AIOU COURSE CODE 6501-1 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT AUTUMN 2022/Course: Educational Psychology and Guidance
Course: Educational Psychology and Guidance (6501) Semester: Autumn, 2022
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 Explain types and functions of motivation; what ways, you as a teacher will use to increase students motivation level?
The word Motivation derives from the Latin word “Movere”. The Latin word “Movere” means “To move”, “To drive” or “To drive forward” etc. Motivation can be defined as stimulating, inspiring and inducing the employees to perform to their best capacity. Motivation is a psychological term which means it cannot be forced on employees. It comes automatically from inside the employees as it is the willingness to do the work.
Joe Kelly defined Motivation as “Motivation is a process where by needs instigate behavior directed towards the goals that can satisfy those needs.”
According to W. G. Scot, “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish the desired goals.”
According to Michael J. Jucius, “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get a desired results.”
Process of Motivation
- Unsatisfied need. Motivation process begins when there is an unsatisfied need in a human being.
- Tension. The presence of unsatisfied need gives him tension.
- Drive. This tension creates an urge of drive in the human being an he starts looking for various alternatives to satisfy the drive.
- Search Behavior.After searching for alternatives the human being starts behaving according to chosen option.
- Satisfied need.After behaving in a particular manner for a long time then he evaluates that whether the need is satisfied or not.
- Reduction of tension. After fulfilling the need the human being gets satisfied and his tension gets reduced.
For example, if an employee develops a need to earn more, this need will make him restless and he will start thinking how to satisfy his need. To satisfy his need he may think of working hard in organization and get promotion so he will start working hard. After sometime he will get incentives or increments or promotion which will satisfy his need.
But motivation process does not end by satisfaction of one need. After fulfilling one need another need develops and the same process continues till needs keep emerging in human beings.
Types of Motivation
- Achievement Motivation: It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management.
- Affiliation Motivation:It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.
- Competence Motivation:It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.
- Power Motivation:It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.
- Attitude Motivation:Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past.
- Incentive Motivation:It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. It is “You do this and you get that”, attitude. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder.
- Fear Motivation: Fear motivation coercion’s a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.
Q.2 Write a brief, but comprehensive note on the following:
- Interest inventories
An interest inventory is a testing instrument designed for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the level of an individual’s interest in, or preference for, a variety of activities; also known as interest test. Testing methods include direct observation of behavior, ability tests, and self-reporting inventories of interest in educational, social, recreational, and vocational activities. The activities usually represented in interest inventories are variously related to occupational areas, and these instruments and their results are often used in vocational guidance.
The first widely used interest inventory was the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, developed in 1927 by E.K. Strong. The original test was designed for men only; a version for women was developed in 1933. In 1974 the Strong test was merged into the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, which was further revised in 1981. The test contains 325 activities, subjects, etc. Takers of this test are asked whether they like, dislike, or are indifferent to 325 items representing a wide variety of school subjects, occupations, activities, and types of people. They are also asked to choose their favorite among pairs of activities and indicate which of 14 selected characteristics apply to them. The Strong-Campbell test is scored according to 162 separate occupational scales as well as 23 scales that group together various types of occupations (“basic interest scales”). Examinees are also scored on six “general occupational themes” derived from J.L. Holland’s interest classification scheme (realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional).
The other most commonly administered interest inventory is the Kuder Preference Record, originally developed in 1939. The Kuder Preference Record contains 168 items, each of which lists three broad choices concerning occupational interests, from which the individual selects the one that is most preferred. The test is scored on 10 interest scales consisting of items having a high degree of correlation with each other. A typical score profile will have high and low scores on one or more of the scales and average scores on the rest. Other interest inventories include the Guilford-Zimmerman Interest Inventory, the G-S-Z Interest Survey, the California Occupational Preference Survey, the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, and the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey. There are also inventories designed especially for children, for the disabled, and for those interested in the skilled trades.
Interest inventories are widely used in vocational counseling, both with adolescents and adults. Since these tests measure only interest and not ability, their value as predictors of occupational success, while significant, is limited. They are especially useful in helping high school and college students become familiar with career options and aware of their vocational interests. Interest inventories are also used in employee selection and classification
- Aptitude Tests
An aptitude test is an exam used to determine an individual’s skill or propensity to succeed in a given activity. Aptitude tests assume that individuals have inherent strengths and weaknesses and have a natural inclination toward success or failure in specific areas based on their innate characteristics.
Aptitude tests are generally used for job placement, college program entry, and to help people to get an idea of where their interests and aptitudes can take them regarding careers.
- An aptitude test is used to determine an individual’s abilities, assessing how they are likely to perform in an area in which they have no prior training or knowledge.
- Schools use aptitude tests to determine if students are inclined toward advanced placement classes or specific areas of study, such as engineering or a foreign language.
- Human resources departments at some companies will use career assessment tests to learn about a potential candidate’s strengths and weaknesses.
- An aptitude test does not test knowledge or intelligence, only a particular skill or propensity. Therefore, it is not a test for which a person can study.
Aptitude tests can be used to determine your capabilities in a variety of subjects. For example, individuals may take an aptitude test to determine the careers that are a good match for their skills and interests. Similarly, high school students may take an aptitude test when thinking about what would be an appropriate college major or whether college is the best choice for them.
In general, aptitude tests measure one’s competence in logical reasoning, numerical skills, or verbal ability; competency can be evaluated through problem-solving tasks and testing one’s critical thinking across various contexts.
Some schools administer aptitude tests to students beginning in elementary school. Combined with intelligence and achievement tests that measure student mastery of academic content, aptitude tests may be used to determine placement in gifted and talented programs or other specific educational tracks.
For example, the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) measures a student’s potential for successfully mastering foreign languages. Aptitude tests can also help determine if a student needs special education services.
For older students, Differential Aptitude Tests (DATs) assess a range of aptitudes from spatial relations to language usage. The results can help administrators make curricular recommendations.
Counselors might use high scores in mechanical reasoning tests to guide students toward courses that prepare them for engineering or designing studies in college. For instance, students who score well in tests measuring speed, accuracy, and problem-solving might choose coursework in computer science, finance, or other fields requiring attention to detail.
Some companies use aptitude tests to help them make hiring decisions. These tests, called career assessment tests, help human resources (HR) personnel learn more about a prospective employee’s strengths and weaknesses. Career assessment tests may also be used within a company to make promotion decisions.
Situational judgment tests are a specific kind of career aptitude test that can help predict how an employee might respond to specific situations in the workplace. They are also used to assess an employee’s communication style and ability to work within a team.
Some situational judgment tests focus specifically on customer service careers. These tests analyze personality traits predictive of successful public interaction, such as empathy, diplomacy, and patience. Situational judgment tests may also be used to predict future competency in sales-related careers.
Types of Aptitude Tests
Many types of aptitude tests are taken for educational or career discovery and ability purposes. The most common aptitude tests are:
- Mechanical reasoning: These types test your knowledge of physical concepts and are generally used to evaluate you for technical positions.
- Situational judgment: These tests gauge your reactions to situations and your decision-making.
- Diagrammatic/spatial reasoning: These tests see how well you can reach a conclusion based on processes contained in diagrams.
- Abstract reasoning: These measure problem-solving abilities and identify relationships between abstract arrays.
- Numerical reasoning: In these tests, your abilities with numbers, math, and data are tested.
- Verbal reasoning: Your language, reading comprehension, and vocabulary are tested in these types.
- Inductive reasoning: Under the pressure of time, these tests see how well you analyze patterns and data.
- Logical reasoning: Logical reasoning tests measure how well you recognize patterns and sequences and identify relationships between objects.
- Clerical aptitude: Clerical tests measure how fast and accurate you can be, seeing how well you can concentrate.
Q.3 Why is mental health of teachers and students important? How a teacher can identify learners with maladjustment issues?
As teachers, we give so much thought to other people–the students, the school management, the parents, fellow teachers, throughout the day. However, we are so fogged by the day-to-day grind of planning and preparing, that we forget to focus on our own mental well being.
Teachers tend to ignore their stress and anxiety levels in lieu of their unconditional love for education and teaching children. But the gratification from teaching can sometimes come with pressure and performance management that’s always looming in a teacher’s mind.
It is important that we remember that teachers are indispensable in our entire education system and so is their mental health and well being.
A teacher is the first line of defence for their students.
Experts say that stress gets passed on from teachers to their students.
Students in classrooms, which have teachers experiencing burnouts, are said to have high levels of cortisol- a kind of stress hormone. This is the prime reason why all teachers should pay attention to their mental health and well being.
Whether it is memory problems, sleep management, lesson planning, or curriculum completion, a teacher facing stress can end up having a detrimental impact on their students and the school. Let’s dive right in and understand the importance of mental health for teachers in more detail:
1. Direct Impact on Student’s’ Emotional State & Learning Environment
All students look up to their teachers. Children are always finding role models and people whom they want to be like when they grow up and a teacher plays a very crucial role in that.
A happy teacher exudes positivity which directly impacts the learning environment whereas presence of a stressed teacher is likely to have a negative impact on the students’ learning environment and lead to poor student outcomes.
2. Serious Implications on Mental Health Development of Students
According to the Child Mind Institute, half of mental illnesses begin before children reach the age of 14. Schools can play an active role in the intervention and expand their capacities to create learning environments prepared to support students with mental health conditions.
This doesn’t require a teacher to become a therapist. Rather, it requires a teacher to cultivate the skills and knowledge that help them identify risk factors and symptoms, and provide a helping hand to respond to students before the situation escalates to depression, anxiety, or acts of self-harm.
3. Negative Impact on Effectiveness of Teaching
Living in the era of the internet, students can always use tonnes of digital resources to find and seek information. However, it is the responsibility of teachers to deliver a positive learning environment to process the information that has been sought out.
Only a mentally relaxed and blissful teacher can bring the much-required positive energy to the sessions and give them a true meaning which further results in increased effectiveness and learning.
4. Effect On Personal And Professional Life
For teachers, the excessive workload of curating interactive techniques, learning to operate multiple e-learning platforms, conducting classes, grading examinations, and planning lessons usually takes a toll on their mental health.
This can result in inappropriate anger displacement, diversion of attention, stress, & periodic anxiety sessions. These issues trickle down to other personal aspects as well, which ultimately affects mental health.
Enhanced mental well-being ensures that teachers not only give their best to the school but also to life at home.
We can all agree that the elephant in the room is stress and mental health of our teachers. Teacher burnout can often lead to an unhealthy and negative learning environment for the students and can also hamper the personal life of an educator.
Q.4 Describe the nature and modes of guidance. What factors, do you think can influence the development of School Guidance Program?
- Guidance is education itself.Guidance aims at educating the individual for understanding himself, unfolding his potentialities to their maximum so that he may eventually prove himself to be an adjusted and pragmatic member of the community. Guidance therefore is a significant education procedure. It is in short education itself.
- Guidance is a process.Guidance is a process that enables an individual in discovering himself in the most satisfying and positive manner. It provides direction to enable an individual harness his potentialities, abilities, interests and aptitudes.
- Guidance is a continuous process.Guidance is a dynamic and a non-stop process. In this process, an individual understands himself, learns to use maximum his own capacities, interests and other abilities. He continues his struggle for adjustment in different situations. He develops his capacity of decision-making.
- Guidance is related with life.The process of guidance is related to life, its problems and challenges and how to face them. Problems and challenges are the building blocks of our personality. Guidance helps people to live a balanced and tension free-life with full satisfaction under the circumstances.
- Guidance is self-direction.The nature of Guidance is not to thrust itself on an individual. It does not make choices for him. The ultimate purpose of guidance is guide the individual to direct himself in the right direction, to make his own choices, to fix his own life-goals and to carry his own burden.
- Guidance is individual-centred.Whether given on individual or group basis, the focus of all guidance programmes is the individual who need to manage himself for a joyous today and a happy tomorrow by a healthy alignment of individual desires and aspiration with socially desirable good.
- Guidance is a qualified and complex and organised service.Guidance is given by qualified and trained personnel. Hence guidance is a skill-involved process. The varied and complex nature of human life leaves its imprint on the guidance programmes which are a totality of experiences. Guidance depends on prior study of the individual, his assessment, initial counselling, interview, case study and a host of other subsidiary activities that qualifies Guidance as a complex process.
- Guidance is based on individual differences.Individual differences or, the fact that individuals differ significantly, forms the basis of Guidance. If all the individuals had been alike, there was no scope for guidance. Individuals differ not only in their appearances but in their mental and intellectual endowments, desires, aspirations, and aptitudes.
- Universality of guidance.Guidance is for all. Every person needs guidance at all the stages of life situations from childhood to old age. He needs guidance for solving problems to adjust in the family as well as in the society.
- Guidance is making potential actual.Studies indicate that each person is born with more potential than he uses. Guidance programme aid the individual in the discovery of a hidden potential individual for his own benefit that that of the community. Thus guidance programme is used as an aid to discover the talent and use it for the progress of the country.
- Preparation for future.The process of guidance is helpful in preparing a person for his future. Guidance helps in the choice of one’s career, one’s partner in life etc. Guidance helps the individual to march towards the future with confidence.
- Modification of Behaviour.Guidance helps the persons in his adjustment in different situations and to modify one’s behaviour. Negative personality traits have been modified through skilful guidance and counselling. According to Carter V. Good, “Guidance is a process of dynamic interpersonal relationship designed to influence the attitudes and subsequent behaviour of a person.”
Q.5 Differentiate between counselling ad psychotherapy. What are the characteristics of a good counsellor.
Maybe you’ve felt called to clinical mental health counseling, but you don’t know what area to go into yet. Psychotherapy, counseling, and psychiatry are not all the same, so where do you start if you want to enter the field?
Some of the most common terms for treatment and occupations in mental health can be confusing. Many of these words are interchangeable and can vary in connotation from person to person. The following sections help clarify what certain terms, such as psychotherapy vs counseling, mean — but to get an in-depth understanding of these concepts, the best way to begin is looking at online clinical mental health counseling master’s programs like the one here at Grace.
Psychotherapy vs Counseling
Psychotherapy and counseling both use psychological methods to help clients with a mental or emotional problem or disorder.
Some people make a small distinction between the two terms. “Counseling” is a brief treatment that targets a specific symptom or situation, while “psychotherapy” is a longer-term treatment that attempts to gain more insight into someone’s problems. However, many people use the terms interchangeably.
One caveat is that “counseling” can be used in other contexts. For instance, someone may receive career counseling or a couple may receive premarital counseling, which changes the meaning of the term. In the context of mental health, however, “counseling” often refers to “psychotherapy” or “therapy.”
Psychiatrist vs Psychologist vs Therapist
Three occupations represent some of the most common careers in mental health.
- Psychiatrist: Psychiatrists are physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent disorders related to the brain. They can evaluate a patient’s health, make a diagnosis, and design a treatment plan. Psychiatrists can prescribe a wide range of drugs and recommend inpatient hospitalization or outpatient treatment. To become a psychiatrist, candidates need to complete four years of medical school after receiving a bachelor’s degree. Then they complete a residency program in psychiatry and pursue board certification in the specialty.
- Psychologist: Psychologists study behavior and cognitive, emotional, and social processes. They can conduct research, administer tests, and perform psychotherapy. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) identifies many types of psychologists, such as clinical psychologists, forensic psychologists, school psychologists, and social psychologists. Psychologists typically need a doctoral degree in psychology, as well as state licensure to practice.
- Therapist: Therapists help clients with mental or emotional problems or disorders. They accomplish this through the related terms of counseling, therapy, and psychotherapy. The BLS uses “mental health counselors” and “marriage and family therapists” to identify this category of mental health providers. Many therapists’ work is guided by major mental health counseling theories. A master’s degree in psychology, clinical mental health counseling, or a related field is needed for entry into this career, as well as state licensure.
There’s more to the psychotherapy vs counseling distinction than meets the eye. All three of these featured mental health professionals can provide therapy. In most cases, psychiatrists are performing therapy less often than in previous eras. Instead, appointments typically consist of brief consultations with patients and medication management; psychiatrists may refer patients to psychologists or therapists for talk therapy (or psychotherapy), according to The New York Times.
Psychologists generally have greater scope of practice than therapists or mental health counselors. The additional training that psychologists receive (most have a Ph.D. or Psy.D.) enables them to perform more tests, including personality, performance, aptitude, intelligence, and other types of psychological tests. Therapists or mental health counselors are more limited in the tests they can administer, but they have the knowledge and skills to provide high-quality talk therapy.
Becoming a Counselor
We hope the distinctions of psychotherapy vs counseling are more clear for you now. Maybe one of the professions mentioned above stands out to you, and you can start pursuing your new field with confidence!
As you start to investigate programs to equip you for your career, you will find that none of the clinical mental health counseling masters programs are quite like Grace Online’s degree. Grace’s program is for you if you are serious about creating an impact in a counseling career and are looking to complete your graduate degree online. With a master in mental health counseling online, you will be trained to help guide and assist people with their personal troubles. This program is also committed to the professional and interpersonal development of the student which is essential for effective counseling practice.