AIOU Course Code 8606-1 solved Assignments Spring 2022

AIOU Course Code 8606-1 solved Assignments Spring 2022

Course: Citizenship Education and Community Engagement (8606)

 Semester: Spring, 2022                                                                   Level: BEd (1.5/2.5 Years)

ASSIGNMENT No. 1

  1. 1 a) Define the concept of social structure.

ANS

Social structure is sometimes defined simply as patterned social relations—those regular and repetitive aspects of the interactions between the members of a given social entity. Even on this descriptive level, the concept is highly abstract: it selects only certain elements from ongoing social activities.

social structure, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society.

Although it is generally agreed that the term social structure refers to regularities in social life, its application is inconsistent. For example, the term is sometimes wrongly applied when other concepts such as custom, tradition, role, or norm would be more accurate.

Studies of social structure attempt to explain such matters as integration and trends in inequality. In the study of these phenomena, sociologists analyze organizations, social categories (such as age groups), or rates (such as of crime or birth). This approach, sometimes called formal sociology, does not refer directly to individual behaviour or interpersonal interaction. Therefore, the study of social structure is not considered a behavioral science; at this level, the analysis is too abstract. It is a step removed from the consideration of concrete human behaviour, even though the phenomena studied in social structure result from humans responding to each other and to their environments. Those who study social structure do, however, follow an empirical (observational) approach to research, methodology, and epistemology.

Social structure is sometimes defined simply as patterned social relations—those regular and repetitive aspects of the interactions between the members of a given social entity. Even on this descriptive level, the concept is highly abstract: it selects only certain elements from ongoing social activities. The larger the social entity considered, the more abstract the concept tends to be. For this reason, the social structure of a small group is generally more closely related to the daily activities of its individual members than is the social structure of a larger society. In the study of larger social groups, the problem of selection is acute: much depends on what is included as components of the social structure. Various theories offer different solutions to this problem of determining the primary characteristics of a social group.

Before these different theoretical views can be discussed, however, some remarks must be made on the general aspects of the social structure of any society. Social life is structured along the dimensions of time and space. Specific social activities take place at specific times, and time is divided into periods that are connected with the rhythms of social life—the routines of the day, the month, and the year. Specific social activities are also organized at specific places; particular places, for instance, are designated for such activities as working, worshiping, eating, and sleeping. Territorial boundaries delineate these places and are defined by rules of property that determine the use and possession of scarce goods. Additionally, in any society there is a more or less regular division of labour. Yet another universal structural characteristic of human societies is the regulation of violence. All violence is a potentially disruptive force; at the same time, it is a means of coercion and coordination of activities. Human beings have formed political units, such as nations, within which the use of violence is strictly regulated and which, at the same time, are organized for the use of violence against outside groups.

Furthermore, in any society there are arrangements within the structure for sexual reproduction and the care and education of the young. These arrangements take the form partly of kinship and marriage relations. Finally, systems of symbolic communication, particularly language, structure the interactions between the members of any society. The biological connotations of the term structure are evident in the work of British philosopher Herbert Spencer. He and other social theorists of the 19th and early 20th centuries conceived of society as an organism comprising interdependent parts that form a structure similar to the anatomy of a living body. Although social scientists since Spencer and Marx have disagreed on the concept of social structure, their definitions share common elements. In the most general way, social structure is identified by those features of a social entity (a society or a group within a society) that persist over time, are interrelated, and influence both the functioning of the entity as a whole and the activities of its individual members.

Tabasco sauce was first distributed in discarded cologne bottles; the narrow opening on top was perfect for a liquid meant to be sprinkled rather than poured.

Structure and social organization

The term structure has been applied to human societies since the 19th century. Before that time, its use was more common in other fields such as construction or biology.

Karl Marx used construction as a metaphor when he spoke of “the economic structure [Struktur] of society, the real basis on which is erected a legal and political superstructure [Überbau] and to which definite forms of social consciousness correspond.” Thus, according to Marx, the basic structure of society is economic, or material, and this structure influences the rest of social life, which is defined as nonmaterial, spiritual, or ideological.

 

  1. b) Analyze the cultural elements of Pakistani Society.

ANS

Pakistan’s very foundation centers around Islam, and Pakistani culture is primarily based on the Islamic way of life.

All other cultural aspects are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas.

Here are 11 key traits of Pakistani culture.

  1. Religious Uniformity

Pakistan came into existence to provide its people with a system based on Islam. The people, in spite of some language differences, customs and traditions commonly follow one religion. Islam is practiced by all Pakistanis.

  1. Language

A number of languages are spoken in Pakistan. Some of them are Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushto and Baluchi. But Urdu is spoken and understand in all parts of Pakistan. Being the official language, it is the media of communication between all regions of Pakistan.

  1. Literature and Poetry

Literature is an important aspect of our cultural life. Most of our poets reflect Islamic code and deliver the message of love and brotherhood. A similarity of thought among poets and writers of all regions is an important factor of our cultural life.

Sufi poets occupy an honored place. Sufis like Lal Shahbaz, Data Ganj Baksh, Shah Abdul Lateef, Sachal Sarmast, Hazrat Sultan Bahu and Waris Shah rendered meritorious services for the spread of Islam in the subcontinent.

  1. Dress and Diet

Dress is an important manifestation of culture. Regional dresses of Pakistan have undergone changes due to local traditions, economic conditions, and wealth. But in all provinces, people generally wear the traditional dress by Salwar Kameez.

 

Q.2 a) Discuss the principles of group dynamics.

ANS

We live in a society that directly or indirectly compels us to be part of certain groups that help us socialise and influence our lifestyle. We tend to attract the groups that positively help us in becoming good and responsible citizens. Group dynamics helps us to study the benefits of cooperation and competition. We are involved in a group. It explains how our personal and social lives are influenced and it explains identity development. Group dynamics also investigates how in some situations group conflicts arise and the perils of group conflict, it explains how we can appraise ourselves of various conflict resolution strategies, group dynamics is important to study as it helps us to understand how we can contribute towards making a harmonious and cohesive society

 

Q.3 a) Highlight the role of education in preserving and promoting the culture of a society

Culture is the blood vein of a society, which needs to be conserved. It is an important function of education to help in the preservation of culture or social heritage. Education, through its specialized agencies, tries to inculcate the traditions, customs, values, arts, morals etc. into the tender minds of pupils.

Preservation of Culture:

Culture is the blood vein of a society, which needs to be conserved. It is an important function of education to help in the preservation of culture or social heritage.

Education, through its specialized agencies, tries to inculcate the traditions, customs, values, arts, morals etc. into the tender minds of pupils.

T.P. Nunn has emphasized this aspect in his views on education. Our first prime minister, Pt. J.L. Nehru viewed, “Education must help in preserving the vital elements of our heritage”.

Influence # 2. Transmission of Culture:

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