep students
- When teachers do not deliberately embarrass student, respect privacy, speak privately and showing
- When teachers do not hold personal grudges with students, forgive them, promote attitude to forgiveness at all stages
- When teachers are ready to accept critique if they commit any mistake or if they make error in grading
Key Points: key points of this topic are as follow;
- Schooling is an organized and systematic way of students guidance
- Purpose of schooling is holistic development of students
- Teaching as a complicated task
- Characteristics of an effective teacher
- Visit your nearby school and write a brief note on learning environment of
- Meet with a retire teacher of your area and ask to what extent he/she satisfy with job and why?
- Make a checklist of an effective teacher and observe one of your teachers while teaching in classroom.
Self Assessment Questions:
- How establish Schools?
- What is the purpose of schooling?
- How teaching is a complicated task?
- What are the characteristics of an effective teacher?
Answer to Self Assessment Questions:
- Local communities established schools
- Purpose of schooling is to transmit knowledge, skills and disposition along with holistic development of children
- Teaching is a complicated task because it deals with human who is very complicated naturally to contribute positively. Teaching deals with learners of diverse abilities, interests, likes and dislikes and above all different backgrounds, intelligences and learning
- Effective teacher is the person who knows how to contribute positively in the overall development of students during classroom
6. TEACHERS AS A ROLE MODEL
A role model is a person who inspires and encourages us to strive for greatness,
live to our fullest potential and see the best in ourselves. A role model is someone we admire and someone we aspire to be like. We learn through them, through their commitment to excellence and through their ability to make us realize our own personal growth. We look at them for advice and guidance.
A role model can be anybody: a parent, a sibling, a friend but some of our most influential and life-changing role models are teachers. After parent, students learn from their teachers. Teachers teach their students from pre-primary, to primary, elementary and so on, up to the stage when they become young adult. Students learn throughout their different phases of life by continuously asking questions, and teachers do not only watch their student grow but they help them grow well. They teach them important lesson of life at school. School is considered as a great place of social learning where students interact with others, develop relations with others, and learn life skills, what so ever they learn at early stage of life has an effect in their future life. https://teach.com/what/teachers-change-lives/teachers- are-role-models. Role modeling is imitating others, and it can be good or bad. There are some good role models and some are bad role models, whatever a child do, s/he copy someone, imitate some, s/he learns it from others. There are many qualities of good role models, depend upon the concept of teacher what it means to be a better human being. There are some common or constant characteristics of good role models. A person can be a role model who possesses such qualities that we like to have as a good human being. H/She is an individual who encourages and inspires us to seek greatness in ourselves, use of full potential and try to identify the best in ourselves. A role can be any person in our life like parent, relatives, friends, celebrity, national heroes, etc. but the most life changing and influential role models are teachers. Teachers have long lasting impacts on
students and those are great teachers inspire their students to become great. Good teachers are those who help to use the brain as computers. They possess academic excellence and grace that student love all. Role model teachers also hold hands of students when they see them in trouble. They take care of students in an imaginable way. According to Wang et al (1994) teachers develop links between parent, community, administrators, students and other teachers with a purpose of better learning and grooming of students. The nature of interaction among all stakeholders depends upon the intention of teachers and type of students needs. Most of the students who are at risk get more benefits from this sort of interaction and it goes behound the academic and traditional duties of teachers, they do it because they are caring and they impact students a lot. Mooij (2008) explained two components of ideal teachers as role models, one is the personal role and the other is the behavior. In a role model s/he exhibits dedication, honesty and well dressed (appropriate dressing) while in with regard to behavior s/he make teaching as joyful activity in child-friendly environment. S/he works in a professional way by showing willingness and ability to make proper judgment and decide pedagogically. Churchill et al., (2011) stated that teachers must realize their students that classroom tasks are significant as this will keep them developing interest and willingness to learn, resultantly they will successfully use their full potential and perform well academically. The development of good relationship between teachers and students help teachers in understanding students’ interests, cultures, preferences, emotions, opinions and they plan their teaching accordingly. According to Hughes and Chen (2011) supportive and positive relationship between teachers and students not only promote students academically but they develop a sense of belongingness with school which ultimately help them in adaptation of good behavior and their active role in classroom activities. According to Shein and Chiou (2011) identified that students develop tendency towards concrete experience and active experimentation if their role model teachers are technical whereas students have tendency towards abstract conceptualization and they are reflective if their role model teachers teach them through lecture methods only. Teachers style of teaching affect students learning style as well according to Barron and Lashley (2006), students of hospitality and tourism display learning style as concrete rather than abstract and they were very active rather than reflective. Teachers directly or indirectly affect students’ character and that’s why they are supposed to be well balanced personalities with high level of morality. They display their morality through their speaking and doing. In many countries moral education is taught separately and according to (Diffenbaugh, 1992) in schools it is taught to implicit moral values effectively through role modeling. According to Schwarz (1998) and Campbell (2003) teachers should considered teaching as profession where character formation is emphasized and ethical practices are displayed. Teachers are only supposed to
transmit knowledge but they are responsible to develop students into good human beings. Teachers should pay more attention on development of human relationship when they control students from quarreling, or cheating in the classroom, show respect for students and make a conscious effort to fair dealing and evaluation. Teachers also affect students indirectly when they play their role as model and students observe their teachers dispositions (Alleccia, 2011). According to DeRoche and Williams (2001) role modeling is the most effective way of developing character and if there is difference in what teachers say and what they do, the goals of education will not be achieved. According to Skoa (2010) caring attitude is developed in students when teachers display caring attitude in the classroom. Role modeling is regarded as most effective tools which affect students’ performance in academics as well as helping students in their personality growth (Loh & Nalliah, 2010). Exemplary teachers’ characteristics enable students to develop skills and dispositions which resultantly make them feel good for themselves, do well towards society and display moral character (Shwartz, 2007; Weissbourd, 2003; Wilson, 1998). According to Robyn (2008) teacher as role model, can make positive impact on students by seven different ways. According to him these are;
- Students are very good observers and their eyes watch and their ears listen whatever their teachers do or say in situations. Teachers must keep in mind that the choices they make in particular situation do not only impact themselves but these also have great impact on those (students) who regard them as their superheroes. It means whenever students would face similar situation, they would think what their teachers had done in such a situation and they try to repeat actions or
- Teachers as role model should think aloud when they face tough situations and when they have to decide in difficult circumstances. They must share what are the pros or cons of different decisions so that reasoning skills may be developed in students. The process of making good decision is a skill which needs reasoning powers. The teachers must share with students why particular decision is the best and how they decide it. This think aloud technique will work as guideline for students to make such a good decisions in difficult situations.
- Nobody is perfect, everyone makes mistakes but the important is that when you commit a mistake or make a bad decision let those who are watching or learning from you how you are planning to correct it. This action will help them understand mistakes are common; it is not the end of world; everyone can correct mistakes; and above all as a teacher you must take responsibility as early as possible. After apologizing on mistakes, admitting bad actions or doing, compensate the damage you are setting examples for those who are
learning from you directly. By demonstrating this activity you are guideline little minds an important skill which is often overlooked in practical life.
- Stickiness with commitments and following the promises are great and noble characteristics of a role As an adult, sometime we remain busy, distracted or bit lazy but as a role model teacher must demonstrate self discipline by reflecting; punctuality; finishing task when once started; do not quit; keeping your words; and accepting the challenges in difficult situations. This demonstration will teach students an attitude of “if s/he can do it, so can I”
- As a role model, teachers are supposed to teach students treat others as you want to be treated by others. Your actions will reflect whether you step others to go ahead? How you deal with your spouse, friends, colleagues, and staff? How you show your gratitude or attitude when others help you? This will teach student how to be successful in life with respect to others. How to show respect for all in life.
- Great role models are not just teachers they may be good swimmers, chefs, architecture, sportsman, etc. When students see their role models in different activities, they will learn that they don’t need to pigeon-hole themselves in order to be
Whenever you decide to be a teacher, be proud to be a teacher and you must try to be a good teacher. You may face many hardships in your way to become a teacher now you need to be satisfied and confident. https://powerfulwords.wordpress.com/2008/03/31/are-your-teachers-positive-role- models-for-children/
Being a Muslim, Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the best role model for the whole humanity to follow in general and Muslims in particular for each and every aspect of life. Fortunately he was sent as a teacher. There are numerous reasons to consider His personality as a role model few of which can be explained as under;
- He is our source of inspiration for our connection with Allah. We find ourselves very close to Allah when we awake to His words, “Thanks you Allah for your gift of life; health and ” He keeps us company
– prodding us to take God’s name as we do our daily chores, rituals, bathroom, ablutions, yawning, sneezing; as we have our breakfast, as we talk to our family; when we go out of our home; as we enter into a mosque, as we wait for prayer; as we converse with people. He also reminds us how to be conscious of Allah: to smile, to be gentle, to show mercy to the young, to respect the elders, to greet everyone, to walk humbly, to render tender care to all God’s creatures, big and small.
- As we accomplish our tasks, and derive satisfaction from our achievements, we are reminded never to allow ourselves to slip into a feelings of vainglory- the Prophet Muhammad’ s complete humility which He showed during His greatest victory of Makkah can never be forgotten.
- When we see the great leaders of the world we definitely find Muhammad (PBUH) at the top who has no match in the human history, He was the only one who won so many battles with very small number of casualties.
- He was the leader, who told us how to win the heart of enemies through a moral character and magnanimity.
Key Points: key points of this topic are as follow;
- Teachers as role models
- Teachers thinking and doing
- Muhammad (PBUH) as a role model
- Imagine what have you learned from your teachers as role
- Briefly explain who was your role model and why?
- Discuss with your fellows and enlist qualities of teachers which make him/her a true role model for
What is teacher preparation? Discuss impact of globalization on teacher preparation in Pakistan
7. SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- How teachers are regarded as role models?
- What characteristics do you possess to be role model for your students?
- How Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is role model for the whole humanity?
Answer to Self Assessment Questions:
- Local communities established schools
- Enlist your characteristics which you think are enough to play a model role in front of your class
- Consult material on Seerat Nabvi as role model for whole humanity
Aleccia, V. (2011). Walking our talk: The imperative of teacher educator modeling. The Clearing House, 84, 87-
Arthur, J. (2003). Citizenship and character education in British education policy.
United Kingdom: Canterbury Christ Church University
Barron, P. and Lashley, C.( 2006) The learning style preferences of hospitality management students: observations from an international and cross cultural study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25 (4), 552-569.
Campbell, E. (2003). The ethical teacher. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Churchill, R. (2011). Teaching: Making a difference. Milton, QLD: John Wiley & Sons.
Cornett, J. & Gaudelli, W. (2003). Fostering democratic discussions in the classroom: An examination of tensions in civic education, contemporary schools, and teacher education. Paper presented at the Conference of the Education in Democracy for Social Studies Teachers: An Institute for Florida Teacher Educators, USA, 1-19.
DeRoche, E. F., & Williams, M.M. (2001). Educating hearts and minds: a comprehensive character education framework. (2nd ed). Corwin Press, Inc. Thousand Oaks: California.
Diffenbaugh, J.S. (1992). Implicit moral education: two case studies. (Volumes I and II). Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, United States – California. Retrieved January 16, 2012 from Dissertations & Thesis: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 9302202).
Ducharme, E. R. (1993). The lives of teacher educators. New York: Teachers College Press.
Feldmann, D. (2005). Why do we send children to school?. Educational Research Quarterly, 28(3), 10-16.
Good, T. (1999). Introduction: The purposes of schooling in America. The Elementary School Journal, 99, 383-389.
Government of Pakistan, (2009). National Education Policy, 2009, Islamabad.
Hughes, J. N., and Chen, Q. (2011). Reciprocal effects of student-teacher and student-peer relatedness: effects on academic self-efficacy, Journal of Applied and Developmental Psychology. 32(5), pp. 278-287.
Loh, K. Y., & Nalliah, S. (2010). Learning professionalism by role-modelling. Medical Education, 44(11), 11-23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2923.2010.03827.x
Mooij, J. (2008). Primary Education, Teachers’ Professionalism and Social Class: About Motivation and De-motivation of Government School teachers in India, International Journal of Educational Development, 28, pp. 508-523.
Robyn (2008). Teachers as Role Models: Seven Ways to Make a Positive Impact. https://powerfulwords.wordpress.com/2008/03/31/are-your-teachers- positive-role-models-for-children/
Schwartz, M.J. (2007). The modeling of moral character for teachers: behaviours, characteristics, and dispositions that may be taught. Journal of Research in Character Education, 5(1), 1-28.
Schwarz, G.E. (1998). Teaching as vocation: Enabling ethical practice. The Educational Forum, 63(1), 23-29.
Sen, A., (1989). Development as capabilities expansion. Journal of Development Planning, 19:41-58.pp.55
Shein, P. P., and Chiou, W. B. (2011). Teachers as Role Models for Students’ Learning Styles. Social Behavior and Personality. 39(8), pp. 1097-1104.
Skoe, E.E.A. (2010). The relationship between empathy-related constructs and care-based moral development in young adulthood. Journal of Moral Education, 39(2), 191-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057241003754930
Wang, M. C., Oates, J., and Weishew, N. L. (1995) Effective school responses to student diversity in inner-city schools: A coordinated approach. Education and Urban Society, 27(4) pp. 484–503.
Weissbourd, R. (2003). Moral teachers, moral students. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 6-11.
White, J. (2007). What schools are for and why? Impact Paper, Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain. Graduate School of Education, Portland State University, PO Box 751, Portland, OR 97207Compiled from NEA Foundation for the Improvement of Education
Wilson, J. (1998). Moral education for beginners. Curriculum Journal, 9(1), 41- 50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0958517970080104
Yang, T. (2005). A brief statement on educational principle of the People’s Republic of China. US-China Education Review, 2(3), 3
UNESCO, (1989). THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD.
TEACHING PROFESSION AND GLOBALIZATION
Written by: Dr. Rahmat Ullah Bhatti Reviewed By: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain
What is teacher preparation? Discuss impact of globalization on teacher preparation in Pakistan
Sr. Title Page No
- Teacher Professionalism and Globalization……………………………………… 144
- Teaching Profession and ODL………………………………………………………. 147
- New Millennium: Pressures and Possibilities……………………………………. 154
- Self-Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………. 160
- Activities…………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
- Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………… 161
What kind of teacher does the modern society, and, in particular, the modern school need? Does the system of teacher education really meet the needs of the school, the society and the challenges of the modern world? Issues like these are considered and analyzed permanently regardless of the time when they are put under discussion. Contemporary teachers have difficulties in catching up with the challenges of the modern and fast developing world. The globalization process coerces societies into taking specific actions and introducing some changes – changes in the way of thinking and mentality in order to adjust to the changing reality. These processes require the society to introduce such mechanisms that will allow adaptation to the new situation in the best possible way. From the social point of view, the best and the simplest way to face such challenges is to invest in education and train teachers who will be able to meet the demands – teachers who will be genuine guides for the students and who will support the parents and the local community, teachers who will manage the student’s individual development, who will take into account the students’ individual expectations, their potential, capabilities and predispositions., teachers who understand the parents, who get them involved into a direct cooperation with the school and, finally, teachers who provide the students not only with physical, but first of all emotional and mental safety.
After reading this unit you will be able to:
- Define globalization
- Describe the impact of globalization on teacher education
- Explain teacher professionalism
- Discuss the issues of teacher education in new millennium
- Evaluate the role of ODL in teacher education
1. TEACHER PROFESSIONALISM AND GLOBALIZATION
Globalization is a process of integrating the nation states by removing or minimizing the restrictions on the movement of material resources, financial resources, labor, technology and ideas. It stands for outward-oriented policies which are supposed to benefit all the countries of the world and also create certain problems in that process. Though it is predominantly an economic phenomenon, there are other dimensions as well and in a way it affects all walks of life. Education is an important sector in any economy and globalization has its implications for this sector as well.
The aim of education is to achieve overall development and enlightenment of mind, broaden the vision, and character-building which can be beneficial to the individual himself and to the society and nation at large. To achieve this goal the role of teacher and teacher educator is important. In the age of globalization, change is so rapid that the educational system has to keep itself abreast with the latest developments. (Pandey, 2001)
The impact of globalization on teacher education and the manner in which the system should respond to the needs of globalization can be studied under the following heads:
Content of Education:
The fast-developing stock of knowledge and the need for its continuous updating has also initialed. No longer is education confined to a particular period of life. A key to the twenty first century, learning throughout life will be essential for adapting the evolving requirements of new generation and for better mastery of changing time from the rhythms of individual existence.
Equity and Excellence:
An important component of globalization in relation to education is the need for producing quality manpower that can successfully face the competition in the world. This would imply selecting the best possible human material and giving them education of the highest quality (Gandhe, 2005).
Quality and excellence have become the watchwords of the new millennium everywhere. Importance of teacher education in making an educational system work more efficiently and effectively is the important factor of it. No system of education can rise above the level of teachers’. Teacher must be trained and educated properly. Quality teacher education must, therefore be our primary
concern (Chaurasia, G. and Roy, N. (Eds.) 2006.). It is in this context that education of teachers becomes most important in any country.
The purpose of teacher education is to produce teachers who have professional competencies. The role of teachers is no longer confined to teaching alone. They need to be thorough professionals, fully equipped with high academic standard, pedagogical and practical skills. In this age of globalization, we need to make the system of teacher education more innovative and futuristic in order to respond to the changing demands of the society. To maintain the standards and to update the quality of teacher education we require commitment and training of people concerned.
Teacher educators thus have to be motivated enough to plan for their own personal and professional development. They are expected to take responsibility and take charge for their own learning and development. As such self-discipline and self-regulation are the key factors responsible for success.
Effective teacher education prepares new teachers for a role which is both complex and demanding. Accomplished teaching simultaneously involves command of subject matter and how to teach it to diverse students. Putting all this into practice on a daily basis is extremely demanding in the age of globalization (Kaur, 2010).
The basic role of teacher education is to:
Train teachers to teach pre-school children. Train teachers to teach primary school children.
Train teachers to teach secondary school children. Train teachers to teach higher secondary children.
At all these levels besides having mastery over the subject to be taught the teachers also require different skills like – identifying the needs of the learner, selecting appropriate methods of teaching and learning aids etc. Besides these they also need to have catered to the all-round development of children. The role of teacher education hence has a very vital role to play as its products go and work right from the grass root level of the society.
As we move ahead in the 21st century with LPG as our driving theme our entire focus should be on our product. What we need to emphasize is the quality by giving the necessary self-confidence through competence both in theory and its application. Both should be inter-linked so as to make his learning effective and
applicable in his real life too. Our aim should be to make him face the real challenges in the life. Teacher education should concentrate on making our teacher’s techno savvy. We need to use the technology for our own benefit. Teacher education should develop multi-skills among our teachers so that they are able to use technology in the teaching-learning and also participate in the process of creation of new knowledge. Teacher education also needs to look into innovative ways of evaluation along with teachers learning (Vartak, 2004).
Challenges in Teacher Education:
Quality assurance: With the increasing participation of the private institutions and the ever rising thrust on autonomy for the existing institutions, it is imperative that demands would be made on quality assurance.
Professionalism: Though we regard teacher education as a profession, we are different when we compare ourselves with the other professions like medicine, engineering etc. We are still tentative about the importance of the pre-service and in-service training in acquiring the required knowledge and skills by our students. The one year training program a pre-requisite for becoming a teacher is rigorous no doubt, but it is somewhat rigid. We are more driven by the form of the course rather than the content. Ability to generate new ideas, commitment and dedication in our work is essential to make ourselves professionals.
Technology: We want to introduce new technology in teacher education. Introduction of ICT and computer training in our course is a step in that direction. The experience so far shows that teacher educators are not adept at using the computer in the teaching-learning process since their recently acquired knowledge is restricted only to the use of standard software applications. We need to become more focused on the systematic use of technology for making the teaching learning process more interactive and enjoyable. Technology should be harnessed for increasing our participation in the process of creation of new knowledge.
Attracting Talent: Attracting talent into the teaching profession remains one of the major challenges before us today. The number of merit holder students opting for teaching profession is very few. We need to reflect this situation. There is always a talk that the teachers have to keep themselves abreast with the latest trends, knowledge and skills through self-study, be innovative and creative through participation in varied academic activities and research. This is possible only if we can attract talented people in the profession who are self-motivated and self-inspired.
Evaluation system: Generating a reliable evaluation system is another important challenge before us. Teacher educators need to look into innovative, objective, open and transparent methods of evaluation which will test the application of knowledge along with the comprehension. We should encourage pupils to face competitive exams effectively.
Equity: The greatest challenge before us even today is the search for equity. Equity refers to the equity in the development of all abilities of the individual and it also means the equity in the development of all the strata of the society. Head, Hand and Heart are three powerful tools given to everyone by God. But today we are becoming a knowledge society.
Need of the present study: The standards of learning are influenced strongly by teacher’s capacity, understanding and skills. School education can achieve the intended objectives of national reconstructions only if there are corresponding reflections of the same concerns in the programs of teacher education, as teacher it is the pivot on which the outcomes expected of any educational system can blossom.
Research has shown that good teaching makes a big and qualitative difference in students learning with the help of its effectiveness, efficiency and competency. An important demand for the achievement of the cherished goal of having a good and effective teaching system is a mechanism that could work for the development of course, instructor and learner (Singh, 2007).
The quality of pre-service and in-service teacher education also needs to be upgraded. Teacher education is stepping stone in the building of future teacher and tries to in build qualities in teacher. Hence there is urgent need to develop new models of teacher education.
2. TEACHING PROFESSION AND ODL
Now that most countries have made solid progress towards the achievement of universal primary schooling by 2015, the world faces two other major educational challenges. The first, which results partly from the success of the campaign for primary education, is to give older children and young adults opportunities for secondary schooling. This is a massive task. One estimate puts the number of12- to 17-year-olds who are not receiving education at 400 million (Binder 2006).Scarcely less daunting is the second global challenge which is the need to recruit and train many millions of teachers. UNESCO estimates that some 10 million teachers must be recruited and trained in less than a decade. They will be
needed to: replace the large numbers of teachers due to retire in many countries; complete the drive to universal primary schooling, particularly in Africa and South Asia; and address the challenge of secondary schooling (UNESCO 2008).
Teacher education and open and distance learning (ODL) are separately complex and critically important fields of endeavors. Used together, they have the potential to enhance the effective, efficient and equitable provision of education and to maximize access to such provision by various categories of disadvantaged learners.
Why is it so important to use ODL to design, implement, evaluate and enhance teacher education? A useful starting point is the aspiration of Education for All(articulated in declarations in Justine, Thailand, in 1990, and in Dakar, Senegal, in 2000), and accompanied by a stated international commitment to achieving Universal Elementary Education (Daniel 2009; Dyer 2009).
If we turn to the six goals of Education for All as outlined in the Dakar Framework for Action (UNESCO 2000), we perceive some of the complexity of the challenges facing efforts to attain those goals:
- Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;
- Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality;
- Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programs;
- Achieving a 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;
- Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality; and
- Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life ”
While these are clearly highly diverse statements of intention traversing a widely ranging terrain, they are linked by a common reliance on a highly skilled teaching force attentive to the specific needs of these various categories of learners, and able to deploy strategies that are successful in meeting those needs. This reliance
in turn relies on the teachers’ own learning needs – in terms of initial pre-service training and continuing professional development – being fulfilled. Yet, as illustrated by the difficulties facing teachers working with Nigerian nomadic pastoralists (Umarand Tahir 2009), these requirements generate demand for high quality teachers that cannot easily be achieved at individual, provincial and national levels using conventional face-to-face, campus-based teacher education strategies.
While it is important not to see ODL as a panacea that can redress existing socio- economic inequities and political instability easily, the opportunities for large- scale educational provision afforded by information and communication technology (ICT) and other technologies deserve to be recognized and considered carefully. Moreover, it is not only the technological dimension that is significant: ODL is designed to break the demand for face-to-face attendance at particular institution, which places additional obstacles in the way of streamlined access to such education. This form of learning is therefore intimately connected to efforts to democratize educational provision. Again, enthusiastic and energetic teachers are needed, both as participants in and as purveyors of ODL.
Thus, it is essential to strengthen and expand existing teacher education systems particularly in developing countries if they are to address the current and projected shortfalls in teacher supply adequately and thereby facilitate the attainment of the goals of Education for All by 2015.
This important point was encapsulated in a 2009 report by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (USIS), projecting the Global Demand for Teachers: Meeting the Goal of Universal Primary Education by 2015. According to the report, 10.3 million teachers will be needed worldwide by 2015 if universal primary education is to be attained. Sub-Saharan Africa faces the most severe teacher shortfalls. The USIS report (2009,p. 15) observed that:
“Of the 10.3 million teachers needed, 8.1 million will be deployed to maintain the current capacity of education systems (i.e compensate for attrition). About 2.2 million recruits will be needed to expand education systems in order to achieve UPE [Universal Primary Education] …. In other words, one in five teachers that need to be hired by 2015 will be part of global efforts toward EFA. This reflects the massive investment which is required by governments. This perspective highlights the dramatic burden for sub-Saharan Africa.
The region needs to recruit and train about 1.1 million teachers to maintain the current situation in the classroom, which already falls
short in terms of education quality. But to attain UPE, these countries must recruit an additional 1.3 million teachers, bringing the total to2.4 million. In short they will need to recruit almost as many teachers in just eight years as are currently teaching in classrooms across the region.”
This huge need for teachers in Africa and other developing countries is alarming if viewed in the context of the limited capacity of teacher education institutions to address it while simultaneously upgrading the large proportion of untrained or unqualified teachers already in the system and providing adequate opportunities for teachers’ continuing professional development. As Umar (2004, p. ii) summarized the situation: “Teacher recruitment, retention and professional development are increasingly becoming the key issues in the quest for adequate supply for teachers at all levels of education.”
All of this reinforces the potential value of ODL for teacher education, and indeed most governments in Africa and other developing countries recognize the possibilities of ODL in helping to address the severe teacher gaps in the irrespective countries. This is partly because the experiences of many developed and developing countries have shown that, if properly organized and managed, ODL can enable countries to train a larger number of teachers in a shorter time and with lower costs than can conventional campus-based teacher education.
The work of Robinson and Latchem (2003) and the international case studies on the use of ODL for teacher education in Perraton et al. (2007) indicate that ODL is increasingly being used to:
- provide cost-effective pre-service and in-service teacher education;
- support school-based pre-service and continuing professional development programmers for teachers;
- upgrade unqualified teachers and enable qualified teachers to acquire higher teaching qualifications;
- provide teachers in remote or rural areas with access to professional training, thereby meeting their continuing professional development needs; and
- Ensure quick dissemination of information to large numbers of teachers about curriculum innovations, new teaching methodologies and practices, and new professional standards for teaching.
This snapshot illustrates both the complexity and the urgency of enhancing the intersection between teacher education and ODL.
Combining Teacher Education and Open and Distance Learning
A growing literature has been devoted to reviewing the strengths and limitations of ODL in teacher education. A useful synthesis of those strengths and limitations was provided by Perraton (2003), who focused on three themes requiring careful consideration by planners and practitioners: social expectations of teachings a profession; identification of the stakeholders influencing and controlling that profession; and the curriculum of teacher education. Higher Education through Open and Distance Learning (Harry 1999) traced efforts to develop teacher education programmers using varying degrees of ODL in institutions as diverse as the Bangladesh Open University (Rumble 1999), the Indira Gandhi National Open University (Panda 1999), the Open University of Tanzania (Mmari 1999), the University of the South Pacific (Matthewson and Va’a 1999) and the University of the West Indies (Brandon 1999). Included in the same book were ODL experiences in China (Ding 1999), Latin America (Chacón 1999) and South Africa (Dodds et al.1999).
Some of this literature has focused on the rapidly developing technologies available to support teacher education via ODL. For example, Fung (2005) investigated the use of printed materials in an in-service primary school distance teacher education course and found that the participating teachers agreed that the materials achieved the course objectives, but that “distance teacher educators must find ways to encourage learners to engage in in-text activities” if such activities are to achieve their potential and that “research on print materials – particularly on ways of achieving goals in teacher education – should not be neglected at a time of increasing use of distance education in teacher education” (p. 182). This is a timely reminder, given that the capacity to afford more technically sophisticated technologies is unevenly distributed among countries and institutions, and given the widespread assumption that providing content in a particular format automatically facilitates learners’ engagement with that content. Similar concerns attend a very different set of technologies more recently associated with distance learning for teachers’ professional development: mobile devices. Aubusson et al. (2009) reported that “mobile learning is ideally suited to allow reflection-in-action and to capture the spontaneity of learning moments,” and that “authentic artifacts and anecdotes, captured through mobile technologies, can enable the sharing, analysis and synthesis of classroom experiences by teachers and students” (p. 233). However, they also stated that “Practical, school systemic, attitudinal and ethical factors may inhibit mobile technology adoption; these factors need to be researched and addressed to realize the potential of teacher mobile professional learning” (p. 233).
These factors apply also to other technologies, including print as noted by Fung(2005), and reinforce the need for caution in selecting a particular technological mix when planning a teacher education programme for open and distance learners. Considerable diversity also exists in target groups for teacher education programmes via ODL. With more teachers taking on postgraduate study, Butcher and Sieminski (2006) focused on the development of a Doctor of Education programme via distance at the Open University in the United Kingdom (seealso Janse van Rensburg and Danaher 2009; Moriarty et al. 2008). Butcher and Sieminski contended that four themes were crucial to the success of the doctorate:“professionalization; professional change; bridging the academic/professional divide; and professional self-esteem”; and that those themes, to take effect, required “a highly structured but flexible support system” (p. 59). That claim was elaborated as follows:
“For these graduates, the professional outcomes described above would not have occurred without the availability of the EdD [Doctor of Education] through distance education. The OU [Open University]EdD is not only very different to many full-time or part- time PhDs, it is more effective at retaining students, and supporting them to completion. It is the structure of the doctoral programme (pre- entry requirements and tightly scheduled assessment points mediated bya supervisor) that enables the flexibility (the diverse ways students are able to research their own professional contexts) to be effective.”(p. 68)
This is a definitive assertion, not only of a distinct differentiation between face to- face and distance education, but also of the superiority of distance education – provided it is accompanied by the appropriate and ragogical principles and support mechanisms – to face-to-face education for these particular learners.
A similar view was expressed by Hall and Knox (2009) about language teacher education by distance (LTED) for Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) teachers. The authors reported the findings of a large-scale international survey of TESOL teacher education providers, with the goal of mapping current provision and research in the field. Their conclusions resonated with the hesitancy, and even ambivalence, related to ODL in teacher education. On the one hand, Hall and Knox went on to say (2009, p. 78):
“… [J]udging by the large number of programmes, teacher educators, and students, LTED is firmly established in language education. This presents a number of opportunities. For (prospective) language
teachers, it is a chance to participate in the discourse community of language education in ways and from locations where it would once not have been possible. For language teacher educators, it is inopportunity to be involved in a field whose practices and knowledgebase are undergoing rapid and important change, and to contribute to the directions of those changes. For researchers, it is an opportunity to explore, document, and theories’ these developments and their implications.”
On the other hand, they also added:
“For all parties, the rapid changes associated with the rise of LTED also present us with a responsibility. As traditional roles and practices evolve in interaction with the demands and affordances of their new institutional environments, shortcomings and inequalities in current and emerging practices, and in the distribution of power and knowledge in the language education community are open to challenge and re-negotiation. The changes in LTED challenge educators, administrators, and researchers to include people and perspectives once excluded, and to embrace people and perspectives once distanced. It is an opportunity not to be missed.”
Again, both sets of comments apply to a broader audience than the particular field under discussion. The same is true for distance learning for vocational teachers. In describing a program me for Australian vocational teachers via ODL from the three perspectives of planning, technology and teaching practice, based on UNESCO’s (2002) Teacher Education Guidelines, Harreveld and Danaher (2004) acknowledged the enduring resilience of two unhelpful binaries: the one between initial teacher education for prospective teachers and professional development for existing teachers; and the one between vocational and academic knowledge. At the same time, they concluded: “Through our analysis of the program’s planning, technology and teaching practice framework, we have shown that it is possible to educate teachers for the profession using this conceptual basis and the [distance] program delivery mode” (p. 11).
This overview of the growing literature on teacher education and ODL in combination highlights several potential synergies between these two domains. These synergies cluster around efforts to find innovative and sustainable solutions to longstanding problems of policy-making and provision, as well as to deploy relationships and technologies as effectively as possible to create new opportunities for learners who might otherwise be overlooked. However, there are
also significant divergences between these domains, including an ongoing assumption that teacher education must be enacted via face-to-face learning, and concerns about programme quality and the credibility of particular qualifications. The juxtaposition and interdependence of these synergies and divergences must be kept firmly in mind for those committed to embracing ODL in teacher education.
3. NEW MILLENNIUM: PRESSURES AND POSSIBILITIES
Teacher education is currently facing a number of tensions as pressures have come from many quarters in the last decade, with perhaps the most intense focus being on the issue of teacher quality.
The issue of increasingly varied demographic conditions that have led to students from all over the world being in a single classroom, with the associated need for teachers to deal with multiculturalism, whether they like it or not, has created a new complexity not faced by most teachers a decade or so ago. Teacher shortages in some parts of the world has led to the possibility of teachers moving from one country to another as the demand for teachers and associated wage rates make teaching a market unlike we have experienced before. As teachers, increasingly are blamed for lack of student performance, as politicians choose to offset any responsibility they have for the conditions under which teachers work, so too, teacher educators are targeted as being one of the problems associated with what is perceived to be low levels of student achievement.
These and other dilemmas for teacher education institutions and teacher educators open up the opportunity for a detailed analysis of a number of major issues using data collected from around the world. The key issues of globalization versus diversity, the need for high quality pre-service programs, for well managed and supported integration of new teachers into the teaching force and ongoing professional development for that workforce, lead to two of the major factors that will impinge on the teaching profession in the future; the need for the teacher to become a consistent, reflective practitioner and the need to use rapidly developing technologies, both ICT and other learning technologies, in an increasingly effective manner, to promote high quality student learning for all students.
It is a fairly trying time for teacher educators, as well as for anyone else in education. In many western countries, governments are now thinking that the cost of educating their populations should be lowered at the same time as they expect school administrators, teachers, and teacher educators, to do much more, in more difficult circumstances, than they have ever done before. This has been translated
by government as the need to have ‘highly qualified teachers’ in front of every classroom. US Secretary of Education, Margaret Spellings, in her 2005 report on teacher quality argued the focus should be on: the essential principles for building outstanding teacher preparation programs in the 21st century and … on the critical teaching skills all teachers must learn. In particular, all teacher preparation programs must provide teachers with solid and current content knowledge and essential skills. These include the abilities to use research-based methods appropriate for their content expertise; to teach diverse learners and to teach in high-need schools; and to use data to make informed instructional decisions. Successful and promising strategies for promoting these skills include making teacher education a university-wide commitment; strengthening, broadening, and integrating field experience throughout the preparation program; strengthening partnerships; and creating quality mentoring and support programs (Spellings, 2005, p. iii).
Following are the major issues in teacher education
Globalization and Diversity
Increasing globalization has impacted on teacher education in terms of teachers now having to understand and cater for a diverse population. In certain parts of the world there are now classrooms where a multitude of languages are spoken and where different religious and cultural understandings must be considered when teaching.
This has brought about the need for a substantial shift in teacher attitudes about the task and substantial change in terms of the teacher education program offered by universities.
This is not seen as being positive by all commentators. The impact of the global economy on education can make life difficult for teachers and may even make it impossible for teachers to provide the type of education they were trained for:
The role and function of education are undergoing dramatic changes in response to these economic imperatives. The notion of a broad liberal education is struggling for its very survival in a context of instrumentalism and technocratic rationality where the catchwords are “vocationalism,” “skills formation,” “privatization,” “commoditization,” and “managerialism.”(Smyth and Shacklock, 1998, p. 19).
Certainly, the diversity of most communities in many parts of the world has made teaching and educating teachers much more difficult than it has ever been before
and there are expectations that teacher education needs to develop teachers who have learned to teach with a cultural eye (Irvine, 2003). As well, people who are trained to teach in a particular geographical area of the world (and governments are pretty specific about what they want these days) may end up teaching in a different part of the world or, at the very least, be teaching students from many parts of the world and whose culture and context were not considered at all during the period in training.
Standards and Accountability
The Standards and Accountability movement, which started in schools more than a decade ago, has now moved to the training of teachers as the next step in the process. It has been argued that there are a number of factors that have led to the increasing surveillance of teacher education:
Among these are a deep-seated and growing distrust of teacher education; a change in the locus of control, with national policy emerging as a dominant influence; restructuring of licensing and governance; and reconceptualizing the nature of standards, with performance and outcomes assuming a preeminent role (Roth, 1996, p. 242 cited in Tellez, 2003).
Unlike most other reforms in education, in curriculum, in pedagogy and in areas of student welfare and support, that are mostly driven by teachers and administrators seeking to improve what they do on a day to day basis, the standards and accountability movement has been driven by people outside of education, based mostly on the idea that we can no longer trust educators to do what is right. Tellez (2003, p.11) argues:
Like nearly every other reform of the twentieth century, the accountability reforms of today did not emerge from the ranks of local educators’ wishes or outcries of student need. Rather, such reforms, in retrospect, have their origins in groups or organizations with enough power, money, or combination of the two to dictate the reform dimensions.
The concerns identified in the previous two sections, increasing globalization and diversity and a focus on standards and accountability for teacher education come at a time when many western nations are facing a teacher shortage of unprecedented proportions. There are various predictions in the US that national demands will reach 2 million teachers in the next few years due to the factors mentioned above (Darling-Hammond et al., 1999; Oakes, et al., 2002). So, at a time when there are higher and higher demands for the graduates of teacher
education institutions, the need for putting bodies in front of classrooms has led to a lowering of entry standards for people who enter through other means.
However, it is necessary to make sure that such teachers have the skills required for the job, regardless of how they came into the profession. It is not just finding any teacher that is important, but finding the right teacher, with the right skills for the right situation.
So, the issue of recruiting and training new teachers is much more complex than it was a decade ago.
Education systems and teacher education programs need to support the induction of young teachers into the workforce in ways that ensure their retention over time. Huling et al. (2001, p. 326) argue that the teacher shortage in the US has come about because of three intersecting issues:
Today, the nation is facing an unprecedented teacher shortage that will undoubtedly result in increased attention to alternative certification pro-grams as a possible means of addressing the school-staffing crisis. The teacher shortage is being created by a “triple whammy” of increasing student enrollments, an aging teacher force transitioning from the class-room into retirement, and a high teacher attrition rate, especially among novice teachers.
It is the third of these causes, the high teacher attrition rate that this section seeks to address. Kelley (2004, p. 438) argues:
Recent reports further suggest that staffing needs may not be due to overall shortages of qualified teachers entering the profession but rather by large numbers of teachers migrating to other schools or leaving the profession altogether (Ingersoll, 2000, 2001, 2002). Ingersoll’s (2001) analysis of the national Schools and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follow-Up Survey found that more than a third of beginning teachers leave the profession during the first 3 years, and almost half leave after 5 years.
It could be argued that much of this attrition is due to young teachers, who, newly emerging from their training, are given the hardest classes, the most unruly students and are left, by and large, to enter their classroom, shut the classroom door, and fend for themselves. Kelley (2004, p. 438) argues:
Although other professions provide transitional assistance for new members (e.g., residents in medicine, interns in architecture, and associates in law), historically the education profession has ignored the support needs of its new recruits and has been described as “the profession that eats its young” (Halford, as cited in Renard, 1999, p. 227).
Although issues of induction into the teaching profession have come a long way since this time, we could argue that we are still at the front end of the development. Sharon Feiman-Nemser (2001, p. 17) argues:
There is growing interest in the problem of teacher induction and wide-spread support for the idea of assigning experienced teachers to work with beginning teachers. Still, we know relatively little about what thoughtful mentor teachers do, how they think about their work, and what novices learn from their interactions with them.
Continuous Development of Teachers
Levin and Rock (2003, p. 135) argue:
Recent scholarship on professional development for teachers calls for change. According to Sparks and Hirsh (1997), it is time to find ways to move beyond the dominant training-focused models of professional development to modes that support learner-centered views of teaching. Lieberman (1995) characterized effective professional development as that which is grounded in inquiry, reflection, and participant driven experimentation, naming the role of teacher- researcher as an appropriate means.
The movement towards developing professional learning communities and networks of teachers and others working together has become a major force in changing what happens in schools. Lieberman (2000, p. 221) argues:
Educational reform networks are particularly well suited to making use of new technology and institutional arrangements. By their very nature, they are flexible, borderless, and innovative; they are able to create collaborative environments, focus their efforts, and develop agendas that grow and change with their participants.
This has changed the interactions that teachers have with each other and has resulted, in many cases, in much more cross fertilization of what teachers do. Meier (1992, p. 602) argues:
At the very least, one must imagine schools in which teachers are in frequent conversation with each other about their work, have easy and necessary access to each other’s classrooms, take it for granted that they should comment on each other’s work, and have the time to develop common standards for student work.
The Reflective Practitioner
In recent times, there has been call for change in teacher education in ways that will promote teachers being much more reflective in their practice (Jones, 1998; Korthagen and Kessels, 1999; Ball, 2000; Wise and Leibbrand, 2001). Korthagen and Kessels (1999, p. 4), argue teacher education programs need to link theory and practice and “to integrate the two in such a way that it leads to integration within the teacher”. Similarly, Ball (2000, p. 244) maintains “We must understand better the work that teachers do and analyze the role played by content knowledge in that work”. The importance of teachers engaging in reflective practice is recognized by numerous researchers (Schön, 1983; Cochran-Smith and Lytle, 1999; Ball, 2000). Loughran, (2002, p. 33) argues: for reflection to genuinely be a lens into the world of practice, it is important that the nature of reflection be identified in such a way as to offer ways of questioning taken-for-granted assumptions and encouraging one to see his or her practice through others’ eyes.
The best way for teachers to improve what they do is for them to reflect on their practice and work with other teachers to help them understand what is needed for high achievement. However, Cochran-Smith argues that the current standards movement, which reduces the role of a teacher to the implementation of a few narrowly focused outcomes, has a negative effect of this activity:
The image of teachers as professionals who learn from practice and document the effect of their teaching on students ‘learning is a clear part of the discourse of the new teacher education. Experienced as well as prospective teachers are expected to function as reflective practitioners, work collaboratively in learning communities, and demonstrate that their teaching leads to increased student achievement. But, a narrow interpretation of higher standards – and one that is lurking beneath the surface of the discourse that heralds the paradigm shift in teacher education from “inputs to outputs”- threatens the idea of teaching for change (Cochran-Smith, 2001b, p. 180).
The Impact of Technology
The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the use of learning technologies of various kinds. The old image of the teacher with a piece of chalk and a few text books is now well in the past. The introduction of computer technology in particular finds teachers using PowerPoint for their classes, accessing knowledge from all around the world via the world-wide-web, being
emailed by students at all hours of the day and night and accessing vast databases to enter their data related to student progress are all part and parcel of the teaching day. This has brought with it huge implications for teacher educators who need to be ahead of the game if they are to provide their students with the best understanding of how these activities might be used. This is challenging for many teacher educators who may have been comfortable with the old way of doing things and now find many of their students well in advance of their own knowledge as well. Otero et al. (2005, p. 8) argue:
This implies that university faculty in teacher education programs must become proficient at technology use and must come to under-stand content-specific, pedagogical uses of technology for their own instruction.
The US National Research Council (1999, p. 218) made the case for the introduction of computer-based technologies:
What has not yet been fully understood is that computer-based technologies can be powerful pedagogical tools – not just rich sources of information, but also extensions of human capabilities and contexts for social inter-actions supporting learning. The process of using technology to improve learning is never solely a technical matter, concerned only with properties of educational hardware and software. Like a textbook or any other cultural object, technology resources for education – whether a software science simulation or an interactive reading exercise – function in a social environment, mediated by learning conversations with peers and teachers.
4. SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
- Define globalization
- Describe the impact of globalization on teacher education
- Explain teacher professionalism
- Discuss the issues of teacher education in new millennium
- Evaluate the role of ODL in teacher education
- Analyze ODL system of AIOU Islamabad
- Make a list of issues being faced by teacher training institute in your area
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Society, Culture and Teaching Profession
Written By:Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Reviewed By: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain
Sr. Title Page No
- Social Contest……………………………………………………………………………… 168
- Importance of the Social Context of Teaching and Learning…………………………. 169
- Learner-Centered, Self-Directed Instruction……………………………………………….. 170
- Cooperative Teaching and Learning…………………………………………………………… 170
- Communication Theory…………………………………………………………………………….. 171
- Cultural Context………………………………………………………………………….. 173
- Political Context………………………………………………………………………….. 175
- Factors Influence Teaching……………………………………………………………………….. 176
- Interplay with Value Education and Teaching Profession…………………. 180
- Realness 181
- Prizing, Accepting, Trust………………………………………………………………………….. 181
- Empathic Understanding………………………………………………………………………….. 182
- The Fully Functioning Person……………………………………………………………………. 182
- Desirable Teacher Values That Inform Values Education……………………………… 183
- The Trait Approach………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
- Values Clarification…………………………………………………………………………………. 184
- The Cognitive Developmental Approach…………………………………………………….. 185
- Role-Playing 186
- Self Assessment…………………………………………………………………………… 188
- Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….. 189
Nations in the world attained progress in their societies through utilizing knowledge and generation of knowledge. Education gains a lot of importance for the individual of every country and every society in the world. As the education is globalized in the 21st century the most essential is to know the type of education than why to education. The type of education needs to be given which must have its utility value that may able to fulfill individual, social and national needs. It means all-around development of a person who is self-aware and self-dependent, one who can make a better self, better surroundings and who can carve out a better history of humanity.
Multiple meanings have changed and developed over time of teacher professionalism in relation to changing historical, political and social contexts (Hilferty, 2008). Teachers are the changing agents in the education field. Therefore, choosing the teaching as a profession makes teacher responsible for introducing educational diversity in the classroom, integrating meaningful uses of technology for effective teaching learning process. Moreover, a teacher embraces and articulates outlining past, present, and future thoughts on curriculum, instruction, management, philosophy and different issues in education.
Social norms and cultural values are considered part of professional and social life transferred from a teacher to student. It is a teacher who prepares students to behave appropriately within campus and in the society. This necessitates academia to become a role model leaving a positive impact on students in and out of the classroom.
After studying the unit, you will be able to
- Trace the scope of social context in teaching profession
- Understand the cultural provisions in the profession of education
- Know about the political context and limitations in the profession of
1. SOCIAL CONTEST
Students’ social needs and various student, classroom and school background are the important factors to determine the instruction of course other than the teacher’s background, beliefs and attitudes. Teaching and Learning International Survey(TALIS) also observed such teaching practices which are totally based upon students socio economic, language background, intelligent level, grade level, and size of class. For instance studies on aptitude-treatment interactions proposed that learner with low intellectual abilities gains more advantages from organized, teacher-centered instruction. On the other hand learners with high intellectual aptitudes may gain more from less organized and more complex instruction (Snow and Lohman, 1984). TALIS looks at macro-adaptively i.e. the adaptation of teaching practices to characteristics of the class (Cronbach, 1957).
It has been proved from researches that the effectiveness of schools the quality of the learning environment is the factor affecting student learning and outcomes that is most readily modified. It shows the variables such as cognitive and motivational capacities, socio-economic background, social and cultural capital are out of control by the teachers and school (Scheerens and Bosker, 1997; Hopkins, 2005; Lee and Williams, 2006; Harris and Chrispeels, 2006). One of the most important task for TALIS is to assess quality, as perceived by teachers, at the classroom as well as the school level. It is not easy to identify the indicators that cause change as the the environment generally varies between subject and teacher. The main indicator used for the quality learning environment by TALIS is the time on task i.e. the proportion of lesson time that is actually used for teaching and learning and classroom context. Classroom climate has also strong impact on cognitive as well as motivational aspects of individual learning in different subjects. The method used here is adapted from PISA and focuses on the disciplinary aspect. For instance, if the teachers wait for a long time for the students to quiet down when the lesson begins it indicates a low level of discipline. It has been shown that the core element of the quality instruction is classroom discipline aggregated to the school level. In PISA, it is positively related to the school’s mean student achievement in many participating countries (Klieme & Rakoczy, 2003).
Clausen (2002) research indicated that unlike other features of classroom instruction there is a high level of agreement about this indicator among teachers, students and observers. School climate is used as an indicator for the school environment in addition to the environment at the classroom level. School climate which refers to the quality of social relations between students and teachers including the quality of support teachers give to students has direct influence on motivational factors such as learners’ commitment to their school and their level
of satisfaction. However school climate has indirect influence on students’ achievement. The model of instructional quality (Klieme et al., 2006) recommends relationship between instructional practices and the two climate factors. In which the structure-oriented teaching practices should primarily relate to high levels of classroom climate, while student-oriented practices should be linked with positive social relations.
- Importance of the Social Context of Teaching and Learning Social interactions between student and teachers contribute to create healthy learning process and it has implications for both student development and teacher Numerous researchers have found that the teacher-student relationship can have positive effects on student development, academic achievement, and cognitive development, determination in higher education, students ‘personality development, and educational aspirations (Pascarella, 1980; Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980 Volkwein, King, and Terentini. 1986). . Teacher- student interaction is more significant if it is linked with students’ development. Social context provide the opportunities for meaningful advisement, development of friendships, and testing of ideas and talents.
Latest reviews of the literature that aim to identify the principles underlying teaching and learning have authenticated the significance of the social context. An early pioneer Rogers (1969) found that the facilitation of meaningful learning based upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the personal relationship between the teacher and the learner. Rogers (1969) argued that learning does not only depend upon the teacher’s leadership skills, mastery of content, planning skills, integration of technology, programmed learning and books. It shows, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of the social context.
The key characteristics of successful teaching fall naturally into two main categories in which the interpersonal relation and clarity of presentation (Lowman, 1984). The literature on teaching and learning gives them about equal weight in their influence on teaching effectiveness. Seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education were extracted from fifty years of research on teaching and learning. These seven principles showed that good teacher encourages contacts between students and faculty, develops mutuality and collaboration among students, uses active learning techniques, gives quick feedback, emphasizes in time completion of task, communicates high expectations, and respects individual differences and other ways of learning. Many of these general principles are related to the social context of teaching and learning. This study supported by the American Association for Higher Education and the Education Commission of the States (Chickering & Gamson, 1989).
Learner-Centered, Self-Directed Instruction
Rogers (1983) has reviewed experiential literature to support the conclusion that student behaviors such as talking, participation and instigation and teacher behavior such as smiling, realization to student’s self-belongingness and students’ autonomy all promote effective learning and personal growth. Recent research has implied the power of the social context on learner-centered instruction. Teachers’ smiling and joking-has a significant positive influence on the interpersonal climate, even when students are sitting and listening to lectures.
Cranton and Hillgarmer (1981) found such characteristics as teachers’ enthusiasm and rapport to be responsible for better learning and a more positive attitude toward teaching. Later Murray (1983) and Erdle, Murray, and Rushton (1985) have found that teachers ‘sense of humor expressed in lectures are correlated with high student ratings. According to Greeson, (1985, 1986, 1988), effective social arrangements are different ways that teachers and students relate to one another it is not merely things that teachers do. Further, Greeson’s studies are concerned with the broader social arrangements between teacher and student. His examination of teachers’ and students’ behavior under both student-centered and teacher centered instruction indicates that student-centered instruction can enhance the dynamics of interaction between teachers and learners in classroom settings. In student-centered classroom increase the responsibilities of learner and make them self -responsible towards task completion. Student -centered approaches are popular today as a welcome corrective to other methods; their popularity attests to how skewed instruction in higher education has become toward teacher-centeredness.
Cooperative Teaching and Learning
An instructional strategy in which students work in a small group to achieve the common goals is called cooperative learning (Cooper & Mueck, 1989). This perspective is currently moving from K- 12 into higher education promises to bring change dramatically the social arrangements between teachers and students. Mill (1990) has summarized the main features of cooperative learning. There is interdependency of group members in cooperative learning. Learners accountability in which no student can get spare from group members, because course grades largely reflect individual learning. Groups are formed on the bases of heterogeneity in which mixed ability students differences in learning abilities, cultural diversity, and gender. Leadership skills in group work are designed to build team skills and social skills to help students engage in cooperative interaction and show mutual respect. Slavin (1989-90). Research on cooperative learning documented its advantages for K-12 settings. However, recent college- based research have also supported similar conclusions in which cooperative
learning is more effective, more fun, and leads to greater student involvement and cooperative group skills (Millis, 1990).
This paradigm of cooperative learning has shifted the role of teachers becomes facilitator rather than the lecturing authority (Finkel & Monk, 1983). Teacher’s role is expanded beyond the typical product model of simply presenting information and evaluating (Schon, 1987). Now the teachers, main role is to facilitate-to set tasks for the group and guide the group toward cooperation and interdependence. The teacher’s role in cooperative learning has been linked with Rogers’s client-centered theory (Hassard, 1990). It entails a conscious shift of perspective on the part of the teacher towards the cooperation and facilitation of instruction by keeping away from authoritarianism. Teachers remained successful in securing and creating well-designed, team-oriented tasks for learners who have incorporated this philosophy into their classrooms.
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967). They argue that “every communication has a content and a relationship aspect such that the latter classifies the former” (p. 54). Possibly the most relevant treatment of communication for our purposes is the social interaction theory. The meaning of a message is inherently dependent on this contexts consisting of human relationships. Simpson and Galbo (1986) has applied this theory to the classroom who discuss the influence of relationships on communication. Simpson and Galbo (1986) argue that if the quality of the relationship is as important to communication then the association between teacher and students is important to efficient communication. Furthermore, it seems that communication make relationship stable that directly contributes to effectiveness. (Pascarella, 1980) Explained perhaps this is why informal interaction between teacher and students is linked with positive outcomes. Another idea Simpson and Galbo (1986) applied to teaching and learning from the Watzlawick theory that any communication is a function of the unique interaction at the time it takes place. The quality of particular interaction is determined by the time of encounter and the contextual situations in which communication occur between individuals. Therefore, quality of a particular interaction is not predicable. Thus, teachers cannot decide with certainty that how students will respond to the various parts of a learning. Teachers must rely upon information obtained through interacting with students during the class to determine some of the ultimate specifics of instruction (Simpson & Galbo, 1986). Seeking and using information on the spot during teaching is a high level professional skill Teachers required high professional skills to seeking and using information on the spot about their students that is little understood and poorly researched, according to Simpson and Galbo (1986). Effective teachers know how to use their personalities
to inspire and stimulate connections between students’ previous experiences and the subject matter. Teachers’ personality is viewed as the instrument of instruction. Researchers seek methods that are independent of personality. Simpson and Galbo (1986,) turn the traditional assumption on its head. Much of the research about classroom instruction has attempted to control the teacher’s personality as a variable. The more productive course of action may be to control for method and to make the teacher’s personality the experimental variable.”
Jones (1989) found that the students of different ages and institutions typically report two indicators which they linked with good teachers. These two factors include technical and person logical. Person logical factor gained much more importance as it help the students to achieve the feelings of self-worth. Teachers’ personality is an important and valid factor. Students rating of effective teachers’ competence depend upon the perceptions of teachers’ personalities as well as of their technical competence (Jones, 1989).Teacher-student relationship has gained much importance in educational process (DeVito, 1986). Relational approach to teaching can be best understood and improved by defining it as a process of relational development. DeVito (1986) presents nine relationship skills highlighting openness, sympathy, supportiveness, fairness, collaboration, trust and interaction-that can help teachers to enhance their effectiveness. Teachers should able to build relationships between student and teachers. They should encourage meaningful dialogue and serve as a role model. Teachers should be reflective and be able to able to relinquish control to students.
Feedback is another central theme of communication theory. It is considered one of the dominant mechanisms of experiential learning and action research (Kolb, 1984), sensitivity training (Lakin, 1972), and laboratory methods of personal and organizational change. Descriptive feedback enhanced both teaching and learning that occurs in the course of interaction between teachers and students (Schein & Bennis, 1965). Interaction in group is linked to feedback. This is true in the dynamic teacher student relationship as in tutoring or advising and in the classroom group(Billson, 1986). When students are given the autonomy to define issues, problems, and projects, work can be broken into discrete blocks that can be targeted, attempted, and mastered, with many opportunities for immediate feedback, criticism, redirection, and consultation. The cognitive aspect points the critical role of feedback plays in mastery learning (Guskey, 1988).
Other aspects focus on making goals more transparent to students. Cross (1988) Cross & Angelo (1988) research indicated that teachers and learners cannot share responsibility for the effectiveness of education if the learner has no idea of the goals planned by the teacher and the teacher has no idea of how the learner is
progressing toward those goals. Teachers do not always like to teach they asked in the test while students tend to study what they think will be tested. Teachers remain busy to cover the whole content and learners are busy in psyching out exams. This gap between teaching and testing presents and hindrance to the sharing of responsibilities and to teacher-learner collaboration. The best way to bridge this gap and to bring learner and teachers into collaboration is to use a technique that teaches and assess students simultaneously. For instance, requiring students to practice critical thinking as part of a learning exercise can both teach the skill and test it. Learning goals cannot be clearly articulated unless they are well defined and assessed. Cross and Angel (1988) present over forty classroom assessment techniques that double as teaching tools. one of the tool recommended by cross (1988) developed at Harvard called the Teaching Goals Inventory (TGI), intended to help teachers clarify their teaching goals. In addition to this she is now designing assessment measures, these measures will help teachers regulate how close students are to achieve the goals. Recent research indicates that the use of learning contracts to encourage sharing of responsibility for learning is not new, that they may provide a useful way to teach students some self-directed learning skills (Knowles, 1975; Rossman, 1982).
Research showed that interactive learning experience helps students to achieve their educational goals enables them to identify the resources required to complete different kinds of tasks (Caffarella & Caffarella, 1986).Curricular changes can be improved by students feedback, shared responsibility to empowering students and development of written material. However the role of students in these areas is not highly encouraged by the teachers. Teachers usually do not believe that their lectures or course materials such as outlines and syllabi could be improved by student input. Menges and Brinko (1986) research indicated there are evidences that both lectures and the design of teaching materials (Medley-Mark and Weston, 1988) can be greatly improved by the help of student feedback, cooperation, and assessment.
2. CULTURAL CONTEXT
The progressive approach change in the schools was occurring in the most recent decade of twentieth century. Educators have found themselves capable to expand the nature of training and enhance results for students so as to make a more talented and instructed work environment. Levin (1998) has referred to both created and creating economies alike an approach pestilence which is conveyed by operators, for example, the World Bank and the OECD. Because of this strategy instruction is consider as a key fixing in the national financial advancement procedures. Certain elements have made national legislature of
western industrialized countries concentrate on the nature of their necessary tutoring frameworks. These components specifically are moves in social dispositions and normal auxiliary issues, for example, changing work designs, maturing populaces, youth joblessness, neediness, avoidance and the osmosis of financial vagrants.
In 1991 Maastricht Treaty has set instruction under the specialist of the European Union (EU) inside the Europe. National training frameworks are feeling obligated to take part in some type of rebuilding and realignment, in spite of the guideline of subsidiary which implies that EU law must be surrounded in connection to existing national needs and practice. Both in Europe and past, an intense talk has guaranteed that the market, managerialism and performativity have consolidated to make what Ball (2003) has alluded to as three interrelated ‘arrangement advancements’ which have been utilized to control crafted by educators and the execution of schools. These adjustments in the direction of instruction frameworks have incited observers to guess on the effect which such changes are having on the wide range of instructors’ work and the degree to which they can hold their independence as experts (Apple, 1986; Ball, 1994; Hargreaves, 1994; Robertson, 1996; Helsby, 1999; Smyth, Dow, Hattam, Reid, and Shacklock, 2000). Sadly, an inclination for some approach research to concentrate on either the meta-story of significant moves in the control and administration of training frameworks, or the assessment of individual activities can fortify an administrative point of view of the strategy procedure. Age and execution have been developed as unmistakable and separate ‘minutes’, with age took after by usage in an immediate, straight manner. This can offer ascent to an auxiliary functionalist way to deal with approach investigation which searches for confirmation of ‘data sources’ and ‘yields’ and expect a shut arrangement of basic leadership (Bowe and Ball, 1992). Strategy moves toward becoming what government does, expecting a reasonable, ‘top-down’ and robotic process in which usage is clear and unproblematic. Such a view appreciates what occurs in the ‘black box’ of usage, and puts less accentuation on the part of the included on- screen characters or ‘road level officials’ (Lipsky, 1980) who can impact, or even subvert, arrangement during the time spent execution.
The ensuing area talks about the effect of approaches on the components included. These elements may differ significantly because of the specific social setting inside which they are arranged. Thusly, a strategy which might be worldwide in inception can be interceded by national instructive factors, for example, societies at school and educator level, bringing about altogether different elucidations and reactions. Organization and structure both coordinate to deliver new elucidations of educators’ work in various social settings. It is
especially critical not to limit the pretended by educators’ convictions and qualities in translating, obliging state approach. So as to see this case this part audits near discoveries on educators’ work in a few European nations. near discoveries on educators’ work drawing especially upon a program of expressly relative research which has analyzed the effect of national approach change on instructors’ work and expert character.
3. POLITICAL CONTEXT
The decision about the education system in Pakistan will be entirely different fro Zimbabwe as due to the two countries having very different politics, government structures, laws, histories, cultures and education systems to name only a few factors. The context in which decisions are made around education is matter a lot. One of the major factor of classifying and understanding what the formal and informal rules and institutions look like in a given country is political context.
Codified constitutions, laws, policies, rights and regulations are the base of formal institutions while informal institutions don not follow any written and formal regulations, values and behaviors (Leftwich& Sen, 2010). A mutual strand is the idea of a stability of power between elite groups that leads to peaceful political contestation. Kelsall et al. (2016a: 8) summarizes that: Stability in political context found where dominant groups have agreed to stop fighting and pursue their aims through peaceful politics. The set of rules and institutions both formal and informal that create and sustain equilibrium are the substance of political context. However the most models revolve around the division of wealth of society by the powerful groups.
Most importantly the political settlements and peace supremacies are formed when the distribution of society’s institutions wealth in a way that is acceptable to powerful groups (Ibid.). The nature of politics of any country can help to elucidate the way that the formal and informal institutions work, and the incentives that these create for different stakeholders. This is useful from a policy and programme perspective, as it can enlighten the ways to bring change in the design of institutions as well as shape appropriate strategies to achieve change.
Four underlying assumptions highlighted by Kelsall et al. (2016a) as to why political context matter in teaching profession of any country.
- Sustainable or inclusive development is impossible in the absence of a political scenario of any
- The nature of the political settlement, strongly influencing the ability of the state to raise income through taxation, creates powerful path dependencies for future development, to hire and dismiss the competent civil employers,
to privilege certain sectors for economic development or to advance the position of different social groups, among other things.
- Political settlements incline to change gradually until such a time as a tipping point is reached, after which change can be dramatic and
- Institutions and policies are implemented effectively where they are aligned with the underlying political settlement.
To explore that how the political context affects the prospects and strategies for teaching progress we are particularly interested in (i) how teacher education institutions and teaching interventions interact with the incentives created by the political parties(ii) which factors have the power and incentives to engage in reform. These factors will shape if and how systemic change is feasible in the short to medium term.
3.1 Factors Influence Teaching
There are several factors that are influence by political involvement among teachers. The most pertinent figure are the school principals and department chairpersons in the teaching profession.
Principal affect everything in the school motivation, morale, feeling, relations with students and parents. However effective principals are ones who make a positive political climate across the school, but an ineffective person can destroy everything. For instance, principals who are biased toward selected teachers triggered feelings of anger, jealousy, suspicion, and futility among the faculty. Competition among teachers (e.g., for resources, status, recognition), avoidance, and disruption of chosen cohorts created further splits in the faculty. As a result different lobbies emerged in the school around in-group and out-group alliances. Some teachers retreated to the classroom. Faculty political interaction affect adversely in school based leadership.
Politics either be positive and negative. Supportive environment and controlling the negative expression and emotions were identified in Positive politics. It refers to work-related interactions that increase cohesion among faculty. In general, diplomacy is the tactic to handle the conflicts in terms of positive politics. While negative politics, on the other hand decreases the cohesion in school bring destructive results. Conflict and passive aggressiveness are prominent examples of this response set. Both type of political action was perceived to stem from protectionist or influence concerns, but usually associative consequences are more closely related to the former and dissociative consequences to the latter.
Underdevelopment theory is the base of political revolution. “Many programs which start from underdevelopment theory assumes that political revolution is necessary to achieve changes in approaches to development and that this revolution would have a mass rural base. Some of the most rational educational strategies based on underdevelopment theory gain this consistency from the location of educational action within a scheme for mass revolution (Freire, 1970). The World Bank, as an inter-government agency, can hardly propose to achieve its educational aims through mass political revolution. It has to accept existing political conditions even though it may, legitimately, choose to give aid disproportionately to projects in countries where governments do meet internationally respected standards of efficiency and justice.
The 1979 World Bank paper put emphasize to endorse educational changes which will stimulate political revolution. According to World Bank (1979, Summary para, 0.02) the paper states widely diffused educational activities provoke and facilitate changes in socio-political context. The paper fails to provide other indications of political means of producing desired changes than popular revolution. Many of the Paper’s proposals in relation to impartiality and education are the concern of established governments where decisions necessarily will reflect local political and social pressures. One of the major failures to prioritize the educational justice to local community control of schools may result from reasonable choices by governments in the face of conflicting political demands. There may be more to the failure of governments to achieve the World Bank Paper’s social aims than subjective attitudes and self-interest of local officials. The absence of sufficient emphasis in the Paper on political considerations may again be related to the misapplication of theory to strategy.
Economic, social and political conditions are seen to be integrated parts of larger structures. Political institutions considered as integral part of these conditions rather than as agencies which can change social and economic conditions. The theoretical perspective taken in the Paper is predominantly structuralism. The logic behind that is political structures also must be changed equally along with social and economic conditions. This approach proposes no means of achieving change except political revolution. The methodological mistake found in the World Bank paper of attempting to derive policies directly from descriptive social theory.
Theories of the structure of social relation can only help to suggest what social changes need to be made to attain certain goals. Theory do not indicate how changes can be achieved and do not identify the mechanisms for producing change or the contexts in which the various stages of policy-making take place.
These theories are structuralism and suggest particularly that social, political and economic structures are inseparable. Economics interest is the base of the political interests. The World Bank yet, even accept this view even at a theoretical level, this connection can be questioned. Nation states are the products of historical power-struggles. Political interests are not necessarily wholly consistent with economic conditions. Educational policies will have to take into account the strengths and weaknesses of nation states and national governments as well as social and economic structures. The nation and the national government may not represent cohesive social or economic units. Report is concerned may be seen to have two aspects of the political dimension of education in the countries. Firstly there is the effect of educational provision on the achievement of political unity and constancy. Secondly there is political interference of governmental responses in particular countries to educational provision.
The countries which are politically unstable and underdeveloped receive aid from World Bank. In many cases this has been also linked with the recent colonial history of nation-states whose boundaries has great influence by European international politics rather than the affiliations of their peoples. The divisions between traditional and modem sectors intensify political conflicts noted in the World Bank paper. National political institutions are often weak and do not command widespread loyalty. The predominant experience of the majority of the population often is of the forced arms of government.
In developing national political cohesion Education played a vital role. This is defined in governmental statements of educational aims. Experience of education itself may be a significant means of creating national unity. This required uniformity in system. Centralized education system may bring uniformity in educational institutes. This involves central control of educational institutions, central allocation and training of teachers and a national curriculum. Proposals in the World Bank (1979) Paper for the decentralization of education threaten the political objectives of national unity especially when this means autonomy for each local community. Decentralization of education may create regional conflicts at any level which can be based on economic development, different languages and different religions. At worst, locally controlled schools in politically weak nation-states may become agencies of competing political groups. In this way, education itself becomes a politically disunifying force.
It is not being argued that all the policies proposed by the World Bank paper will threaten national political stability. An education policy which emphasizes the maintenance of rural population stability rather than urban growth may help to reduce the social stresses of rapid social and economic change which can threaten
political stability. A policy of giving priority to the achievement of impartiality of educational provision may help to encourage wider acceptance of national norms and ideologies more than one which raise discrimination between a small educated group and the mass of the population which has received little or no schooling. The point I want to make is that the policies proposed by the World Bank paper should be seen in the context of existing political frameworks and national political aims.
Political aspect likely to have a major effect on the adoption of policies by governments but it seems to be ignored. The provision of education is affected by the ways in which schooling is viewed by community. The reaction to these demands is essentially a political matter which reflects political balances within individual countries. World Bank paper notes, that some people in rural areas reject state education as they do not find it as irrelevant or unfriendly to their interests and values. Others may perceive schooling as a way to social change and more find it more attractive occupations in the modern sector of the economy. Some may opposed teaching other than the mother or local language. While other may accept the international language as a medium of instruction in their schools. Some governments may wish to encourage the use of national languages in schools to achieve national unity while others may tolerate the use of many languages where other means are available of attaining national unity or where the opposition to national languages is too great to be overcome within existing political resources. The pattern of these demands and the balance vary between countries. All depends on political conditions. Whether educational policy makers respect the expressed wishes of major groups in the population or try to change them. The relative strength of political groupings will affect the degree to which formulated policies are adopted and then implemented. Educational and non- educational goals can be achieved by the Educational programmes.”
Schools may also vary as some governments tolerate rural schools becoming avenues for limited rural-urban mobility for some students as an incentive for rural communities accepting land reform or participating in government. Other governments may wish to prevent rural schools becoming means to migration as the first stage in an overall rural reform programme. Most governments would endorse this aim that the World Bank may propose schemes to achieve economic development with the knowledge. The scheme proposed that the achievement of economic goals is mediated by social conditions which may have to be changed if economic aims are to be realized. However, it is clear that the achievement of change vary from country to country and that national governments are best placed to decide, and to achieve, what is politically feasible depends on political conditions. While some statements in the World Bank paper seem to indicate
recognition of this, it does not inform the overall character of the analysis and prescriptions of the report. The failure of the World Bank paper to give weight to political considerations seems to stem from the type of analysis that is adopted as too much emphasis is given to structuralism theories of social relations. Insufficient consideration is paid to the processes and contexts of policy formulation, adoption and implementation.
4. INTERPLAY WITH VALUE EDUCATION AND TEACHING PROFESSION
Two questions seeking answers in order to address the problem of determining the impact of teacher values on teaching in general and values education in particular:
- Is effective teaching the expression of a general set of teacher personal values that inform teacher behaviors and relationships with students?
- Are there specific teacher values that inform quality values education?
It is necessary to establish that teaching is values-laden before focusing on these questions. In one sense teachers are social and moral educators. Teachers take positions on a variety of social and emotional issues and develop values that are informed by these challenges regardless of the institutional limitations within a school.
Generally, a teacher’s selection of subject matter, his choice of instructional strategies and structures to communicate that content is values-laden. For example, deciding between instructional models of teaching involving teacher presentation and a collaborative approach involving students more proactively, both sends significant messages about the teacher’s values to students. The research of Halstead and Xiao (2010) argued that the students’ constantly learn values that may not be those that are clearly written and taught as an impact of hidden curriculum. While giving the example author says that students learning to show tolerance when it is appropriate to disobey certain rules be learned after reflection on a teacher’s dominating behavior. Both teachers and students bring and develop a variety of professional and personal values to classroom relationships. Just as teachers bring and develop a variety values, the students also bring a variety of values from the home. These will include varying expressions of tolerance, respect for others, social conscience and personal responsibility.
So relationship is an activated process that is informed by the values of both students and teacher (Brophy and Good 1974).The threats in originating an ideal set of teacher values for effective teaching include the tendency to confuse personal values with professional values and personality with character (values).
One attractive image is that some students prefer a teacher who is friendly, delightful, passionate and owning a strong sense of humor. While in other case some students prefer a teacher who exhibits the conflicting that is, one who is distant, composed and serious, as this teacher may produce better results. Teachers who possess desirable qualities such as enthusiasm and charm may contribute to professional expertise personality traits are only contingently contributory (Carr, 2010). While the outflow of expert practices is reliant on certain individual esteems that has significance for classrooms. There is adequate writing that inspects alluring instructor conduct and educator esteems. There is additionally an extraordinary consciousness of the significance of relationship to powerful educating and learning. Bingham and Sidorkan (2004) alter an assortment of commitments that investigate the essentialness of connection in instruction, concentrating less on instructive process but rather more on human connections. Tirri, (2010) minding and regard are the most clear enthusiastic articulations obvious in addressing the necessities of individual understudies. Tirri’s (2010) look into on instructor esteems that educate proficient morals and relationship distinguishes minding and regards demonstrable skill and responsibility, and collaboration.
Clement, 2010 unravels student perceptions about the caring attitude of teachers. Research revealed that teachers with professional values deal their students equally, respect them as a person, consider individual difference while making expectations, offer instant constructive feedback and act as role model for their students. Professionalism and commitment are apparent in the planning. Two of the arguably more enduring profiles of teacher qualities and values that are desirable in establishing teacher-student relationships to optimize learning are those of Carl Rogers (1969) and Paulo Freire (1998). They present an ideal of the teacher and human being as emotionally and psychologically stable, and are described by the author as follows:
This includes the teacher being himself without presence of different classroom identity. Teacher may be enthusiastic, uninterested, interested, annoyed, sympatric and sensitive because they accepts these feelings as her/his own, she/he has no need to enforce them.
Prizing, Accepting, Trust
This comprises the teacher way of recognizing and acknowledging his students. Recognition should be in the way that it may not discourage other students while encouraging one in front of class. For that purpose private recognition is
encouraged as compared to public recognition. Caring for them in such a way that their feelings and opinions are affirmed.
This contains the teacher quality to demonstrate a sensitive understanding of how his student perceive and feels about learning. Considering the context as a major requisite for learning, Rogers (1969) said about the student voice that at last someone understands how it feels to the students without wanting to analyzing or judging them. In this way students can grow and learn in a healthy teaching and learning environment.
The Fully Functioning Person
These teachers are emotionally secure and have no need to be defensive. This involves teachers in the process of being and becoming themselves by being open to their feelings and evidence from all sources, and by discovering that they are soundly and realistically social.
“Freire’s (1998) ‘Central Qualities of Progressive Teachers’ also portray the essentially human and emotionally responsive teacher:
- Humility: being perceptive about their own limitations and implementing a democratic rather than an authoritarian
- Lovingness: showing love for both students and teaching and practicing armed love (fighting for what is right).
- Courage: removing one’s own fears and
- Tolerance: respecting difference but not ‘acquiescing to the ’
- Decisiveness: making often-difficult choices for the best, yet being careful not to ‘nullify oneself in the name of being
- Living the tension between patience and impatience – preserving the tension between the two yet never surrendering to either.
- Joy of living: committing to both teaching in particular and life in general.”
While the educator estimations of Rogers (1969) and Freire (1998) are apparently persisting, if testing to instruct (realness, lovingness, lowliness, the completely working individual, and the delight of living), different articulations of perfect instructor esteems and practices unavoidably advance as impression of educating and learning change. Brady (2006) follows a development in expansive ways to deal with taking in and instructing from conventional to dynamic to collective, and characterizes a model of contemporary learning and showing that depends on social constructivism, and that is communicated by Bruner’s (1996) assert that learning ought to be participative (understudies being
occupied with their learning), proactive (understudies stepping up with regards to their learning), and cooperative (understudies working with each other and their educator to advance their learning). Such a dynamic perspective of students, combined with a similarly powerful part for instructors as co- constructors of learning, has apparently changed prior pictures of the perfect educator as the ‘wellspring of all intelligence’, the quintessential explainer, or one who can ‘separate’ and present data such that it is acceptable for understudies. It has likewise had the impact of featuring the requirement for instructor resilience and lack of bias in esteems training, and highlighting the requirement for understudy support and expert activity.
Desirable Teacher Values That Inform Values Education
The challenge of teaching values education is to focus on the need for teachers to create warm and supportive classroom environments in which students feel free to express their thoughts and feelings or even experience catharsis, and to be tolerant of different student opinions. A more demanding strategy for deciding if certain esteems are more critical in values instruction than different regions of learning, is to inspect the educating/learning systems that instructors must embrace in encouraging each of the significant contemporary ways to deal with esteems training, and to deduce the educator esteems that are expected to illuminate hone.
The Trait Approach
“The trait approach is based on the view that values education should comprise predetermined traits or qualities that can be taught. Kohlberg (1975) referred to the approach pejoratively as ‘the bag of virtues approach’. While often cited desirable virtues include honesty, loyalty, tolerance, trustworthiness, service and compassion, the implicit question is ‘what values’ and ‘determined by whom’. So the approach is based on values absolutism: certain prescribed values are deemed more worthy than others. The indirect expression that utilises moral biography is the typical expression of the trait approach. Biography provides the raw data for discussion, and the learning principle is that of transfer: if students are impressed by the values by which eminent people lived their lives, they will adopt the values as their own. Proponents claim that a biography need not simply comprise one or a number of desirable behaviours for potential adoption, but that it can be potentially powerful in presenting the feelings and thoughts that guide action in specific contexts. Conventional practice involves the teacher reading the biography (usually abridged to a page or two), and focusing a discussion on the values demonstrated. Effective teaching involves more than simple deduction of
qualities or values. It includes examination of the reasons for, and consequences of action, and the transposition of the demonstrated values into student-centred contexts (‘Can you think of ways that you could practice these values in your own life at home or at school?). Rather than use full biographies or chronologies of a person’s life, brief extracts may be presented providing defining moments from speeches or reports that exemplify the desirable values of the lauded character or speaker. These extracts are typically followed by specific questions about the value ‘What examples of care and compassion are shown?’”
“The approach involves students identifying their values and beliefs ‘in an effort to enable them to be more self-directing in life’s confusions’. This reflection process to clarify the confusion, proponents claim, makes the student more purposeful and productive, less gullible and vulnerable, a better critical thinker, and more socially aware. Values clarification is based on the notion of values-relativity, that is, in contrast to the trait approach for which values are prescribed (values absolutism), students are encouraged to adopt their own values, providing they are personally meaningful. The approach does not focus on the imposition of a set of prescribed values, but the process of acquiring them. The strategies may include ranking or rating values statements in particular areas (students ranking or rating on a five point scale); creating a Values Shield (students representing what is meaningful to them by drawing symbols on a cardboard family crest); conducting SWOT analysis (students identifying the relevant Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats relating to an issue or situation); completing unfinished sentences (students finishing a sentence structured by the teacher to elicit a feeling, opinion or value), utilising discussion cards (students discussing issues written, often by themselves, on cards) and ‘playing’ voting questions (students voting on contentious issues with raised hands for agreement, thumbs down for disagreement, and arms folded for undecided). The variety of possible strategies is virtually unlimited. The strategies are typically presented to students in small groups, though sometimes they are completed individually or as a whole class. While the students are undertaking the tasks, the teacher visits each group, facilitating by asking questions related to three identified processes (choosing, affirming and acting). For example, for ‘choosing‘ the teacher might
ask ‘Did you consider another possible alternative? and ‘Are there some reasons behind your choice?’; for ‘affirming’, the teacher might ask ‘Would you tell the class how you feel?’ and ‘Are you willing to stand up and be counted for that?’; and for ‘acting’ the teacher might ask ‘Have you done anything yet?’ and ‘How long do you think you will continue?’ Once the tasks are completed, student responses are typically shared in discussion with the whole class, though exceptions may be made for very sensitive issues or vulnerable students.”
The Cognitive Developmental Approach
“This approach is called ‘cognitive’ because it bases values education, like intellectual education, on the active thinking of students about values. It is ‘developmental’ because it views values education as the movement through stages. These stages define ‘what (a person) finds valuable how he defines the value, and why he finds it valuable, that is, the reasons he gives for valuing it’ (Kohlberg, 1975). This distinction between ‘structure’ and content indicates that we are located at a particular stage according to the nature of our reasoning and not its content. For example, two people might justify two completely opposite stances, say for and against euthanasia respectively (different content), and be reasoning at the same stage level (the same ‘structure’). The focus of the cognitive theorists is therefore to improve reasoning and facilitate movement through the six stages identified by Kohlberg (1975) towards moral autonomy, rather than to differentiate between right and wrong decisions. Kohlberg (1975) claims that the means of promoting development (movement through the stages) is through the provision of conflict, so the classroom strategy involves the presentation of a moral dilemma story, sometimes called ‘unfinished,’ ‘open ended’ or ‘conflict’ story. It is ‘unfinished’ because it presents a student-centred dilemma, and asks how the protagonist should solve the conflict. They have great appeal as a strategy in values education because they are so student- centred, and therefore possess a capacity to engage through discussion. There is no established classroom procedure apart from teacher direction of the discussion. Teachers facilitate by asking both questions that clarify substantive issues in the dilemma, and questions that are more generic (‘Might there be an alternative? Why do you
think that? Can you give another example? What might the consequences of that be?’), ensuring that the conflict is not so great as to be daunting, nor so slight as to be insufficiently challenging. Teachers avoid imposing their personal views and judging the responses of students. To do so would diminish the presence of conflict – the agent of moral growth. They may however ensure that the class is exposed to the opinions of those who are reasoning at the next highest stage, as evidence indicates that when students are exposed to reasoning at one stage above their own stage, they are more influenced by it and prefer it as advice. While teachers may summarize the discussion and delineate suggested solutions, no particular proposal is endorsed as ‘right’.”
“Shaftel, 1967 provides an early definition of role-play as ‘the opportunity to explore through spontaneous improvisation typical group problem situations in which individuals are helped to become sensitive to the feelings of the people involved’. Typically, two students selected as the players react spontaneously to each other in dialogue to explore solutions to a presented problem. In assuming the role of another person, students step outside their accustomed role and adopt the role of another person. In this way, they are required to become less egocentric, and as a result, they develop insights into themselves and others. The following six steps in conducting a role- play are derived from the author’s observation and demonstration teaching of over 100 role play lessons:”
1. Solution confrontation
The teacher identifies the roles/duties to be played for a nominated solution, and if necessary, clarifies the names of characters and the sequence of events.
The teacher assists students to enter the role of the character they are to play by questioning the players and class about what each character in turn might be thinking or feeling. (‘What might Leif be feeling?’ Why might she think that?’). Alternatively the briefing may comprise a statement by the teacher describing the gamut of thoughts and feelings each character might be
experiencing, to sensitise the players and audience. For both the questioning and statement forms of briefing, the teacher remains as ‘neutral’ as possible.
Fully sensitised to the feelings of the characters involved, the players react spontaneously to each other in dialogue. The exchange is unrehearsed; each player reacts to the unpredictable responses of the other; and this ‘transactional’ quality of role-play often produces solutions that are not those initially anticipated by the players or class.
This is an optional step that is only implemented if the teacher feels a player needs to be extracted from the role. It may take the form of a simple statement (‘Remember Erin, you’re not Lachlan anymore…his problems aren’t really yours’), or teachers may use the nametag technique: removing the nametag of the character’s name when the role-play is complete, and throwing it in the bin (psychologically disowning the role).
5. Reflection on transaction
Once the role-play is over, the teacher asks the two players to comment on the transactional nature of the exchange by analysing the thoughts and feelings that the other player evoked, and how these shaped their own reactions. The class may also contribute its perceptions of the interaction, and ‘test’ them by asking the players questions.
6. Further enactment
The discussion prompts further enactments, sometimes involving the same two characters, but with different players, or involving an exchange between one of the original characters and a third. In the case of the former, a new player may be chosen on the basis that he/she thought an original player was not sufficiently real (too harsh or too lenient).
7. Scaffolding learning
Teachers need to engage in contingent scaffolding by questioning students about their evolving views. For instance, teachers may facilitate the process of values clarification by asking questions about choosing, affirming and acting upon values; they might ask students how values deduced from moral biography might be transferred or acted upon in their own lives; and they might expose students to higher stage moral reasoning about a moral dilemma and question them about the merits of that reasoning. So teachers need to be committed to a dynamic form of learning in which students are equally as active as the teacher, and operate as constructors of knowledge.
8. Encouraging student expression
All approaches are language-rich in that they rely on both teacher questioning, and either full class or small group discussion in resolving or sharing insights. The discussion of moral dilemmas and moral biographies, and the use of role-play are totally based in student talk; and values clarification typically involves minimal written responses prior to discussion. The approaches are also highly emotionally engaging for students. So teachers need to be committed to promoting learning that is participative, collaborative and verbally rich.
5. SELF ASSESSMENT
Section I: Short answer Questions
- How the empathic understanding plays the role in teaching profession?
- What is the role of self-directed instruction in improving the role of teacher in society?
- Explain cooperative teaching and learning in reference to the societal
- Briefly highlight the role of communication theory in improving teaching profession?
- Mention either different educational policies are being enacted in many countries in response to global pressures or
Section II: Essay Type
- How can a teacher conduct an effective role play during his/her lecture to enhance the understanding of the students?
- What are the qualities of an effective teacher?
- Highlight the features of teaching profession in your social
- What kind of political interference a society is facing in promotion of teaching profession? Explain your answer with reference to the
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ETHICAL ISSUES IN TEACHING PROFESSION
Written By: Dr. Muhammad Athar Hussain Reviewed By: Dr. Fazal Ur Rahman
Sr. Title Page No
- Definitions of Ethics…………………………………………………………………….. 197
- Difference Between Ethics and Morals………………………………… 197
- Professionalism in Teacher Education………………………………….. 198
- Teaching……………………………………………………………………………………… 199
- General Principle of Ethics in Teaching…………………………………………… 200
- Ethical Issues Pertaining to the Role of Teacher………………………………. 201
- Ethical Role Pertaining to the Role of Teacher……………………… 202
- Moral Person…………………………………………………………………….. 202
- Moral Educator…………………………………………………………………. 202
- Student Teacher Relationship……………………………………………… 202
- Self Awareness…………………………………………………………………. 203
- Fairness and Care………………………………………………………………. 203
- Formal Responsibility………………………………………………………… 203
- Ethical Issue Pertaining to Education……………………………………………… 204
- Right to Education……………………………………………………………. 204
- Should Teacher Students be Friends?………………………………….. 204
- To What Extent Help is Required?………………………………………. 204
- Communication…………………………………………………………………. 204
- Conflict Management………………………………………………………… 204
- Language of Learning………………………………………………………… 204
- Teacher Autonomy……………………………………………………………. 205
- Ethical Issue Pertaining to Schooling……………………………………………… 205
- Self-Assessment Questions……………………………………………………………. 206
- Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………… 207
Teaching is deemed a profession with responsibility, trust and truthfulness. It demands highest standards of professionalism which the teachers are expected to demonstrate not only within the boundaries of an educational institution but beyond the boundaries as well. Teachers through teaching transform the society and set examples for the coming generations. The society expects that their behavior reflects ethical and moral integrity. They are role models and their conduct significantly influence upon their professional image. Their professional role expects commitment to the students, the profession, the community and the family. With the advent of technology and impact of social media, ethical standards are being questioned and multiple challenges are coming up. Teachers deeply feel that they should develop a keen awareness and sensitivity to a variety of issues and situations they may encounter in daily contact with students, families and the community. In order to cope with the ethical issues embedded with social and cultural contexts, the teachers must practice ethical standards of the teaching profession. Besides this, there has been a concern among ethics experts about the general decline of ethics in teacher education programs. This unit will discuss ethics, ethical conflicts and issues in teacher education. It will also highlight ethical theory and practice for prospective teachers.
After studying this unit, you will be able to:
- Explain Ethics and its
- Differentiate between Ethics and
- Discuss Professionalism in Teacher
- Identify General Principle of Ethics in
- Elaborate ethical issues pertaining to Role of Teacher.
- Describe issues related to education and
Ethics are the fundamental ways of human behavior or basic principles of social and personal life. It studies the values of all men and women, human or natural rights, concern for health and safety in natural environment.
Ethics are concerned with the moral philosophy or codes practiced by a person or group of people.
Ethics a set of moral principles: theory or system or moral values. The discipline dealing with what is good and bad.
Ethics can be viewed as a ‘philosophy of morality’ as it deals with ought and ought not. (Mohony, 2009).
Ethical principles provide guidance on how individuals live their lives according to defined criteria. Many thinkers discussed virtues of an ethical life. It has been a great debate on role of ethics or ethical behavior in professional life. The demand of ethics is essential part of life most importantly to perform duties in professional setting. In every field of life ethical demand becomes crucial day by day. Doctors, lawyers, accountants, scientists and several professions follow rules and regulations. They are all restricted to follow ethics for the benefit of their stakeholders. Teaching is a moral and ethical activity. Teachers are representative of moral values and virtues. Hence, the duty of principals and teachers increases more. They are the true exchangers of values to next generation.
Ethics and morals relate with human attitude, behavior and ways of interacting with each other. These are the code of conduct ‘what is right’ and what is wrong’. Usually, both terms use interchangeably but they are different from each other Ethics considered to be the rule or code of conduct provided by external sources in the workplace or governing bodies. Morals are the internal principles of an individual life.
|These are the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or particular group.||Principles of habits with respect to right or wrong conduct. While morals also prescribe dos and donts morality is ultimately a personal compass of right and wrong.|
|Society says it is right thing to do||We believe in something right or
|Ethics are dependent on others for definition. They can vary between context||Moral are consistent whenever individuals belief cannot change|
|A person strictly follow ethical principles may not have any moral at all.||A moral person although perhaps bound by a governing body to follow
a code of ethics.
The concept of profession consists in a system of ethical principles expressible as duties or obligation (David, 2012).
|· They get paid what they do.
· Ground for generalization
|Activities of different occupations.||Requirements of particular class or category of occupation.|
Professional ethics are acceptable standards of personal and business behavior, value and guiding principles, Code of professional ethics are often established by professional organization to aid and direct members in performing their functions and duties according to required consistent ethical principles.
Professional ethics is conceived as an extra theoretical component in courses of professional education, or the ethical aspects of professionalism are reduced to just so many extra practical competencies acquired through training (David, 2000).
- Professions provide an important public
- They involve a theoretically as well as practically grounded expertise.
- They have a distinct ethical dimension ethical dimension which calls for expression in a code of
- They require organization and regulation for purposes of recruitment and
- Professional practitioners require a high degree of individual autonomy or independence of judgment for effective practice (Carr, 2000).
Any professional enterprise is deeply implemented in ethical concerns and considerations. Teaching is also an enterprise which deeply and significantly implicated in ethical concerns and considerations.
“Teaching is a kind of activity in which human being engage”.
It brings changes in human learning. Teaching skills can be leaned through specific practical skills. It can be professional one in terms of acquisition of skills.
There are several different occupations such as doctor, lawyer, accountants, plumber, and electricians and so on. But some are called by occupation and others profession so what is the difference between them. How occupation is transformed into profession? Occupation and profession is different with regard to “moral values”. “Teaching is regarded as the kind of occupation which people enter for love rather than money” (David, 2000).Teacher are the employers of wider community those who serve with the interests of people, society, culture and religion.
Teaching is called profession due to:
- Its social obligation
- Social prestige
- Community demand
- Social service
- Transformation of values and traditions
Professionalism is a measure of social strength and authority of an occupational group, teaching profession is notion of regulated autonomy because it acts on behalf of the state in the best interest of its citizens. Teacher professionalism is what teachers actually practice. These practices involve:
- Transfer of knowledge
- Presentation of content
- Facilitating learning
- Developing skills in monitoring and enhancing learning
- Ability to exert educational judgment (Frelin, 2013).
An action is considered to be right when all people treating fairly. Justice is mainly related with the duties and rights of all stakeholders and its emphasizes the fairness and equity of an action (Dempster & Berry,2003).
The care perspective emphasizes empathy and caring as well as the network of relationships. An action is right when it satisfies stakeholder’s needs and desires and leads to their growth (Feng, 2011).
Utilitarianism perspective is concerned with outcomes. It emphasizes that the consequence of an action determine its moral worth. An action is right because it leads to the greatest good and the least bad on the basis of utilitarian considerations. Teacher, principal should always act to maximum benefit of students and minimum harm for the greatest number of stakeholders (Feng, 2011).
The critique perspective emphasizes decision makers’ recognizing inequities in both schools and society. An action is right when it leads to equal opportunities for stakeholders by breaking oppression, privileges, and inequalities. School leaders should critically reflect on the ideology that people take for granted and probe unreasonable details when making decisions. Overall, the focus of this
perspective is on addressing inconsistencies and inequalities in life to achieve real social justice.
The virtue perspective emphasizes a person’s moral character. Virtues are a person’s disposition to act in a certain way and are cultivated by practice in daily life to facilitate a certain way of acting and living.
Teaching is associated with physical, mental, social, psychological and moral upbringing of students. Teacher plays a significant role in development of all aspects of life. The demand from the teacher increases when she is performing her duties that what is the major responsibility of teacher? To answer this question considered the major assumption which society expect that teacher is a moral agent. Teacher is a role model; he/she has to perform according to the requirements of cultural or traditional values. Carr, (2000) stated, the teachers are conceived as the representative or custodian of a specific set of civilized standards and value predicted on a traditionalist idea of education as the transmission of culture.
Teachers play multiple tasks in daily life; an imperative role is transmission of morality towards next generation. Teacher performs moral duty formally and informally, he/she is considered to be same role inside and outside the classroom.
Ways to transmit moral messages:
- Show moral and ethical behavior himself
- Model good behavior and attitudes in classroom
- Story telling
- Respecting students
- Peaceful environment
- Being nice, polite and thoughtful
- Well behaved
The moral duty of teacher:
- Handle students with care
- Positive relationship with students and other staff members
- Acting best interest of students
- Classroom environment (Catherine. E, 2011).
- Knowledge and expertise of teachers
- Academic and theoretical knowledge
- Cultural custodian
- Facilitator of inquiry
- Communicator, management, organization for effective teaching (Carr, 2000)
- Using rapid incremental innovation
- Empowering others
- Emphasizing thinking over memorizing
- Applying knowledge
- Fitting one’s teaching to one’s own style
- Maintain dignity of the student
- Responsibility (Joyce & Rober, 2003).
Campbell,(2013) presented notion of teacher as a moral person. Teacher conveys his/her thoughts, ideas, values to next generation deliberately or in deliberately. The all positive and negative aspect of teacher personality is being part of student’s personality. So, it is necessary for the teacher that he/she possesses good ethical attributes. Now days, it is a big ethical issue towards teachers responsibility.
Teachers does not always been a good moral character. While this is the process exchanging these virtues to their students. Teacher should consider consciously that students are gaining these ethics directly or indirectly.
Teacher deals with students in their daily life, in these days student teacher relationship is not based on attitudes, intentions and good moral values.
Awareness of what is right and wrong? This should be part of teacher’s character that he knows what the criteria of being right and wrong.
It is the right of students to treat students evenly, fairness in dealing day to day activities, conversations, and teachings. Provide opportunities to every student fairly. It is mandatory for teacher:
- Enforcing school and class rules
- Marking and assessing students
- Displaying their work publically
- Assigning tasks
- Granting favors
- Calling on them to respond to question in class
- Arranging them in groups and seating patterns
- Engaging them in personal exchanging with individuals
- Assigning and enforcing teat dates and homework
- Participation of all students in performing classroom duties(tiding up room, row monitoring, cleaning the black board)
- Same students does always do the same duty
The formal responsibilities of teacher are an immense ethical issue for the whole educational process such as at planning phase, classroom management and classroom control.
Teacher formal responsibility in terms of:
- Academic objectives
- Efficiency strategies
- Control techniques
- Effective planning (selection of reading material according to the wellbeing of students)
- Structuring lessons
Due to the importance of education in Islam, The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: “Getting knowledge is obligatory to every Muslim man and woman”. It is the moral duty of government and concerned authorities to provide opportunities for students.
Schooling is the act of interacting people with each other towards the mutual goal. Here the related persons are student and teacher. Nowadays, the renowned philosophy of education leads towards the friendship relationships of student teacher. But, the addressing question here is that should teacher exceed the limits or should provide some measures to maintain positive relations.
This issue is more considerable that is more required in relationship of principals, teachers and students.
Communication is the heart of any educational process whether it is carried in classroom or beyond the classroom. Being polite and humble can uplift the ethical environment of schools.
Conflicts can be easily resolved, by adopting ethical frameworks.
Biesta (2006) found concept of the language of learning. In this regard, he has identified four contributing trends which influence on ethic in educational system:
- new theories of learning which shifted the attention to students and their activities rather than teachers and teaching, where learning became more central and teaching conceptualized in terms of facilitating learning;
- postmodern doubt framed education as a modern project in need of questioning;
- the growing market for non-formal adult learning as a mainly individualistic activity has made use of the word learning
- with the destruction of the welfare state the relationship between governments and citizen has bee, in many cases, re-conceptualized into an economical relationship between the provider and the consumer of public All of these trends contribute to rise of the language of learning. Above mentioned trends in education narrows teachers’ possibilities for professional influence on the educational system.
The concept of teacher refers to the professional independence of teachers in schools, especially the degree to which they can make autonomous decisions about what they teach to students and how they teach it. Due to the market influence in education it decreases the independence of teachers (Hargreaves, 2000).
6. ETHICAL ISSUES PERTAINING TO SCHOOLING
Relational work skill is the term used to describe the ways in which professionals interact with each other. Relational skills go beyond knowledge of business models and professional experience to include personal traits. As with professional skills, relational skills differ from person to person. Teacher interact with students what they practice in relational manners are: knowledge of students, pedagogical knowledge, principles of classroom management. Teacher should adopt relational qualities (engagement, authenticity, understanding) to enhance positive environment in schools. This relational professionalism impacts on overall school ethical environment (Frelin, 2013).
There are different groups in a school. They have cultural, religious and economic differences. Ethically to cope up all these diverse people is the challenging tasks.
Due to the lack of ethical considerations in all educational setups, the discipline problems are increasing day by day. Practice of ethics and morality is lead towards the fulfillment of educational goals.
- Define Differentiate between ethics and morality.
- Discuss ethics in
- Describe three accounts of professional teaching from your experience of school
- Highlight ethical issues which one should keep in mind as
- Discuss ethical issues related to
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Ehrich, L.C., Cranston, N., & Kimber, M. (2004). Public sector managers and ethical dilemmas. Journal of Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management, 10(1), 25-37.
Feng, F. (2011) A study on school leaders Ethical Orientations in Taiwan, Ethics & Behavior, Ethics & Behavior, and 21:4,317-331. DOI: 10.1080/10508422.2011.585599
Frelin, A. Exploring Relational Professionalism in Schools. (2013). Sense Publishers.
Joyce T. Heames & Robert W. Service (2003). Dichotomies in Teaching, Application, and Ethics, Journal of Education for Bussiness, 79:2, 118-122, DOI: 10.1080/08832320309599099
Lisa Catherine Ehrich , Megan Kimber , Jan Millwater & Neil Cranston (2011) Ethical dilemmas: a model to understand teacher practice, Teachers and Teaching, 17:2, 173-185
Mahony, P. (2009). ‘ought to’ be taught? Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 983–989.Web references: (http://www.Bussinessdictionary,com/definitions.ethics.html)
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