AIOU COURSE CODE 827 KEYBOOK DOWNLOAD FREE.
Course: Secondary Education (827)
Q.1 What were the aims of Education policy 1998-2010?
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim
Edu. Policy 1998-2010
Striking Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010
Points and targets of Education and Islamic Education
Schooling and preparing ought to empower the residents of Pakistan to have their existences as per the lessons of Islam as set down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to teach and prepare them as a genuine rehearsing Muslim. To develop a coordinated arrangement of public training by bringing Deeni Madaris and present day schools nearer to each stream in educational plan and the items in schooling. Nazira Qur’an will be presented as an obligatory part from grade I-VIII while at optional level interpretation of the chose sections from the Holy Qur’an will be advertised.
LITRACY AND NON FORMAL EDUCATION
Annihilation of ignorance through formal and casual means for development of fundamental schooling through contribution of local area. The ongoing proficiency pace of around 39% will be raised to 55% during the initial five years of the strategy and 70% constantly 2010 Functional proficiency and pay age abilities will be given to country ladies of 15 to 25 age gathering and fundamental instructive offices will be given to working kids. Utilitarian proficiency will be conferred to teenagers (10-14) who passed up a great opportunity the opportunity of essential instruction. The current differences in fundamental schooling will be diminished to half by year 2010.
Around 90% of the youngsters in the age bunch (5-9) will be signed up for schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment proportion at essential level will be expanded to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be declared and implemented in a staged way. Full usage of existing limit at the fundamental level has been guaranteed by accommodating presentation of twofold change in existing school of rudiments training. Nature of essential schooling will be further developed through updating educational plans, conferring in-administration preparing to the educators, raising section capabilities for educators from registration to middle, reconsidering educator preparing educational programs, further developing administration and management framework and improving the current assessment and appraisal framework.
Joining of essential and center level training in to rudimentary schooling (I-VIII). Expanding cooperation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at center level. At the rudimentary level, an arrangement of consistent assessment will be embraced to guarantee fulfillment of least learning capabilities for working on nature of instruction.
One model optional school will be set up at each area level. An unmistakable livelihood or a profession will be presented at optional level. It would be guaranteed that all the young men and young ladies, envious of entering optional training, become signed up for auxiliary schools. Educational program for auxiliary and higher optional will be reexamined and numerous course books will be presented. The interest rate will be expanded from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for specialized and professional instruction will be widened through presentation of a flood of registration (Technical) on pilot premise and foundation of professional secondary schools. Numerous course books will be presented at auxiliary school level.
To build the adequacy of the framework by organizing in-administration preparing of educators, instructor mentors and instructive overseers through school grouping and different strategies. To overhaul the nature of pre-administration instructor preparing programs by presenting equal projects of longer term at post-auxiliary and post-degree levels for example presentation of projects of FA/FSc training and BA/BSc schooling . The items and philosophy parts of educator training educational programs will be overhauled. Both formal and non-formal means will be utilized to give expanded chances of in-administration preparing to the functioning educators, ideally somewhere around once in five years. An extraordinary bundle of motivations bundle will be given to rustic females to join the educating calling. Another unit of instructor teachers will be made.
Specialized and Vocational Education
To foster open doors for specialized and professional schooling in the country for creating prepared labor, proportionate with the necessities of industry and monetary advancement objectives. To work on the nature of specialized instruction to upgrade the possibilities of work of Technical and professional Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based framework to an interest driven framework. Correction and refreshing of educational plans will be made a proceeding with action to stay up with changing requirements of the gig market and for obliging the new turns of events. Improvement of specialized capability, relational abilities, security and wellbeing measures and innovative abilities and so on will be reflected in the educational plans. Foundation industry linkages will be reinforced to improve the significance of preparing to the necessities of the gig market. Arising innovations for example telecom, PC, gadgets, robotization, petrol, articles of clothing, food safeguarding, printing and designs, material, mining, sugar innovation, and so forth extraordinarily popular in the gig market will be presented in chosen polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education will be laid out to direct specialized schooling.
Admittance to advanced education will be extended to something like 5% of the age bunch 17-23 continuously 2010. Merit will be the main rule for passage into advanced education. Admittance to advanced education, subsequently, will be founded on entrance tests. Rumored degree universities will be given independence and degree granting status. Degree schools will have the choice to subsidiary with any perceived Pakistani college or degree granting foundation for assessment and grant of degrees. To draw in profoundly skilled qualified educators, the college staff will be paid at higher rates than common grades. Neighborhood M.Phil. furthermore, Ph.D programs will be sent off and research center and library offices will be fortified. Part Ph.D programs will be sent off in a joint effort with rumored unfamiliar colleges and at the base, 100 researchers will be every year prepared under this game plan. All amount/save seats will be wiped out. Understudies from in reverse regions, who clear section tests, would contend among themselves. To take out viciousness, all political exercises on the grounds will be prohibited.
PCs will be presented in optional schools in a staged way. School educational plans will be updated to remember late advancements for data innovation, for example, programming improvement, the Information Super Highway planning Web Pages, and so on
Library and Documentation Services
School, school and college libraries will be outfitted with the most recent understanding materials/administrations. Web association with PC will be given to every library. Portable library administrations for semi-metropolitan and far off provincial regions will be presented.
Confidential Sector in Education
Empowering private interest in training. There will be administrative bodies at the public and common levels to control exercises and smooth working of secretly overseen schools and foundations of advanced education through appropriate standards and guidelines. A sensible expense discount will be conceded on the use caused on the setting-up of instructive offices by the confidential area. Matching awards will be accommodated laying out instructive establishments by the confidential area in the rustic regions or poor metropolitan regions through Education Foundations. Existing organizations of higher learning will be permitted to haggle for monetary help with giver organizations as a team with the Ministry of Education. Instructive establishments to be set up in the confidential area will be given (a) plots in private plans on hold costs, and (b) refund on personal expense, similar to industry. Schools running on non-benefit premise will be absolved from all assessments. Educational plans of private organizations should adjust to the standards set down in the Federal Supervision of educational plans, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The charge construction of the secretly overseen instructive organizations will be created in meeting with the public authority.
The National Education Testing Service will be laid out to plan and manage state sanctioned tests for admission to proficient foundations. Qualifying these tests will turn into an obligatory prerequisite for section to proficient schooling. This system is supposed to really look at the rate of negligence in assessments. Similarly, state administered tests will be acquainted for confirmation with general schooling in colleges.
Execution Monitoring And Evaluation
An extensive observing and assessment framework has been conceived from grass-roots to the most elevated level. The District Education Authority will be laid out in each region to guarantee public support in observing and execution. The schooling Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will administer observing boards of trustees, answerable for execution at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils separately which will guarantee accomplishments of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels will be reinforced to make them receptive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) will be fortified and adjusted to satisfy the arising needs of MES and its commitments at public and commonplace levels. Information gathered through Provincial EMISs and grouped by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) will be perceived as one hotspot for arranging, the board, checking, and assessment purposes to keep away from incongruities and disarray. Information bases of basic pointers on qualit
Q.2 What are the major growth points in secondary education in Asian countries?
Asia is situated to be the worldwide monetary center by mid-century. It represented 40.9% of worldwide total national output (GDP) in 2016, an increment of 11.5% beginning around 2000]. Three nations — China, India, and Japan represented around 70% of Asia’s all out yield in 2016. The quickly developing populace of Asia remains at 4.1 billion individuals or 55% of the worldwide populace. For Asia to comprise the greater part of worldwide GDP by 2050, it should raise the quality, variety, and independence of its organizations of advanced education [4, 5]. Consequently, Asia should be vital in its global collaboration, with a moving harmony between two examples of participation: customary examples of worldwide participation with nations of the industrialized Western world and worldwide collaboration with the quickly arising countries inside the encompassing Asian district. Eastern Asia has turned into the main edge of Asia’s advanced education framework. It has the biggest number of understudies, the best number of top notch colleges, and a higher extent of understudies in the STEM fields (science, innovation, designing, and math).
Twenty colleges in Asia (excluding Australia) have ascended into the positions of the world’s main 200 colleges, a speed which could see a fifth of the best 200 colleges become Asia-based by 2040. It is nothing unexpected that global participation in advanced education has turned into a critical procedure for Asia. Asian college presidents are universally participated in an arrangement of consortia, for example, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, World University Network, U21, Asia University Alliance and comparative affiliations. The extent of non-neighborhood scholastic staff in Asia has climbed, particularly in Hong Kong. The University of Hong Kong in Southern China has the most noteworthy extent of global scholastic staff of any exhaustive exploration college on the planet. China additionally has the third biggest number of unfamiliar understudies after the USA and UK.
Training adds to a large number of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It diminishes destitution, drives feasible financial development, forestalls imbalance and treachery, prompts better wellbeing – especially for ladies and kids – and it assists with safeguarding the planet. Schooling enables youngsters and youths.
The East Asia and Pacific locale is home to 33% of the total populace and more than one-fourth of the world’s kids – around 580 million youngsters altogether. Throughout the last many years, numerous nations in the district have accomplished amazing advancement and expanded enlistment, maintenance and fruition rates while likewise decreasing orientation holes.
In any case, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous nations in the locale were confronting a tenacious learning emergency: no less than 35 million youngsters were still out of school or didn’t approach quality training as a result of their financial status, geological area, handicap, identity, language and orientation. While enlistment has worked on in numerous nations across the district, a great many youngsters in school were not sufficiently learning. 20% of youngsters lived in learning neediness – unfit to peruse and figure out a straightforward text by age 10. A large number of kids finished essential training without dominating the fundamental abilities of essential numeracy and education, not to mention significant 21st-century abilities, expected for significant business, individual prosperity and dynamic cooperation in the public eye.
Public wellbeing and schooling systems are confronting a test to give kept learning open doors where schools have shut and to safeguard understudies upon school returning. While practically all nations in the locale laid out distance learning programs, no less than 80 million youngsters in the district couldn’t keep advancing from a distance, mostly because of an absence of gear required for advancing at home. The continuous pandemic and repeating school terminations put in danger the training and fate of millions of youngsters all through the locale and take steps to turn around the advancement accomplished over the course of the last many years.
Schooling changes lives and breaks the pattern of neediness that traps such countless kids. UNICEF is focused on ensuring each kid approaches quality training, regardless of who or where they are. We work with states and accomplices all through the area to assist with ensuring schooling arrives at the most powerless, that frameworks turn out really for youngsters, and that no kid is abandoned.
In 27 nations in the East Asia and Pacific district, UNICEF attempts to give learning open doors that get ready kids and teenagers with the information and abilities they need to flourish.
Key region of our work in schooling include:
- Early learning and ECD: superior grade, imaginative, and comprehensive early learning intercessions to construct solid starting points for youngsters’ turn of events and future.
- Comprehensive and quality essential training: reinforced value, acquiring and abilities in elementary school years and for minimized gatherings like kids with handicaps and ethnolinguistic minority youngsters;
- Young adult and second-decade instruction: extended and further developed second-decade schooling and learning;
- Crises, debacle risk decrease and environmental change: further developed learning and assurance for youngsters in crises and reinforced limits of schooling systems to adjust and answer fiascos and environmental change.
- Training area plans and administration: reinforced instruction area determination, strategy and technique detailing, and execution wanting to accomplish learning for all.
- The illustration of the learning emergency is clear: the same old thing isn’t further developing learning results. A new, more extreme methodology that spotlights on improving learning is very much past due and structures the premise of UNICEF’s worldwide instruction procedure.
- Coherence of learning and safe school returning: admittance to quality innovative, low-tech and no-tech learning materials during school terminations, kept picking up during the pandemic and safe resuming and activities of schools.
- Tending to learning misfortune: accessibility of fundamental learning recuperation bundles to relieve learning misfortune.
Working back better: increment schooling system flexibility and better learning results for youngsters.
To construct a world in which each kid learns, UNICEF will progressively advance value and consideration. This incorporates putting forth designated attempts for youngsters who are rejected based on orientation, incapacity, destitution, nationality and language, as well as the people who are dislodged or impacted by crises.
Q.3 Discuss the characteristics of curriculum.
The term ‘curriculum’ has been derived from a Latin word ‘currere’ which means a ‘race course’ or a runway on which one runs to reach a goal. Accordingly, a curriculum is the instructional and the educative programme by following which the pupils achieved their goals, ideals and aspirations of life.
In the past, the second name of curriculum was ‘course of studies’. This term was considered to be a program related to various subjects only. However, the term ‘curriculum’ and ‘course of studies’ were, sometimes interchangeable but used in a very limited sense. As a matter of fact, this viewpoint was a static-view which emphasized only the textbook knowledge or factual information. In those it was correct because the main objective of education was to help the learner to memorize the contents.
Furthermore, curriculum was a body of preserved factual knowledge to be transmitted from the teacher to the pupils and mastered by them through memorization, recitation and drills; and to be reproduced on the demand of the teacher.
The traditional curriculum was subject centred while the modern curriculum is child and life-centred or student centred. With the passes of time and reinforcement of mind the traditional concept of curriculum (which was limited in scope) was replaced by a dynamic and modern concept. Hence, it is now considered to be a broad cumulative and comprehensive term including all the curricular and co-curricular activities. It is the totality of all the learning activities to which we are exposed during study, i.e. classroom experiences, laboratory, library, playgrounds, school building, study tours associations with parents and community. Now, it is more than the textbooks and more than the subject matter selected for a particular class.
Modern education is the combination of two dynamic processes. The one is the process of individual development and the other is the process of socialisation, which is economically known as adjustment with the social environment.
In short, curriculum is a series of potential experiences, set-up in educational institutions for the reason of disciplining the learners in desirable ways of thinking of the concerned society. It is a path by following which we can reach a specified destination. Furthermore, it is considered to be a series of learning opportunities which are planned and carried out by a teacher and pupils working together.
- It should faster the growth of development of attitude and skills required for maintaining a planned social order of democratic type. To put more concretely, it should contribute towards democratic living.
- It should not be narrowly conceived but dynamic and forward looking, sample adequately both the scientific content and the abilities of the pupils to the developed, should cater to the right use of leisure later on and should be related to the environment in which the children live. Consequently, it will then become exiting, real and imaginative.
- It is tested and improved through research.
- It should aim at bringing about an intelligent and effective adjustment with the environment itself. Further, it should enable pupils to acquire relevant scientific information of subsequent use in the significant areas of human living.
- It should be psychologically sound. It should take into account the theories of learning relevant to science teaching. Further, children’s capacities and capabilities, if taken into account, will lead to the development of differentiated curriculum. Incorporating geographical difference in it will be another innovation.
- It should provided sufficient scope for the cultivation of skills, interest, attitudes and appreciations.
- It must be mostly based upon the first hand experiences of the pupils from all the significant areas of human living. These experiences are characterized by newness, novelty, challenge, stimulation and creativity. Science Content receives increasing emphasis as the children move to the higher grades.
Q.4 What were the recommendations of education policy 1998-2010 to improve the system of examination?
Schooling and preparing ought to empower the residents of Pakistan to have their existences as per the lessons of Islam as set down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to teach and prepare them as a genuine rehearsing Muslim. To develop a coordinated arrangement of public training by bringing Deeni Madaris and present day schools nearer to each stream in educational plan and the items in instruction. Nazira Qur’an will be presented as a mandatory part from grade I-VIII while at optional level interpretation of the chose sections from the Holy Qur’an will be advertised.
Proficiency and Non-Formal Education
Destruction of ignorance through formal and casual means for extension of fundamental instruction through association of local area. The ongoing proficiency pace of around 39% will be raised to 55% during the initial five years of the strategy and 70% constantly 2010 Functional education and pay age abilities will be given to provincial ladies of 15 to 25 age gathering and essential instructive offices will be given to working youngsters. Utilitarian proficiency will be granted to teenagers (10-14) who passed up a great opportunity the opportunity of essential schooling. The current variations in fundamental schooling will be decreased to half by year 2010.
Around 90% of the youngsters in the age bunch (5-9) will be signed up for schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment proportion at essential level will be expanded to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be proclaimed and implemented in a staged way. Full usage of existing limit at the fundamental level has been guaranteed by accommodating presentation of twofold change in existing school of essentials training. Nature of essential schooling will be further developed through modifying educational programs, granting in-administration preparing to the educators, raising section capabilities for instructors from registration to transitional, reexamining educator preparing educational plans, further developing administration and management framework and changing the current assessment and evaluation framework.
Joining of essential and center level training in to rudimentary schooling (I-VIII). Expanding investment rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at center level. At the rudimentary level, an arrangement of ceaseless assessment will be embraced to guarantee fulfillment of least learning skills for working on nature of training.
One model optional school will be set up at each area level. An unequivocal employment or a profession will be presented at optional level. It would be guaranteed that all the young men and young ladies, burning of entering auxiliary training, become signed up for optional schools. Educational program for optional and higher auxiliary will be updated and various course readings will be presented. The interest rate will be expanded from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for specialized and professional training will be expanded through presentation of a surge of registration (Technical) on pilot premise and foundation of professional secondary schools. Numerous reading material will be presented at optional school level.
To expand the adequacy of the framework by organizing in-administration preparing of educators, instructor coaches and instructive directors through school grouping and different methods. To overhaul the nature of pre-administration instructor preparing programs by presenting equal projects of longer term at post-optional and post-degree levels for example presentation of projects of FA/FSc training and BA/BSc instruction . The items and technique parts of instructor schooling educational plans will be modified. Both formal and non-formal means will be utilized to give expanded chances of in-administration preparing to the functioning educators, ideally something like once in five years. A unique bundle of motivating forces bundle will be given to rustic females to join the educating calling. Another unit of instructor teachers will be made.
Specialized and Vocational Education
To foster open doors for specialized and professional schooling in the country for creating prepared labor, equivalent with the requirements of industry and monetary advancement objectives. To work on the nature of specialized training to upgrade the possibilities of work of Technical and professional Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based framework to an interest driven framework. Correction and refreshing of educational programs will be made a proceeding with movement to stay up with changing necessities of the gig market and for obliging the new turns of events. Advancement of specialized capability, relational abilities, wellbeing and wellbeing measures and enterprising abilities and so forth will be reflected in the educational programs. Organization industry linkages will be fortified to improve the pertinence of preparing to the prerequisites of the gig market. Arising advances for example media transmission, PC, gadgets, mechanization, oil, pieces of clothing, food protection, printing and illustrations, material, mining, sugar innovation, and so on significantly popular in the gig market will be presented in chosen polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education will be laid out to manage specialized training.