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Course: Teacher Education in Pakistan (829)
Q.1 Discuss the instructional responsibilities of a teacher. Highlight the role of teacher as ‘Nation Builder”.
- Knowledge of the Subject
- To have master information on the branch of knowledge
- To seek after significant chances to develop expertly and stay up with the latest about the ebb and flow information and exploration in the branch of knowledge
- To design and plan suitably the appointed courses and talks
- To direct relegated classes at the planned times
- To show ability in study hall guidance
- To carry out the assigned educational program totally and sooner or later
- To plan and execute compelling study hall the executives rehearses
- To plan and execute successful systems to foster self-mindful/autonomous students
- To advance understudies’ characteristic inspiration by giving significant and dynamically testing growth opportunities which incorporate, however are not restricted to: self-investigation, addressing, simply deciding, putting forth objectives, arranging and coordinating, carrying out, self-assessing and exhibiting drive in errands and activities
- To draw in understudies in dynamic, active, imaginative issue based learning
- To give open doors to understudies to access and utilize current innovation, assets and data to tackle issues
- To gives potential open doors to understudies to apply and rehearse what is realized
- To connect with understudies in imaginative reasoning and coordinated or interdisciplinary opportunities for growth
- To construct understudies’ capacity to work cooperatively with others
- To adjust guidance/backing to understudies’ disparities being developed, learning styles, qualities and requirements
- To fluctuate educational jobs (for example educator, mentor, facilitator, co-student, crowd) according to content and motivation behind guidance and understudies’ necessities
- To keep a protected, methodical climate helpful for learning
- To agree with necessities for the wellbeing and oversight of understudies inside and outside the study hall
- To characterize and impart learning assumptions to understudies
- To apply suitable numerous appraisal instruments and systems to assess and advance the consistent scholarly improvement of the understudies
- To allot sensible tasks and schoolwork to understudies according to college rules
- To assess understudies’ exhibitions in a goal, fair and ideal way
- To record and report opportune the consequences of tests, tasks, mid-and last semester tests
- To utilize understudy evaluation information to direct changes in guidance and practice, and to further develop understudy learning
- To be reliable and be accessible in the college during true working hours
- To follow approaches, norms, rules, guidelines and systems of the college
- To plan and keep up with course documents
- To avoid potential risk to safeguard college records, hardware, materials, and offices
- To take part dependably in college improvement drives
- To join in and take part in personnel gatherings and other alloted gatherings and exercises as per college strategy
- To show idealness and participation for doled out liabilities
- To work cooperatively with different experts and staff
- To partake in organizations with different individuals from the college’s local area to help understudy learning and college related exercises
- To exhibit the capacity to perform instructing or different obligations, including great work propensities, unwavering quality, reliability and finish responsibilities
- To give and acknowledge evaluative criticism in an expert way
- To make and keep a positive and safe learning climate
- To do some other related obligations relegated by the division executive
- Good Behavior
- To demonstrate genuineness, decency and moral direct
- To demonstrate a mindful disposition and advance positive between private connections
- To display right utilization of language, oral and composed
- To cultivate understudy restraint, self-control and obligation to other people
- To demonstrate and advance sympathy, empathy and regard for the orientation, ethnic, strict, social and learning variety of understudies
- To show expertise while overseeing understudy conduct, interceding and settling discipline issues
- To display great interactive abilities, authority and community obligation
- Specific Deadlines
Course Specifications During the main talk of the course, course determinations ought to be imparted to the understudies
Class Activity Report Class action report should be ready for each class address and put in the course document
Course File Course document for each course should be saved refreshed constantly for intermittent survey by the Chairman and irregular checks by the QAD
Attendance After like clockwork of the semester, a duplicate of the participation rundown sheet should be shown on notice load up and a duplicate ought to be put in the course record.
Quizzes Within multi week of each and every test, a duplicate of the outcome should be shown on notice board and a duplicate ought to be put in the course document. (Note: Quizzes/Assignments ought to be similarly appropriated when the mid test).
Assignments Within multi week of getting each task, a duplicate of the outcome should be shown on notice board and a duplicate ought to be set in the course record.
Mid Semester Exam Within multi week of the test, a duplicate of the outcome should be shown on notice board and a duplicate ought to be set in the course document.
Last Attendance Report A duplicate of the last understudy participation report should be submitted to COE office before the end-semester assessment
Setting of Mid and Final Papers All assessment papers ought to be set from inside the endorsed course spread the word for the understudies by the educator.
End Semester Exam Within multi week of the test, present the far reaching results to the regulator of assessment alongside answer-sheets of mid and end-semester tests.
By and large, capability of educators is to assist understudies with advancing by granting information to them and by setting up a circumstance in which understudies can and will advance successfully. In any case, educators fill a mind boggling set of jobs, which fluctuate starting with one society then onto the next and starting with one instructive level then onto the next. A portion of these jobs are acted in the school, some locally.
Specialist of social change
In those areas in which educating has not yet turned into a calling, the educator might fill less of these jobs. The elementary teacher in a rural society, for instance, will fill just the initial five of the school jobs and the first and conceivably the second of the local area jobs.
A portion of the jobs struggle; that is, the exhibition of one, that of taskmaster, for instance, will in general clash with another, like that of friend to understudies, or the job of free and imaginative researcher will quite often struggle with that of the civil servant. Locally the job of substitute of working class profound quality will in general clash with the job of specialist of social change. Within the sight of these job clashes, the educator should figure out how to adjust, to know when and how enthusiastically to act in a specific job, and when to move to one more in an adaptable manner.
The family, the public authority, the congregation or strict power, and the monetary or business-modern power all have an interest in the improvement of kids and youth, and all have an impact, in this way, in setting up and controlling formal and numerous casual method for schooling. In numerous social orders, they utilize educators to accomplish crafted by training, and they work out with the educator a comprehension of what the educator is supposed to do. The more “proficient” the instructor is, the more independence the person requests and is given to show inside the idea of perceived and commonly acknowledged objectives and strategies.
lementary-teachers should show the fundamental abilities — perusing, composing, and number juggling. Past this, they should show realities and perspectives great for the country or the congregation or some other establishment supporting the school. In this way, they should show in a way that is ideal for socialism in China, to a blended entrepreneur communist economy in Britain or the United States, to the French or Brazilian frameworks in France or Brazil, etc. In a general public in which schools are coordinated by chapels or strict gatherings, as in Spain, the educators should show the pertinent strict convictions and perspectives.
In public and state frameworks of training, the governing body by and large expects that specific subjects be educated to “get to the next level” the citizenship or the profound quality or the strength of the understudies. Numerous frameworks, for example, require optional schools to show the entanglements of liquor, medications, and tobacco. A developing number of countries require showing for preservation of normal assets and insurance of the actual climate against air and water contamination. Before World War II a focal course expected in the Japanese schools was “moral training.” After the conflict this was canceled by the American occupation powers because it would in general teach a sort of dictatorship and nationalistic belief system. With the consummation of the tactical occupation, notwithstanding, the Japanese government once again introduced an obligatory course in moral schooling, which turned into a wellspring of significant contention among moderates and reformists inside the Japanese instructive calling. The French educational system likewise has an obligatory course in “metro ethical quality.”
Matters of educational plan and selection of course books and materials of not set in stone in that frame of mind with next to zero cooperation of the singular educator. Subsequently, in France, with an exceptionally brought together public school system, the course of guidance in the primary schools is fixed by the Ministry of Education. In the United States, where every one of the 50 states is its own position, there is substantially more curricular variety. A few states require statewide reception of course books, though others leave such mama
Q.2 Explain the Uranic concept of Teacher Education. According to Islamic perspective which methods of teaching should be used?
The word Islam defined by the Quran itself means submission to the Supreme Being and compliance with His laws, which constitutes Nature. Islam lays special emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge.
Concept of vicegerent of man: According to Quran, Allah has made man as a vicegerent due to knowledge (IIm-ul-Asma), when angels argues about the vicegerent of man than Allah (SWT) taught Adam the names of some things and then Adam told them and hence proved his ability for vicegerent on earth. This shows the importance of acquiring knowledge from the Quranic point of view (Surah AL-Baqra Foruth Ruku). It is obligatory alike for both Muslim male and female.
Knowledge is of two types, revealed knowledge and acquired knowledge. Revealed knowledge has been given to human beings, through prophets by Allah. Acquired knowledge is that which is being acquired by the human beings though the study of natural phenomena, attitude of man and through the study of society. Quran says that for the prosperous life on earth both kinds of knowledge, revealed and acquired is necessary. It shows the basis of the educational set-up in Islam where the children are not only equipped with religious knowledge but also with acquired that is scientific knowledge so that they can live a righteous and prosperous life. That is why the knowledge in Islam is considered as the greatest gift of Allah to Man. It helps man to attain righteous and prosperous life. Education is the process through which knowledge is transmitted from a section of society to another section. It also reflects the philosophy on which it is based. Islamic philosophy derives its origin from the spirit of teachings of the Quran and Hadith (the saying of the Holy Prophet may peace be upon him). The Qayas and Fiqqah, are also the crucial components.The word Quran literally means reading or recitation.
Islamic education aims to discovering and formulating Allah’s will.
Quran indicated basic principles that lead a Muslim to observation of the universe and Nature, where he can find the answers to many question by his own efforts.
We would certainly appreciate that how nicely Quran gives hints in respect of various branches of learning and advises man to use intellect. So much so that Quran says in Surah Al-Aaraf that those who do not us their abilities us as intellect, eyes and ears will enter into the fire of hell because they are inferior than animals. It should be noted that the Quran explains the actual practical shape of life by demarking the borders of the
various aspect of life.
Quran being a complete code of life says “We have sent down to you the book, as an explanation for everything.”
The Quranic text is divided into 114 chapters. Each chapter is called “Surah” which consist of a certain number of verses each called “Ayah”.
The revelations continued in Quran were not all revealed on one occasion but at long intervals and in response to special needs to the prophet (peace be upon him) lived at Mecca for thirteen years and at Medina for ten years. The revelations which the Prophet (peace be upon him) received in Mecca period are mostly concerned with general percepts that urges strongly and earnestly the man to righteousness.
Quran is not a book of science or any other particular field of knowledge but it deals, mainly with basis principals of human life. Therefore, Quranic concept of education is that it explicitly teaches its readers principles in each and every sphere of life so that its followers have complete knowledge about their pattern of life.
Quran is the fountain head of wisdom, from which all other sources of knowledge derive their authority. It consist of very words of Allah, revealed on Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) in twenty three years, first in Mecca and completed in Medina. The Holy Quran says, “This day have I perfected for you, your religion and completed My favor on your, and chosen for you Islam as a religion.
Islamic education system comprises of the following principles:
1. Belief in the oneness, immateriality, absolute power, mercy and supreme compassionateness of the Creator.
1) Charity and brotherhood among mankind.
2) Subjugation of passion.
3) The outpouring of a grateful heart to the Giver of all good.
4) Accountability of human actions in another existence.
5) Developing a sense of social consciousness i.e. enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong.
The next source of Islamic foundations of education is the Hadith, Ahadith as plural. Hadith derives its authority and validity from Holy Quran. Quran says ‘obey Allah and obey the Messenger’ (4:49). Thus, Hadith offers best explanation or interpretation to Quran.
Ahadith are not only explanatory to the Quranic text but also complementary to it. Prophet (peace be upon him) is a teacher appointed by Allah who not only teaches the Book and philosophy but purifies the soul as well. He (peace be upon him), himself was a role model who presented ideal practical life in the light of those limits enunciated by the Quran. Thus, the Quran declared the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be the interpreter of Quranic texts. Hadith is the index and vehicle of the Sunnah which gives concrete shape to the Quranic teachings. A Hadith is a statement of the Prophet (peace be upon him). A sunnah may be embodied in a Hadith, but is not itself a Hadith. His (peace be upon him) Sunnah is both an instrument for the institutionalization and practice of Allah’s will, as well as a strong force for the propagation of Islam. As we studied earlier that the man is expected to learn through experiments on the foundations given by the Quran and whose example is preserved in the life, activities and saying of Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet (peace be upon him) before emigration (Hijrat) to Medina deputed a teacher, there to arrange the education of the believers. After the Hijrat, the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina became the center of education. A covered platform called Suffa, was built in front of the Prophet (peace be upon him) house to give instructions in the Quran and Hadith. On the other hand the Prophet’s wives (MAPT) were in charge of the education of women.
The foundations laid by Hadith and Sunnah for Islamic education is that children should not only be taught theoretically but there should be a practical guidance for them to adapt in practical life. That is why prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was given the task to teach his companions, Quran, practically.
There are hundreds of Hadith which emphasize on necessity and supreme value of gaining knowledge. Some of them are the following:
- He dies not who takes from learning
- The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of the martyr.
- He who leaves home in search of knowledge walks in the path of Allah.
- The acquisition of knowledge is a duty incumbent on every Muslim male or female.
- Seek after knowledge even though it may in China.
- To be present in a circle of learned men is better than prostrating oneself in prayer a thousand times or visiting a thousand sick persons and attend a thousand funerals.
- A word of wisdom is like the lost treasure of a believer who has got the best right to secure it wherever he might have found it.
In Islam to acquire knowledge is an act piety, he/she who speak of it praise Allah, he/she who seeks it adores Allah and he/she who imparts it performs an act of devotion.
Q.3 critically analyze the role of pre-service and in-service training in the professional development of a teacher.
According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.
By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning.
PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION, MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE
Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers.
A good deal of improvement in the teacher education programme is needed. Pre-service education is carried on for preparing different types of teachers. Pre-service teacher preparation is a collection of unrelated courses and field experience. Research based curriculum development of pre-service teacher education is yet to take roots. These programmes are intended to support and enhance teacher learning instill in them a greater degree of self confidence. The beginning teachers in this case learn from their practice and from the culture and norms of the unique school settings where in they have been placed and interact with these cultures.
It is important for teacher educators to learn the methodology of how to get in touch with the core qualities of a good teacher and how they can stimulate these qualities in student teachers. This will lead to a deeper involvement in the learning process of teacher educators as well as student teachers. The inclusion of appropriate content knowledge about essential qualities of a good teacher in relevant theory papers and practice of effective domain related traits in school situation for a longer duration could help promote these traits in student teachers. The teacher education programme needs to allow the space where in a teacher’s personality could be developed as someone who is reflective, introspective and capable of analyzing his or her own life and the process of education at school so that after becoming a teacher, he becomes an agent of change.
PRE-PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME.
Here teachers are trained for teaching children of pre-primary classes. This type of teacher training is generally called nursery teacher training (N.T.T). Teacher training institute of this type are existing in different states. At Mussorie, there is Montessori teacher training programme in one institution. That type of training institutes are affiliated to association Montessori international. There are pre-basic teacher training schools which prepare teachers for pre-primary schools. These institutes are recognized by Hindustani Falimi sangh, Wardha. Some state governments also conduct this type of teacher training programmes. The universities of Jabalpur and Baroda run pre-primary teacher training course leading to certificate. At Chandigarh education department U.T. Administration is running such a course which is duly recognized by U.T Administration. In the state of Haryana about two decades back Haryana government had given affiliation for running this course of teacher training to Sohan Lal D.A.V college of education, Ambala city. But then it was closed down by the government after the lapse of two-three years. At present a few schools and colleges of education in the state of Haryana are running one year N.T.T course meant for girls only who have qualified +2 examination. The said course is recognized by D.A.V college managing committee, New Delhi.
PRIMARY TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES
Primary teacher training institutes prepare teachers for teaching to the children of primary courses. These institutes prepare the students for junior basic training certificate (J.B.T). This training has been very popular almost in all the states earlier this training was meant for male and female teachers who were matriculates. Recently some modifications have been made for giving training of J.B.T. After passing J.B.T the teacher is able to earn a teaching diploma. How the minimum qualification for training has been raised to 10+2 examination. In the states of Punjab and Haryana, this type of teacher training is sanctioned to government teacher training schools (or) district institute of education and training (D.I.E.T) with the revision of grades of all type of teachers, J.B.T training centers attract students of higher calibers and they possess higher qualifications
The National Commission of Teachers has recommended the introduction of integrated four year course for matriculates which will enable the teachers to earn teaching diploma for teaching primary classes
LANGUAGES PROFICIENCY TEACHERS
This type of teacher training programme prepares teachers for teaching Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit. This training is meant for those who are 10+2. It helps them to earn a teaching certificate called O.T (Hindi), O.T (Punjabi), O.T (Sanskrit)etc. This type of teacher training programme has been popular in government as well as non government institutes. At present, his course is being run in a very few institutes. The government has almost withdrawn its sanction to private recognized institutions.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS
Teacher training for secondary schools is given in the government as well as non-government colleges of education. These colleges prepare teachers for middle, high (or) secondary classes. Generally in these colleges it is one year course after B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc.
With the revision of grades of teachers, the college of education has started attracting students with good qualifications. In some states like Punjab, Rajasthan, entrance test have been introduced. In the state of Haryana, The minimum qualification for competing in the admission to B.Ed is 50% marks in B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc. Besides, entrance test is also held. Marks in both are added up and then merit list is prepared.
- CORRESPONDENCE COURSE:-
Correspondence courses for teacher education have been started by some universities and colleges. The four regional colleges of education under N.C.E.R.T were the first to start this course. It is 14 month courses including four months training during two summer vacation.
H.P University, Simla started B.Ed and M.Ed courses in 1972. After one year, B.Ed courses through correspondence were stopped. Jammu University, the B.Ed correspondence course by Jammu University was meant only for in-service teachers. In south, Annamalai University is running B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence course. Punjab University, Patiala also started B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence courses. But new B.Ed by correspondence ion large scale is banned by N.C.T.E
IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION – MEANING
The moment a teacher has completed his training in a college of education, it does not mean that he is now trained for all times to come. A teaching degree, like B.Ed makes him enter into service as a teacher. Thereafter his job continues well only if he continues his studies everyday in the classroom situations and outside the classroom, he comes across problems and side by side he is a expected to sort them out. There is need of more and more knowledge, more and more education for making him a better teacher.
There are formal an informal programmes of in-service education organized from time to time. The higher authorities concerned with education want to ensure that the standards of education are properly maintained. That is possible only if the teachers refresh their knowledge and keep it up to the mark. The different agencies, therefore keep on organizing teacher education programmes for enriching the knowledge of teachers and also for over all proficiency and betterment.
Q.4 Discuss the prevailing structure of Teacher Education in the country. What measures should be taken for its improvement?
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. The professionals who engage in training the prospective teachers are called teacher educators (or, in some contexts, teacher trainers).
There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities. The term ‘teacher training’ (which may give the impression that the activity involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground, at least in the U.S., to ‘teacher education’ (with its connotation of preparing staff for a professional role as a reflective practitioner).The two major components of teacher education are in-service teacher education and pre-service teacher education.[
The process by which teachers are educated is the subject of political discussion in many countries, reflecting both the value attached by societies and cultures to the preparation of young people for life, and the fact that education systems consume significant financial resources.
However, the degree of political control over Teacher Education varies. Where teacher education is entirely in the hands of universities, the state may have no direct control whatever over what or how new teachers are taught; this can lead to anomalies, such as teachers being taught using teaching methods that would be deemed inappropriate if they used the same methods in schools, or teachers being taught by persons with little or no hands-on experience of teaching in real classrooms. In other systems, teacher education may be the subject of detailed prescription (e.g. the state may specify the skills that all teachers must possess, or it may specify the content of teacher education courses).
Policy cooperation in the European Union has led to a broad description of the kinds of attributes that teachers in European Union member states should possess: the Common European Principle for Teacher Competences and Qualifications.[
In many countries, Initial Teacher Education (also known as preservice teacher training) takes place largely or exclusively in institutions of Higher Education. In countries like Sri Lanka there are separate institutes called National colleges of Education to provide pre-service teacher training while Teacher Training Colleges provide in-service teacher education. Further institutes called Teacher Centers provide continuing professional development for teachers. It may be organized according to two basic models.
In the ‘consecutive’ model, a teacher first obtains a qualification in one or more subjects (often a diploma in teaching or an undergraduate bachelor’s degree), and then studies for a further period to gain an additional qualification in teaching (this may take the form of a post-baccalaureate credential or master’s degree).
In the alternative ‘concurrent’ model, a student simultaneously studies both one or more academic subjects, and the ways of teaching that subject, leading to a combined bachelor’s degree and teaching credential to qualify as a teacher of that subject.
Other pathways are also available. In some countries, it is possible for a person to receive training as a teacher by working in a school under the responsibility of an accredited experienced practitioner. In the United Kingdom there is a long tradition of partnerships between universities and schools in providing state supported teacher education. This tradition is not without tensions and controversies.
In the United States, approximately one-third of new teachers come through alternative routes to teacher certification, according to testimony given by Emily Feistritzer, the President of National Center for Alternative Certification and the National Center for Education Information, to a congressional subcommittee on May 17, 2007. However, many alternative pathways are affiliated with schools of education, where candidates still enroll in university-based coursework. A supplemental component of university-based coursework is community-based teacher education, where teacher candidates immerse themselves in communities that will allow them to apply teaching theory to practice. Community-based teacher education also challenges teacher candidates’ assumptions about the issues of gender, race, and multicultural diversity. This assists to make an attitudinal change in the teacher trainees in order to eliminate segregation within the school community.
The question of what knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills teachers should possess is the subject of much debate in many cultures. This is understandable, as teachers are entrusted with the transmission to learners of society’s beliefs, attitudes and deontology, as well as of information, advice and wisdom, and with facilitating learners’ acquisition of the key knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that they will need to be active in society and the economy.
Generally, Teacher Education curricula can be broken down into four major areas:
- foundational knowledgein education-related aspects of philosophy of education, history of education, educational psychology, and sociology of education.
- skills in assessing student learning, supporting English Language learners, using technology to improve teaching and learning, and supporting students with special needs.
- content-area and methods knowledge and skills—often also including ways of teaching and assessing a specific subject, in which case this area may overlap with the first (“foundational”) area. There is increasing debate about this aspect; because it is no longer possible to know in advance what kinds of knowledge and skill pupils will need when they enter adult life, it becomes harder to know what kinds of knowledge and skill teachers should have. Increasingly, emphasis is placed upon ‘transversal’ or ‘horizontal’ skills (such as ‘learning to learn’ or ‘social competences’), which cut across traditional subject boundaries, and therefore call into question traditional ways of designing the Teacher Education curriculum (and traditional school curricula and ways of working in the classroom).
- practice at classroom teaching or at some other form of educational practice—usually supervised and supported in some way, though not always. Practice can take the form of field observations, student teaching, or (U.S.) internship.
Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. The professionals who engage in training the prospective teachers are called teacher educators (or, in some contexts, teacher trainers).
There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities. The term ‘teacher training’ (which may give the impression that the activity involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground, at least in the U.S., to ‘teacher education’ (with its connotation of preparing staff for a professional role as a reflective practitioner).The two major components of teacher education are in-service teacher education and pre-service teacher education.
Q.5 Explicate the concept of Student (Practice) Teaching by focusing at the sequential steps of pre-service training.
Pre-service teacher preparation programmes, also called initial teacher training or initial teacher education, vary greatly across countries. The structure, coursework, and field experiences of pre-service programmes are important to consider when designing or reforming teacher training because they all contribute to the level of preparation. High-quality teachers need high-quality training, but many countries may need to consider cost-effectiveness in deciding on the specific combination of pre-service and in-service training experiences needed in order to deploy enough teachers for growing education systems.
Issues and Discussion
Pre-service training programme structures: Pre-service programmes may be conducted as part of a secondary school diploma course, on higher education campuses, in other schools through school partnership programmes, or through online and other forms of distance education. It is necessary to consider the local context and national needs in determining which types of programmes are most appropriate.(4) For example, Pakistan used distance training via radio, television, and correspondence beginning in the 1970s to achieve a rapid increase in the number of trained primary school teachers
whereas the Accelerated Learning Program in Brazil trains new teachers by requiring them to follow a highly structured curriculum that they implement directly in primary schools.(12) In addition to these context-dependent variations in structure, the length of pre-service training and the qualifications necessary to join the teaching profession may vary both within and across countries. In some countries the required qualifications are higher for secondary teachers than for primary teachers, while in other countries they are the same. The required qualifications might include: certificate, diploma, degree, or master’s degree.(4) However, an analysis of PISA results suggests that a bachelor’s degree is the minimum qualification for achieving the highest student performance.(17) The quality of pre-service preparation is more dependent on the programme’s structure and support than on the duration.(5) However, graduates of short duration programs (e.g., 2-10 weeks) will likely need substantially more in-service support than graduates of long duration programs (e.g., 2-5 years).(9)
Coursework: Teachers’ knowledge of the subject(s) they teach is often correlated with their students’ achievement scores. Recent evidence from South Africa, for example, suggests students’ scores increase considerably when taught by teachers with higher knowledge of the subject.(19) It is therefore vital for pre-service teachers to develop deep knowledge of their content area. Courses about pedagogy are also vital. These courses are most effective when teacher educators demonstrate and implement varied pedagogical approaches in the courses, rather than merely lecture about pedagogy, which is common in many countries.(6)(11) Other important topics to be covered in pre-service teacher preparation include: classroom management, learning issues and special needs, assessment practices, and the use of technology in education. It is also vital for teachers to develop academic content-related fluency in the language of instruction.(7)(14) Singapore’s National Institute of Education goes beyond these considerations by emphasizing that the development of teachers’ knowledge and skills needs to wrap around a “central pillar” of three core ensembles of teacher values, focused respectively on the relationship with the learner, on teacher identity, and on service to the profession and community.
Pedagogical content knowledge: Research about the balance of content and pedagogy coursework in teacher education is inconclusive. Yet, the best pre-service programmes emphasize pedagogical content knowledge, which focuses on the question of “how to organize and present the content in a way that makes it accessible for increasingly diverse groups of learners.” Programmes build pedagogical content knowledge by giving detailed consideration to the question of how to teach a specific subject at a specific level—such as how to teach reading and language arts in early primary school or how to teach algebra and geometry in lower secondary school—in addition to reinforcing basic content knowledge and general pedagogical skills.(
Field Experiences: Field experiences such as internships and periods of teaching practice require pre-service teachers to observe and practice teaching in actual classrooms. The quality of field experiences varies greatly and depends on their structure, duration, sequence, and supervision by teacher educators. The duration of field experience in different programs varies from as little as nine weeks to as many as nine months or more. Some programmes have only one field experience while other have multiple. Research suggests that more experience in classrooms is better, although if only a short field experience is feasible, it may be supplemented by giving more support and guidance to new teachers. In some of the best programmes pre-service teachers spend earlier experiences primarily observing expert teachers and the remainder practicing how to teach. In addition, cohort models may provide the best support for pre-service teachers during teaching practice conducted in rural areas. If field experiences only occur after or at the end of training, there are minimal opportunities for guidance and feedback about the teacher’s practice. It is therefore important for field experiences to occur early and throughout the pre-service training in an integrated manner that compliments other courses.
Teacher Educators/Trainers: In some countries, teacher educators/trainers have little or no previous experience working as a teacher or supervising teachers. In addition, they often receive no induction or professional development programmes to ensure the quality of their instruction in the pre-service. These realities influence the quality of the courses in pre-service programmes, but strong support networks and training programmes for teacher educators/trainers themselves can significantly improve the overall quality of pre-service teacher training.
Inclusiveness and Equity
Teaching in large, multi-level, and under-resourced classes: Teachers are more likely to feel confident and prepared to teach in large and under-resourced classes if they have training modules or courses on effective teaching methods for such contexts, such as using small groups and student pairs to enhance learning.(1)(3) In addition, some rural areas have multi-level classrooms due to low population density. Pre-service teachers who may teach in these schools should have training on how to adapt lesson plans for students of different ability levels, including how to develop materials for independent study that engage learners.(1)
Teaching students with disabilities: Pre-service teacher preparation programmes in many countries lack a strong focus on how to diagnose and accommodate learning disabilities. Those that do address these issues, however, achieve better results nationally.
The present intervention study took place in the context of single-phase teacher education programs preparing STs for secondary I level (grade 7 through 9) in the German speaking part of Switzerland. Within these programs, STs must complete at least two practical phases (several weeks each) in cooperating schools where they are assisted by a CT. During this time STs have the obligation for teaching various classes for their CT in one or more subject domains. They have almost the same responsibilities as a professional teacher, that is preparing lessons, leading the class and grading pupils work. As these are complex and difficult tasks for STs, CTS are asked to support STs through offering emotional and instructional support.
In order to prepare CTs for this support, different brief training sessions (two-and-a-half-hours) were carried out in this study. After an introductory talk, CTs were randomly allocated to a training session that focused either on the CFC element of pre-lesson conferences (group P), the CFC element of core issues for lesson designs (group CI), both elements (group PCI) or another educational topic, namely homework or school culture (group Contr). The two topics in the control group were highly relevant for teachers and schools but clearly distinct from CFC. STs were not informed about the specifics of the training activities of their CTs.